European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 159 No 3
June, 2021

Acts 15:1-29 and Its Implication for the Pluralistic Cultural Context of Africa
Christopher Naseri
Acts 15 narrates the tension between the gospel and the demands of culture. Faced with this challenge, the Apostles resolve that circumcision should not be imposed on the Gentiles. They provide guidelines for social intercourse between the Jewish and Gentile Christians. The decision respects the sensitivity of both groups and places the contents of the kerygma above both cultures. This work employs the historical-critical method to explore the text of Acts 15:1-29 in the light of the pluralistic cultural context of Africa. It concludes that the cultural demands of the messenger and the recipients of the gospel require adjustments for the gospel to be received among Africans. It recommends that within Africa, the varieties of cultural prescriptions could interfere with the delivery and reception of the gospel. Consequently, efforts must be made to limit the extent to which the cultural context of the messenger of the gospel influences its delivery.
Keywords: Acts of the Apostles, African Culture, Circumcision, Gospel, Jerusalem Council.

Prevalence of Hydronephrosis among Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Enugu Nigeria
Ochie Kalu, Agu, Nkiruka Rita, Eja-Egwu U.N, Ugwuanyi Daniel Chimuanya, Ajare Enyereibe Chuks, Ugwuja M.C and Okwor Anayo Christian
This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of hydronephrosis among patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) at Conquest medical imaging center in Enugu State. Hydronephrosis secondary to BPH is a preventable disease, and if detected early can prevent progression into Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) with the consequent cost of treatment (including hemodialysis). It is against this background that the researchers decided to delve into this study on the prevalence of Hydronephrosis among patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Enugu State, Nigeria. To achieve this, three objectives were developed which includes; to determine the frequency of hydronephrosis among patients with BPH, to ascertain the distribution by age of hydronephrosis among the patients with BPH and to ascertain the size of the prostate gland at which hydronephrosis develops. The study was delimited to the prevalence of hydronephrosis among patients with BPH in Enugu, Nigeria. The data for the study was obtained from renal and prostatic ultrasound examination using Canyearn Trolly System Ultrasound Machine. Relevant anatomic reviews were done and concepts were also reviewed. Previous studies in this field of research were also reviewed. A retrospective analysis of the data and findings of BPH patients from Conquest medical imaging center was done and 351 patients were found to have been diagnosed with BPH within the study period. Details were reviewed of these patients and 40 out of the 351 had hydronephrosis. The data from this retrospective search were entered into the SPSS and analyzed. The major findings of this study revealed 11% prevalence rate for hydronephrosis among BPH patients. The prevalence was higher among patients between the ages of 51 to 80. Above 80 shows a decline in prevalence while those below 50 recorded no incidence at all. There was also the presence of moderate and severe hydronephrosis in those patients with moderately to massively enlarged prostate, but no hydronephrosis in those with slightly enlarged prostate. This implies that the size of the prostate has a positive relationship with the development of hydronephrosis. Urethral obstruction with subsequent hydronephrosis is a coming clinical occurrence. The urethral obstruction could be partial or complete and can progress into varying degrees of kidney enlargement. Although BPH is not a life threatening condition, the impact of BPH on the quality of life can be significant and should not be underestimated.
Keywords: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, Prostatic Hypertrophy, Hydronephrosis,Calyceal Dilatation, Prevalence Hydronephrosis.

Contribution à la connaissance des plantes aromatiques utilisées dans la production du moût sucré et du Tchapalo, deux boissons traditionnelles de Côte d’Ivoire
Dolourou Diarrassouba, Karamoko Ouattara, Dio Dramane Dembele, Solange Aka, Abou Tuo and Issa Bagre
An ethnobotanical study was carried out in five communes of Côte d'Ivoire (Abobo, Cocody, Yopougon, Bondoukou and Korhogo) among the tchapalo brewers in order to know the plant species used in the production of sweet must and tchapalo. Surveys carried out using questionnaires made it possible to inventory five aromatic plants used in the production of sweet must and tchapalo. The species Grewia venusta is the most well known and used (73%), followed by Adansonia digitata (15%), Abelmoschus esculenta (6%), Ceiba pentandra (3%) and Fagara zantholoides (1%). Among the different parts of these plants, bark is the most well known and used (81%) followed by leaves (13%), while stems are little used (1%) by brewers. The plant solution used in the production of tchapalo is obtained by grinding the fresh bark (84.8%) or by diluting the leaf powder in water (15.2%). The brewers believe that the herbal solution is used for a good preparation of the sweet must and the tchapalo. This is because it allows the maize to settle without sticking to the pot (29.01%), to filter and clarify the tchapalo. In addition to promoting the production of the sweet must and the tchapalo, the aromatic plants are used for food and also play a therapeutic role for consumers. These plants treat several diseases such as stomach aches, hypertension, malaria, diarrhoea, ulcers... Depending on origin and ethnic group, aromatic plants differ from one commune to another. But also, within the same ethnic group where the pronunciation of names differs from one community to another. This study is a source of information that can be used as a basis for pharmacological studies to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of these plants.
Keywords: ethnobotanic, Andasonia digitata; Abelmoscus exculenta; Ceiba. pentandra; Grewia venusta ; Fagara zantholoïdes ; Sweet must; Tchapalo.

