European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 155 No 1
December, 2019

Effect of Simulation Instructional Method on Undergraduate Chemistry Education Student’s Academic Performance in Sodium Reactions
Nja, Cecilia Obi, Cornelius-Ukpepi, Bernedette U and Orim, Richard Ekonesi
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of simulation methods of teaching on the academic performance of Undergraduate Chemistry Education students of University of Calabar. A sample of 80 students (40 control, 40 experimental) who studied in the Department of Science Education (Chemistry unit) of the University of Calabar was used for the study. Students who were admitted during the 2017-2018 academic year participated in the research. Quasi experimental pretest posttest design was used for the research. The Chemistry achievement test (Cat) was the instruments used for collection of data. Kuder Richardson formula was used for reliability test. The calculated reliability coefficient was 0.86. Statistical results of the data obtained after the research showed that students of the experimental group who were taught using simulations had higher academic achievement than the control group who were taught using the traditional approach.
Keywords: Sodium reaction, potassium reaction, Science education, simulation-based education, group 1

Analysis of the Vulnerability of Public Procurement Management Processes in Morocco to the Risk of Corruption: An Approach based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)
Hakim Firadi and Youssef Alami
Today, the vulnerability of public procurement management processes to the risk of corruption, is considered as a crucial factor impacting the economic and social development of all countries as shown by studies conducted by several researchers and organizations. The aim of the present study is to address this issue taking into account the Moroccan context. This paper will review the different components of the public procurement management system, starting from the regulatory corpus to actors involved in the system. We then present the conceptual aspects related to the notion of corruption risk in the public procurement. We therefore propose an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method that take into account both independence and interdependence of assessment criteria in the Moroccan context by conducting interviews with all the actors involved in the procurement processes. Finally, we discuss the results of the empirical study which aims to identify sub-criteria that have the most impact upon the vulnerability to corruption risk of public procurement management processes.
Keyword: Public Procurement Vulnerability, Corruption Risk, Method of Analytic Hierarchy Process

Industry in Jerusalem in Shadow of the British Mandate, (1917-1948)
Salih Ali Al-Shora
This paper aims at shedding light on the industrial state in Jerusalem during the British Mandate, (1917-1948), through observing the variant industrial domains since the end of the Ottoman Government and until the ends of the British Mandate in 1948. The study will be concentrating on industry, taking into consideration the religious symbolism of Jerusalem, that played great role in the process of attraction and economic expulsion. And also discusses in some subsidiary issues that resulted from labor in the mentioned domains, such as sector of services, and labor movement and else. The researcher can conclude a comparison between the developing industrial economy, in the beginning of the British Mandate period, and the developed one in its termination. Also we can ascribe the causes of this change and transference to the abundant assistance, the Jews received from the Zionist Movement. The matter that made it easy for the different Jewish categories, to control the industrial scene in the city for many other additional reasons, from them is the size of the Jewish capital, and the high technological and technical experiences, and the external support of them.
Keyword: Jerusalem, Industry, The British Mandate

Kidney Stone Disease (Urolithiasis): Epidemiological Study in the Eastern Region of Morocco
Bouchra El Guerrouj, Mohamed Bouhrim, Yassamine Bentata, Michel Daudon, Mohammed Melhaoui, Loubna Kharchoufa, Noureddine Bencheikh, Oussama Bekkouch and Hamada Imtara
Background: Urinary lithiasis is a recurring pathologyin the eastern region of whichsome forms are particularly severe and canlead to renal failure. The disease evolves with the socioeconomic level of populations, coverage health and eating habits. This epidemiological study of urolithiasis is the first in the eastern region of Morocco. It proposes to study the frequency and characteristics of this disease in this region.
Material and methods: This is an epidemiological study covering a period of five years from 2011 to 2016 in the different areas of the eastern region of Morocco. The survey was conducted using a questionnaire including 19 questions who aimed to provide each adult concerned withvarious information, to clarify the factors that could interfere or participate directly or indirectly in the formation of kidney stones.
Results: The results of this study showed that nephrolithiasis in adults is predominant in men and can affect at any age, with a maximum frequency between 30 and 50 years. Moreover, the majority of people who are suffering from lithiasis do not have other associated pathologies of their disease, lithiasis), do not have a history of nephrolithiasis, suffer from renal pain and are characterized by a very high frequency of consumption of animal protein, dairy products, salty foods, and soft drinks.
Conclusion: This work could serve as a basis of reflection to propose solutions to control this disease in the eastern region of Morocco.
Keyword: Epidemiology, EasternMorocco, Nephrolithiasis, Adults.

