European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 157 No 4
October, 2020

Assessment of Hydrological and Soil Loss Parameters for Hydro-Agricultural Development in a Mediterranean Semi-Arid: Case of the El Aouja Watershed, Rehamna Massif, Morocco
El Mehdi Irzan, Abderrahim El Achheb, Abdelkader Younsi and Mohammed Ouadiap
The El Aouja watershed is located in the Rehamna Massif, Western Meseta, Morocco, North Africa region. The aim of this study is to identify the factors which control the surface water flow and the soil erosin in order to produce a reference paper serving to help Decision-Makers in the hydro-agricultural management of El Aouja watershed.
The present study first revealed the origins of the flooding caused by this small basin with an elongated shape and a semi-arid climate. Then it highlighted the factors that influence soil loss.
We demonstrated that this basin, covering 124,431 km², is defined by decisive physical, morphological, hydrological, and geological characteristics, which affect the concentration-time of the surface waters, that take less time (3.76 hours) to reach the outflow. It is also characterized by an average soil loss of 1.5 t/ha/year, which is mainly controlled by the slope, due to the absence of vegetation cover and anti-erosive practices. In addition, the soil loss map showed the most vulnerable areas to erosion, with a maximum soil loss of 759 t/ha/year.
Consequently, as part of hydro-agricultural management, the El Aouja watershed requires the installation of water reservoirs inside the basin, the correction of the vegetation cover, and the use of anti-erosive practices.
Keywords: Water Erosion, Soil Erosion, USLE, GIS and remote sensing, El Aouja river, Rehamna.

(Co) Homology Theory of L- infinity Algebras
Alaa H. N., H. M. Ali and F. A. Mohammed
In this work we study L-infinity algebras which is generalization of the graded Lie algebras in which an arrangement of anti-symmetric brackets satisfies a generalized Jacobi-identity. We discuss a cyclic and dihedral (co)homology of L-infinity algebras and some of their algebraic properties.
Keywords: Cyclic homology - Graded Algebra - Lie algebra- Tensor product
Mathematics Subject Classification: 16E45, 18D50.

Assessment of Barriers to Integrated Pest Management Practice among Maize Farmers in Southwest, Nigeria
Afolabi J.A., Thompson, O.A., Ogunwande, I.O. and Olasunkanmi, N.O.
Constraints foster innovation. This study assessed constraints facing adoption of integrated pest management (IPM) practice by maize farmers in Southwest, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to collect data from a total of 360 respondents from adopters and Non-adopters of IPM pest control method. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (DS) and Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test. Descriptive statistics results showed that the respondents sampled had mean age 42 years for both adopters and non-adopters of IPM. The distribution of respondents according to gender showed that there were more male maize farmers (76.4 %) than female (23.6 %) in the study area. Majority (75.0 %) of the respondents were found to be married representing 78.3 % and 71.7 % of adopters and non-adopters respectively. Fifty percent of total respondents had tertiary education. Majority of the respondents (85.8 %) had a households’ size of between 1 and 10 members and the distribution for both the adopters and non-adopters were 83.3% and 88.2% respectively. Based on this, there is need for the NGO (RUDEP) that is promoting the usage of IPM among the farmers to work in collaboration with the Research Institutes to see to the identified constraints to adoption of innovative IPM so as to foster its adoption as a viable alternative to endangered synthetic pesticide.
Keywords: Constraints, Integrated pest management (IPM), Synthetic pesticide, Kruskal-Wallis test.

Perception of Postgraduate Students on the Early Reporting of Rape Related Cases: A Framework for Social Justice in Nigeria
Brian Obue Eyang, Blessing Ngowari Gobo, Anthony Obinna Iwuagwu and Legbel Elemi Ogar
The global prevalence of rape is alarming, especially in developing countries where the fear of victimization and stigmatization often make most rape cases go unreported and consequently, births post traumatic stress disorders [PTSD] for victim. The aim of this study therefore was to examine and identify the perceptions of postgraduate students on the early reporting of rape related cases as a tool for social justice. This study adopted a qualitative design utilizing 30 In-depth interviews (IDIs) conducted with male and female postgraduate students of the University of Nigeria Nsukka and the IDIs were analyzed in themes. Results from the study showed that the study participants perceived that most victims had no trust in the justice systems thus; they prefer to remain silent and save themselves from any form of blame or embarrassment by self reporting raoe. Given the trauma and delay of case reporting, majority of the participants beleived that the time frame of case reporting should not deter justice for the victim and punishment for the perpetrator. The study concludes that since rape is a criminal offence that is punishable by law, victims should shun all forms of fear and seek justice for themselves by self-reporting rape cases or attempts.
Keywords: Rape, perception, early-reporting, social justice, Nigeria.