Exodus 1:15-22 and the Midwives who dared Pharaoh to Protect Lives
Christopher Naseri
Exodus 1:15-22 presents an account of Pharaoh’s decision to eliminate Hebrew male infants using the services of two midwives. These midwives, who in the very rare instance are named in the narrative as Shiphraph and Puah, are presented as resisting this uncanny plan of Pharaoh by refusing to obey his instruction to kill. The Eloshist’s narrator identifies the fear of God as the midwives’ motivation for the exceptional courage of daring the king. The story reveals that evil thrives because of the willing and unquestionable collaboration of officials within the chain of commands. Above all, it reveals the courage founded on one’s religious conviction to do good by daring even the worst demagogue and insists on doing what is good. It is therefore in the light of the moral lessons derived therein that this work employs the constructive literary approach to study the account purely from the point of view of narrative. It concludes that when people, for the fear of God have the courage to resist unjust orders, the society becomes safer and progress and development take place.
Keywords: Exodus, Hebrew Midwives, Religion, the Fear of God, Blessing.

Modelling and Topology Optimization of a Horizontal Hammer Mill Shaft
J. B. Samon, G. Mbitetsa Likane, B. Kengne and B. Djeumako
Hammer mills face a serious problem of energy consumption during grains processes to size reduction particles due to the heaviness of the hammer mill shaft components. That is why the objective of this paper is to optimize two components of a hammer mill shaft using the Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization (SIMP) technique implemented in Solid Works modelling and simulation software. A decrease of hammer and flask masses was noted to be 50% and 20 % respectively. Also a stress decrease in the hammer and the flask was as well recorded to be 6% and 3.5% respectively. The initial and optimized mechanical energy of the hammer and shaft were 200.40 J and 157.46 J respectively. Hence, a mechanical energy reduction of 21.5% is obtained.
Keywords: Topology optimization, hammer mill, energy, stress, Solid Isotropic Macrostructure or Material with Penalization (SIMP) technique.

Variation in Population Dynamics as a Catalyst for Health Care Demand in Cross River State, Nigeria
Cassidy, Etta Agbor, Enoyo, Okon Eyo, Enang, Idongesit Asuquo, Etta, Jerry Nkere and Agaku, Deun Doris
The work is anchored in evaluating population characteristics as a catalyst for healthcare needs of resident in Calabar. Seven hundred and seventy one (771) respondents were sampled. The questionnaire and checklist were the instruments used in obtaining the needed information in the field. The result from the data collected shows that there was increase in the population needs of healthcare facilities in the study area. It was noticed that the population characteristics of healthcare facilities needs also vary from Calabar Municipality and Calabar South. The result from the tested hypothesis revealed that there is a significant influence of population characteristics on health care needs of the residents in Calabar. It is on this note that various stakeholders and agencies must ensure that adequate measures are put in place in order to the healthcare needs of the resident in the study area.
Keywords: Population dynamics, healthcare demand, facilities, Calabar, Catalyst.

Estimation de la Perte en sol par L'application du Modèle EPM « Erosion Potential Method » Cas du Bassin Versant de l’oued El Hroub (Jizan, Arabie Saoudite)
Azaiez Naima and Ansar Allaoua
La dégradation des ressources en sol est généralement attribuable à des précipitations fortes et persistantes, des pentes rigoureuses et une lithologie fragile, bien qu’aujourd’hui, le problème de l’érosion prend de plus en plus une dimension sociétale. Compte tenu des terres agricoles viables qui courent le risque de dégradation pendant ces dernières décennies, l’évaluation quantitative des pertes en terre demeure une nécessité impérieuse. Les différents essais en termes de développement d’un modèle de quantification unique se heurtent toutefois à des disparités régionales en particulier le cadre morphostructural et les contraintes climatiques qui lui sont associés. Tous les modèles empiriques qui en découlent de l’Equation Universelle des Pertes en Sol (USLE) prennent en considération uniquement la pluviométrie et le ruissellement bien que les contrastes thermiques y contribuent également dans la modification de la couche d’altération. Alors que rares sont les modèles faisant intervenir les conditions thermiques dans la manifestation érosive, notamment dans les bassins versants montagnards subtropicaux, où les températures varient en altitude et selon l’exposition des versants. Le choix du modèle EPM peut répondre aux exigences et aux spécificités du bassin versant de l’oued El Hroub, dans la mesure où il permettra d’intégrer de multiples facteurs statiques (lithologie et pente), dynamiques, erratiques (température, précipitations et occupation du sol) et processifs liés aux divers mécanismes et modalité de l’érosion hydrique. Le modèle EPM se distingue de l’équation de Weishmeier, mais il est certain que la démarche empirique et la modélisation sont fortement inspirées de ses principes. De ce fait, le procédé expérimental (EPM), qui inclut les températures, montre que les résultats sont tantôt en dessous et tantôt au-dessus des différents procédés, USLE et dérivés, utilisés dans l'évaluation des pertes en sol.
Keywords: Bassin versant de l’oued El Hroub, dégradation du sol, modèle EPM, MUSLE.