Etude de Vérification Technique d’un Paramètre Biochimique (Créatinine Sérique) sur L’automate Abbott Selon la Norme ISO 15189 v 2012
K.Mohammadi, M.Ichlihan, M, Khallassi, A.Safi, H.Mohammadi, A.Douira and A.Maaroufi
The Biochemistry laboratory of the Institut Pasteur in Morocco has acquired a new automatic multi-parameter analytical machine called ABBOTT. Given that the machine cannot be used unless we apply the verification / validation procedure of its analytical performance. This verification/validation is recommended by all the current frame of references such as the GBEA, the ISO 15189 norm and the Technical guide of COFRAC. It is an essential prerequisite for the accreditation of laboratories according to 15189 standardization.
We propose in this work a methodological framework to structure the verification of creatinine methods on Abbott according to a procedure to be followed in several stages, based on risk assessment to improve and secure the daily practices, and precision study (Repeatability and Reproducibility).
Overall, the results obtained for the study of fidelity are satisfactory. For the reproducibility, the results are excellent and meet the acceptance criteria recommended by the supplier and the VALTEC protocol of the SFBC. On the other hand, for the repeatability, we observed higher CV values than the supplier, but they are acceptable regarding the SFBC limits.
Based on the results of this study, the Abbott analyzer provides the analytical performance required for the requested application: a reliable creatinine assay.
Keywords: Method verification, Abbott, ISO 15189

Compulsory Licenses for Patents and their Impact on the Exploitation of Technology in Bahrain: Comparative Study
Nashat Mahmoud Jaradt
This research paper considers the various laws and regulations together that regulate the area of compulsory licensing of patents in Bahrain. As this is an area of law that has a high degree of regional and international consideration, Bahrain has become a member to different groups, which all have their own rules to regulate how the issuance of compulsory licenses and the processes surrounding them play out. While the overriding law in Bahrain is the final authority in any case where a dispute might arise from a patent holder or potential patent user relating to a compulsory license over a patent issued in Bahrain, by virtue of the various agreements the country has made with other jurisdictions relating to how such matters are regulated, there is an ongoing need to review the up to date status of each provision. This includes Bahrain’s membership in the GCC Patent Office as one of six member states, and under the World Trade Organization and World Intellectual Property Organization’s member agreements, particularly with regard to Article 5 and the Paris Convention.
This paper seeks to consider all aspects of the regulations at the same time for a comprehensive picture of the commitments the country has made to the region and internationally, for the purpose of being able to see where aspects were included in Bahraini law and where Bahraini law does not particularly align to one or the other group’s related agreements.
Purpose: This paper identifies the methods of compulsory licensing of patents used in Bahrain and their importance in the ability to exploit them in industry or trade in order to improve the economic level in the Kingdom.
Research Problem: The paper also seeks to research the problem as to whether the field of mandatory contracts for transfer of technology in Bahrain is regulated and how those regulations contradict the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property [with particular focus on Article 5]. This leaves scope for the regulator to determine whether the technology transfer contract is legally binding or not.
Methodology: For this research paper, the individual legal points concerning the compulsory licensing of patents as covered under Law No. 1 of 2004 on Patents and Utility Models (Bahrain) and Article 5 in Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property have been analysed in its specific context, and the TRIPS agreement, WTO and WIPO regulations regarding compulsory licenses were reviewed. This analysis was completed with a view to bringing clarification to the intended purpose of discerning differences surrounding the handling of compulsory licenses between Bahrain, and the Paris Convention that dictates the WIPO, to which Bahrain became a member of in 1995.
This research paper will juxtapose the existing Bahraini provisions for compulsory licensing and compare them to the requirements as set out by the Patent Office of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC Patent Office). Overall, the three different regulatory mechanisms, which affect upon the commitments Bahrain has made with regard to compulsory licensing through membership in the GCC and through ascension to the Paris Convention under WIPO membership, will be considered. It is the author’s intention to show that there is a discrepancy which exists between the rules that each dictates and the way in which Law No. 1 of 2004 plays out in national cases. Law No. 14 of 2006 was also reviewed in full and considered in its context as it changed some of the rules previously set out under Law No. 1 of 2004.
Keywords: Compulsory, Licensing, Disputes, Patent, Paris Convention, WIPO, WTO, TRIPS.