Education Expenses and their Relationship with the Index of Development of Basic Education in Tocantins-Brazil between 2009 and 2017
Carlos Vicente Berner, Andre Luiz Marques Serrano and Rafael Martins Amorim Valente
The aim of this study is to analyze if education expenses influenced the Index of Development of Basic Education (IDEB) in the municipalities of Tocantins-Brazil between 2009 and 2017. The sample was made up of 139 municipalities of Tocantins State and 695 notes, with data from the Education Balance Sheets and Gross Domestic Product municipalities. Software for Statistics 14.0 (Stata) was applied to indentify the relationship of municipal public expenses with Ideb. Due to multicolinariety problems, regressions were carried out through an independent variable. Six equations were prepared; the bigger coefficient was obtained from equation (1), from 3.7% for each one million of pass-through increase. The coefficients from (4) and (6) obtained an impact of more than 3%, for each one million of pass-through increase. In (1), (2), (3), (4) and (6), investment increase had a positive impact on learning, flow and IDEB. Results from (5) were not relevant for showing percentage points over 1%. The results point out that investments in education have a positive impact on the students’ performance. Therefore, the role of the population in the inspection and participation of government actions is essential, in order to provide society with better resources for education, enabling the effectiveness of public management.
Keywords: Education Expenses; Tocantins-Brazil; IDEB.

Quantitative Analysis of Free Phytosterols by UV-Vis Spectrometry using Two Methods of Extraction in Marine Macroalgae
María José Mena Badilla, Maricruz Arguedas González, José Carlos Mora Barrantes, Rosa Alfaro Solís and Henry Borbón Alpízar
Objective: The present study was performed to evaluate the presence and concentration of free phytosterols by UV-Vis spectrometry using two extraction methods in marine macroalgae of the Caribbean.
Methods: The algae were collected, dried and homogenized. A portion of the material was extracted with a reflux system with dichloromethane, another portion was macerated with ethanol for three days and concentrated in vacuum. Both samples were centrifuged and phytosterols were quantified by spectrophotometric analysis with the Liebermann-Burchard method
Results: Two Phaeophytas algae, Spatoglossum schroederi (5.35 µg/mg with CH2Cl2 and 3.85 µg/mg with ethanol) and Sargassum sp (3.35 µg/mg with CH2Cl2 and 2.98 µg/mg with ethanol) showed the results with the highest amounts of sterols. Values around 1 µg/mg were reported for Gracilaria sp, Caulerpa racemosa, Ulva lactuca and Padina pavonica. Rhodophyta algae Galaxaura rugosa reports the lowest presence of sterols by both extraction techniques (0.15 µg/mg with CH2Cl2 and 0.26 µg/mg with ethanol).
Conclusions: The results of the extraction with CH2Cl2 and ethanol showed to be statistically equivalent (texp=2.25, p<0.05), suggesting the possibility of replacing the use of a halogenated solvent with another with lower environmental impact for the recovery of sterols.
Keywords: Phytosterols, marine algae, UV-VIS spectrophotometry, Liebermann-Burchard
JEL Code: N56

Exploitation Level of the Four Major Cichlid Fish from the Solomougou Dam Lake (Korhogo, Côte D’Ivoire)
Moustapha Diaby, Koffi Dongo Kouassi, Corinne Manuella Anet Akadje and Konan N’DA
In Côte d’Ivoire, inland fisheries remain subject to little studies while contributing to major sources of animal proteins and income. This study has been conducted on the Solomougou Dam Lake to assess the stocks of the four cichlid fish most exploited. Fishes were collected monthly from January 2019 to December 2019. Each specimen was counted and its total length measured in cm. For each stock, growth parameters, mortality and exploitation rates and length at first capture have been determined. For Hemichromis fasciatus and Oreochromis niloticus, 56.46% and 65.45% of the catches belong to the sizes classes [12-15[ and [16-21[, respectively. For Sarotherodon galilaeus, the two size classes more abundant are [10-12 [(26.51%) and [16-17 [(10.84%). For Tilapia mariae, specimens with lengths between 10 and 13 cm (62.13%) are dominant. The highest value of asymptotic length is for Sarotherodon galilaeus (25.2 cm) while the minimum is for Tilapia mariae (18.9 cm). Oreochromis niloticus has the minimum growth rate (0.42 / year) while Hemichromis fasciatus has the highest one (0.96 / year). Total mortalities for the species range from 1.26 to 2.69, natural mortality from 1.06 to 1.92 and fishing mortality from 0.20 to 0.77. All the exploitation rates remain inferior to 0.5, suggesting the under exploitation of different fish stocks. As for lengths at first capture, 50% of the specimens of Oreochromis niloticus are captured at 17.77 cm and at 10.36 cm, 9.12 cm and 8.59 cm respectively for Hemichromis fasciatus, Tilapia mariae and Sarotherodon galilaeus.
Keywords: Exploitation level, Cichlid fish, Lake Solomougou, Côte d'Ivoire.

Iterative Techniques for Solving Positive Triangular Fully Fuzzy Linear System
Lubna Ineirat, Adnan Daraghmeh and Naji Qatanani
In this paper, we propose two numerical methods, namely: Gauss– Jacobi and Gauss–Seidel iterative schemes to solve the Positive Triangular Fully Fuzzy Linear System. A description of these numerical schemes and their convergence properties have been presented. Numerical example with known exact solution are given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed methods. Numerical results show clearly that the Gauss–Seidel method provides more efficient results than its counterparts.
Keywords: Fully fuzzy linear system, Iterative schemes, Fuzzy solution.
AMS Subject Classification: 93B40, 93C05, 93C42, 65F10.