European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 157 No 2
August, 2020

Evaluation of Spermicidal Activity of Extracts from the Pericarp of Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae)
Luis Carlos Avellán Troz, Sandra Valdés Díaz, Jorge Aguilar López, Adam Amey Williams, José Carlos Mora Barrantes and Henry Borbón Alpízar
Objective: The analysis was performed to evaluate the spermicidal activity of extracts obtained from the pericarp of the fruit of Sapindus saponaria L. in goat sperm samples. Methods: The fruits were dried, milled and macerated in ethanol:water 9:1 mixture, and concentrated in a rotary evaporator under reduced pressure to obtain the crude extract. One part of this extract was lyophilized, and another part was hydrolyzed in acidic medium. The presence of saponins in the extract was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Spermicidal activity was evaluated in both extracts using goat semen sample and staining with eosin. Results: The maximal spermicidal effect (89.4%) was observed with 5 mg/mL solution of the crude extract, while the 5 mg/mL solution of the hydrolyzed extract showed 77.62% activity. Only 32.6% activity was obtained with 0.5 mg/mL crude extract and 7.9% activity with 0.5 mg/mL hydrolyzed extract. Conclusions: Saponins isolated from Sapindus saponaria L. may be useful spermicides of natural origin.
Keywords: spermicidal activity, saponins, infrared spectroscopy, active extracts.
Jel Code: N56.

Analysis of Anomalies of the Earth’s Magnetic in South-West Cameroon (Central Africa): Estimation of the Depth to the Bottom of Magnetic Sources (DBMS)
Kenfack Jean Victor, Basseka Charles Antoine, Ndikum Ndoh Eric, Koumetio Fidele, Keleko Ananfack Thomas Dupont, Feumoe Sieyapdjie Alain Narcisse and Tabod Charles Tabod
In this study, 3 overlapping blocks in South-West Cameroon is used to estimate the depth to the bottom of magnetic sources (DBMS) using Centroid method. The depth to the top of magnetic bodies varies from 2.40 km to 3.37 km in the region. The centroid depth and DBMS varies from 15.57 to 16.22 km and 27.77 to 30.04 km respectively. The geothermal gradient and heat flow are also estimated. The geothermal gradient varies between 19.3 and 20.88°, while the few heat flow values range between 48.26 to 52.21 mWm-2 based on the constant temperature at the DBMS. Spectral analysis of the data in conjunction with heat flow values revealed an almost inverse linear relationship between heat flow and Curie depths. This study has proved the existence of geothermal resources in the study area. Due to that, the results obtained could be very important for future research and geothermal exploration in the study area.
Keywords: Depth of magnetic sources, Heat flow, Geothermal gradients.

Effect of Empty Fruit Bunch Compost on Improving the Productivity of Two Vegetables Produced under Sandy Poor Soil in Organic Matter in the South-West of Côte d'Ivoire
Gnimassoun Kawojou Edwige-Gwladys, Ettien Djétchi Jean Baptiste, Bouadou Oi Bouadou Félix and Masse Dominique
Grand-Lahou, located in the southwest of Côte D’Ivoire, is characterized by intense agricultural exploitation like the production of oil palm leading to a decline in soil fertility. Thus, the use of oil palm by-products seems to be a viable, low-cost alternative to improving soil fertility. The purpose of this study was to improve the yield of the chilli and eggplant yield produced on sandy soils with low fertility level. A complete randomized device in block with 4 treatments of empty fruit bunch compost (D0= 0 t.ha-1 ; D1= 10 t.ha-1 ; D2= 20 t.ha-1 ; D3= 40 t.ha-1 ) under chilli and eggplant cultivation was set up over two (2) culture cycles. The results showed that adding compost to the soil helped to improve crop growth and yield. The eggplant had a yield of 26.60 t.ha-1 in the first cycle and 21.28 t.ha-1 in the second cycle. As for the chilli, the yields obtained were 11.30 t.ha-1 in the first cycle and 4.02 t.ha-1 in the second cycle. However, the results in the second cycle showed a decrease in yields regardless of the variety of vegetable on the amended soils.
Keywords: Empty fruit bunch, Compost, Growth, Yield, Côte d’Ivoire.

Cadre Stratigraphique, Chronologique et Paleoclimatique du Site Paleolothique de Montgaudier (Charente, France)
Mohammed Boukhir
L’étude stratigraphique et sédimentologique du gisement de Montgaudier a permis d’établir des relations stratigraphiques entre les différents secteurs de ce site paléolithique. Ainsi, les dépôts des couches 6 et 5 du profil 2 sont hérités des couches inférieures de l'abri Lartet situé juste au-dessus. Au niveau du premier étage, le rapport stratigraphique se fait directement grâce à la formation sableuse qui constitue la couche 3 du premier étage et la couche 2 du locus 6, profil 2. Les dépôts de la couche 1 du locus 6 du premier étage ont été attribués au dépôt de la couche 9 de l'abri Gaudry. D’autre part, les analyses sédimentologiques ont permis d'établir la corrélation entre la couche 7 du profil 2 et ceux de la couche 2 du secteur II au premier étage. De point de vue paléoclimatique, les cailloutis cryoclastiques déposés dans les abris Lartet et Gaudry sont essentiellement calcaires et d’origine autochtone. Ils ont été mis en place dans un contexte froid et sec. Quant aux sédiments d’origine allochtone, ils sont rencontrés au premier étage et au niveau du grand porche témoignant d’un climat relativement tempéré et humide. Enfin, grâce aux études stratigraphique et chronologique, un cadre chronostratigraphique du remplissage de ce gisement a été établi. Ainsi, la datation du plancher stalagmitique situé dans le locus 3 lui attribué un âge de 80 000 ans. Les dépôts qui sont immédiatement sous-jacents à ce plancher ont été mis en place soit au début du Würm, soit à l'interglaciaire Riss-Würm. Au niveau de l‘abri Gaudry, une industrie magdalénienne fait attribuer cette partie du remplissage à la seconde partie du Würm récent. Quant aux dépôts de l'abri Lartet, ils ont livré une importante industrie moustérienne de type charentien, ce qui permet de les attribuer au Würm ancien.
Motsclés: Montgaudier, locus, stratigraphie, paléoclimat, tempéré et humide, würm, interglaciaire Riss-würm, Aurignacien, Moutérien .

The Impossibility of Implementing Employment Contract and Consequential Impacts in the Bahraini Labor Law "Comparative Study"
Mohammad Abdalhafid Al-Khamaiseh and Murad Ali Al-Tarawneh
The Bahraini legislator made the impossibility of implementing the employment contract one of the cases of the termination of the employment contract, but within legislative controls aimed at protecting the employee as the legislator specified the cases of such impossibility exclusively, along with ensuring the employee’s right to obtain the end-of-service remuneration and the certificate of experience.
This study concluded with developing several suggestions and recommendations to provide better legislative protection for the employee.

Two Ways to Improve WPT Decomposition used for Image Features Extraction
Rushdi Abu Zneit, Mohammad S. Khrisat, Saleh A. Khawatreh and Ziad Alqadi
Digital color images are very important types of digital data, due to the large number of vital applications they need. To increase the effeciency of any image-based application we have to reperesent the image by a small size image features vector. In this paper WPT method of data decomposition will be studeid and anlayzed. A segmented method will be proposed and used based on WPT method. It will be shown how to enhance WPT method to be used as good method of features extraction and how this method will meet the requirements needed to generate color image features.
Keywords: WPT, Histogram, segment, Features vector, requirements, extraction time, speedup.