The Requirements for the Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Award according to Bahrain and Jordan Laws
Ghaith Mustafa Al-Khasawneh
At present, arbitration is the most common process in the world; for being a disputes resolution method, in particular in the area of international and local trade, and that it concerns many international transactions; with a view to achieving confidentiality and speed. Such a goal can never be satisfied by bringing disputes that arise or may arise between people in this field before national courts. Arbitration enables arbitrating parties to agree on the applicable law to the dispute and the procedures during arbitration process, and to choose the arbitral tribunal that they trust because they are experts in their own disputes field.
The matter of the enforcement of arbitral awards takes a significant part of international private law jurisprudence. States vary in dealing with foreign arbitral awards in terms of considering them arbitral awards rather than national judgments, or the state in which they were issued. Jordan Law deals with the enforcement of foreign arbitral awards in the same way, by granting them slightly different rules than national arbitral awards and judgments. Its treatment with these foreign arbitral awards can also vary from one to another; depending on the state in which they were issued in whether it had a mutual, regional or international convention with Jordan concerning the enforcement of foreign arbitral awards. Jordan is a party to many international conventions made in this field including: the Riyadh Convention on Judicial Cooperation between States of the Arab League 1983, and the Amman Agreement on Commercial Arbitration 1987. These two agreements contain rules concerning the enforcement of foreign arbitral awards, given that, Jordin is a state member of the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards of 1958. Bahrain legislature has adopted the concept of enforcement order on the bases of formal control regime rather than involving in decision merit as the judge would ensure that the decision is free of any enforcement rejection causes.
This paper concern about the practical significance of the enforcement of foreign arbitral awards issue is underlined by the significant spread and success of arbitration, in particular in operating and facilitating international transactions, besides the challenges experienced by arbitrating parties in the enforcement of arbitral awards, and the necessity for guarantying facilitating decisions by foreign arbitral tribunals across states effectively.
The study follows an analytical approach; by analyzing domestic and international rules in relation to the requirements of the enforcement of foreign arbitral awards, with a focus on Jordan and Bahrain legislations, besides international rules; how does Jordan judiciary apply the requirements for the enforcement of foreign arbitral awards, with an attempt to extract some rules established by Jordan Cassation Court jurisprudence.
Keywords: Enforcement, Foreign, Arbitral, Award, Agreement, Recognition, Judgment

Farmers-Herders’ Conflicts Management for Sustainable Agro-Pastoral Land use in the Guinea-Sudan Zone
Raphiou Maliki, Brice Sinsin, Celestin Tokpa and Laurent Parrot
Communal and extensive grazing of natural pastures continues to be the predominant feeding strategy in West Africa. This practice leads to the lack of high quality fodder especially during the dry season and the use of crop residues in fields for livestock feeding. Frequent transborder movements of oxen from neighbouring countries toward Benin potentially provided in fodder and water were observed. In the abroad starting countries (Niger, Burkina Faso, Mali...), the carrying capacity became low because of the increasing number of oxen head and insufficiency of fodder. In the host country (Benin), the migration of the mass of oxen generated overstocking and constituted a major cause of crops damages in fields. Consequently this involved conflicts between herders Fulani and farmers and led to food insecurity and poverty. Research organization in Benin implemented in Guinea-Sudan zone organizational and technical strategies for sustainable resource and conflicts management. The study addresses both organizational and technical bottom-up approach to prevent farmers-herders conflicts through mediation, forum of discussions, negotiations between recipients in order to ensure communication between all resources users and the development of sedentary-based cropping systems approach for sustainable resources management.
Keywords: Conflict management; Extensive grazing; Sedentary-based cropping systems; Sustainable land use; Sustainable resource management; Transhumance

