European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 160 No 3
October, 2021

Effect of Rock Phosphate and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Maize (Zea Mays L.) Growth in Greenhouse Conditions
Koné S, Kanté F, Diop I, Ndoye F, Diedhiou A G, Kane A, Yattara I I and Sacko O
The objective of this study is to evaluate effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and Tilemsi rock phosphate (PNT) on maize growth.
To do this, an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with sterilized soil from Sangalkam (Senegal), considered to be poor in available phosphorus and sown with maize (3 seeds / pot). The inoculum used was 20 g per pot at the time of sowing, along with the PNT tested at 0, 100 and 200 mg per pot. The AMF strains, taken separately or mixed and associated or not with PNT, made it possible to consider fifteen treatments.
Height measurements were taken every two weeks until 60th day. Two months after sowing, corn plants were sampled. Then, shoot and root biomasses were evaluated as well as mycorrhization parameters.
The results showed that for inoculated treatments, intensities of mycorrhization are very high and exceed 30%. The lowest intensities of mycorrhization (30.88%) were noted in plants inoculated with Glomus aggregatum (IR-27) in presence of 200 mg of PNT per kg of soil while all other treatments showed intensities of mycorrhization ranging from 39.24 to 79.64%. In addition, three strains of AMF, R. irregularis, G. mosseae, G. aggregatum significantly stimulated height and biomass of shoots and roots of maize plants in presence of 100 mg of PNT.
Under our experimental conditions, inoculation with AMF strains in presence of PNT improved maize growth from 16.22 to 26.41%.
Fertilization based on AMF and natural phosphates could therefore be an alternative to the use of chemical fertilizers.
Keyword: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, rock phosphate, maize, growth.

Theoretical Half-life Time and Alpha Energies of the Elements: Part-8; Z=108 (Hassium, Hs)—Island of Stability
Bahjat R. J. Muhyedeen
This paper is the eighth part of a series of eleven of QAM-UQAM-NMT-2017-Ver-3 & 4. It is based on the novel mass quantization and the variable neutron mass concepts of my new nuclear theory, the Nuclear Magneton Theory of Mass Quantization, NMT. Three methods for prediction of the α-decay half-life formulae, the Viola-Seaborg, the Royer GLDM, and the Sobiczewski-Parkhomenko, are applied to evaluate the half-life of the atomic masses theoretically calculated. NMT found out 20 isotopes belong to Hassium Hs element that have long half-life T1/2 and 3 of them exceed 1010 year. NMT considered them as part of the Island of stability. In the previous article, NMT found out 115 isotopes belonging to Z=100–107 (Fm–Bh) that have long T1/2 and 20 isotopes exceed 1010 year.
Keywords: half-life, alpha decay atomic masses, new isotopes, superheavy nuclei

Content Analysis of Environmental Sensibilities of Senior Secondary School (Sss 1-3) Tourism Textbook (Substance Tourism Focus) used in Cross River State, Nigeria
Agbor, Comfort Nkongho, Usang Nkanu Onnoghen, Egbonyi, Darlington Egbe, Apie Martina Ayibeya and Michael Obun Etan
Stakeholders in environmental education especially Cross River State and Nigeria at large have raised serious concern about the quality of the environment we live which is not very conducive for human well-being. The environment has been abused by man’s activities as he continually quests for a better standard of living. This study seeks to analyze the content and quality of environmental knowledge found in substance tourism focus, one of the textbooks used in teaching tourism in senior secondary school (SSS 1-3) in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study involves counting and analyzing the contents of environmental issues or information found in the 25 passages of the textbook considering the different environments (abiotic, biotic, neutral and social environment). The passages were shared among the three groups of SS1, SS2 and SS3. Chapter 1-8 for SS1, 9-16 for SS2 and 16-25 for SS3. Two research questions were used to guide the study. Observed data were analyzed using a simple percentage technique. The result obtained from the analysis of the text revealed that environmental issues were reflected in some passages but an undesirable proportion. It was concluded among others that the idea of portraying more of the social and abiotic env-ironments at the detriment of the biotic and neutral environments does not expose students to the proper knowledge and awareness of environmental issues that can lead to a change of behaviour as well as the sustainability of our ecosystem.
Keywords: Environmental sensibility, environment, tourism textbook, senior secondary schools

An Assessment of the Impact of Erosion on the Shoreline of Ibeno Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, South-South Nigeria
Abua, M. A, Abayam, V.A, Bassey, B.J, Okpiliya, F. I, Bello A.A, Ajom, S.I, Ayiri, B.A, Ochiche, C.A and Okwakpam, I. O.
The dynamic nature of the shoreline makes it difficult, to accurately assess a community’s risk and vulnerability. Extreme storm events can cause rapid erosion that move the shoreline hundreds of feet inland followed by an extended period in which the beach accretes back, not completely to its former position. This study examines the impact of erosion on the shoreline of Ibeno beach. Observations and measurements were made of the sedimentary structures and hydrodynamic processes; these were done by employing the erosion pin/peg technique at regular intervals to assess the rate of erodibility. The swash and backwash action were determined using the pegging method for interval of six months. Wave height, wave breaker pattern, long shore current velocity and beach profile were adopted to assess the degree of erosivity. The Pearson’s moment correlation was employed for data analysis. The results revealed that breaker period facilitates erosion. As erosion was intense on the berm-edge, spilling waves supersede the plunging waves. The result also shows that before the advent of spring tide, high deposition occurred on the middle foreshore, while erosion was highest in the month of August, when the breaker height racketed to 2.08m, about 5.2m of the beach area was eroded at the middle foreshore in response to waves condition. It was also observed that wave breaker height reached a maximum of 2.06m in the first week of August, as a result, 6.4m of the lowest foreshore areas was eroded. Spilling waves exceeded plunging waves to about 70 percent to 30 percent while the peak of spring tide experiences the deposition of the eroded materials. Based on these observations, recommendations have been advanced to curb the menace of erosion in the study area.
Keywords: Coastal erosion, Shoreline degradation, Waves, Ibeno beach.