A Comparative Study of Deterministic Inversion Analysis for Improved Low Acoustic Impedance Horizon Mapping and Characterization of Complex Sandstone Reservoirs
A. J. Ilozobhie and Daniel I. Egu
A comparative study of deterministic inversion analysis for improved low acoustic impedance Horizon Mapping and Characterization of Complex Sandstone Reservoirs was carried out in an HD field, Niger Delta using the deterministic approach with the Hampson Russell Software (HRS). The comparative average results of the inverted Ip volumes of seismic attributes of the three models with respect to wells X1 and X2 in horizon 1/HD5000 shows that the recursive and model based gave better attribute resolutions for both well X1 and X2. In well X1, highest shale Ip volume of 20610 ft/s × g/cc in the initial model gave a better resultant lowest hydrocarbon gas sand Ip volume in the recursive model with 19185 ft/s × g/cc with acceptable brine sand intermediate model based Ip volume of 19385 ft/s × g/cc. In well X2, The initial model gave good lowest Ip value of 20070 ft/s × g/cc and confirmed with the intermediate (brine sand) and lowest (hydrocarbons) for the recursive and model based. Interestingly, comparative average results of inverted Ip volumes of seismic attributes of the three models with respect to wells X1 and X2 in horizon 2/HD9000 also shows that the recursive and model based improved attribute resolutions from highest Ip volume of 21376 ft/s × g/cc (shale) in well X1 and lowest Ip volume of 20290 ft/s × g/cc (hydrocarbon gas sand) in well X2 to only low (hydrocarbon gas sands) Ip volumes for both wells X1 (19740 ft/s × g/cc for recursive model and 19593 ft/s × g/cc for model based) and X2 (19798 ft/s × g/cc for recursive model and 19457 ft/s × g/cc for model based). Horizon 1/HD5000 showed high standard error of mean of 445.4 for well X1 as against 330 for well X2. The standard deviation and variance which is also higher for well X1 are 771.5 and 595208.3 while well X2 gave 571.6 and 326705.3. This variance in well X1 is confirmed by the positive skewness of 1.60 as against well X2 with negative skewness of -1.56. This variance is due to the high Ip volume of the initial model in well X1 as against the low and intermediate Ip volumes of the recursive and model base models. Horizon 2/HD9000 also showed high standard error of mean of 571.4 in well X1 than 241.8 for well X2. Well X1 with standard deviation of 989.7 and variance of 979532.3 was higher than well X2 with 418.7 and 175372.3. The variance in wells X1 and X2 both gave positive skewness of 1.69 and 0.53 indicating the disparity in Ip volumes of the initial models particularly in well X1 as against only low Ip volumes of the recursive and model based models.
Keywords: gas sands, shales, inverted, impedance, horizon

Investigating the Impact of Electro-Non-radioactive Properties of Productive Unconsolidated Dual Sandstone Reservoir Systems in the EMI-Field, Eastern Niger Delta
A.J. Ilozobhie, E. Ikpang and D. I. Egu
The impact of fluid resistivity and radioactivity of a dual sandstone reservoir system in the EMI Field, Niger Delta as an alternative reservoir characterization tool was investigated. Average values of gamma ray and resistivity log readings were obtained from the lithostratigraphic log panels of identified sandstone reservoirs ER1 (top) and ER2 (bottom) from the six well by which various models were generated using mathematical algorithm. Electro-nonradioactive properties in ER1 showed similar patterns of minimum quadratic curves in wells EMI-04 and EMI-03. A decreasing pattern was recorded in wells EMI-02, EMI-01 and EMI-05 while only well EMI-06 showed increasing trend. Results of wells in ER2 showed similar decreasing trend in wells EMI-02 and EMI-05 while wells EMI-04 and EMI-03 had increasing trends. Comparison of trends in ER1 and ER2 showed a quadratic maximum curves at the reservoir top(ER1) in wells EMI-02 and at the bottom (ER2) in well EMI-01,while wells EMI-04 (ER1) and EMI-06 (ER2) showed a quadratic minimum curves, wells EMI-01 (ER1), EMI-05 (ER1), EMI-02 (ER2) and EMI-05 (ER2) showed decreasing trends. Wells EMI-06 (ER1), EMI-04 (ER2) and EMI-03 (ER2) showed increasing trends. Low gamma radiations and high resistivity characteristics are appropriate for delineation of a good pay zone or good horizon delineation. The analysis clearly shows that electro-nonradioactive properties or patterns gives a better understanding of unconsolidated sandstones and their fluid contents which can be used for effective reservoir management and maintenance. These patterns can be further mapped out for enhanced oil recovery projects for particularly complex and severely depleted Fields.
Keywords: Radioactivity, resistivity, sandstones, reservoirs, patterns, characteristics, gamma ray

Exploring Risk Priorities for Road Infrastructure Investment Projects by Public-Private Partnership (PPPs) using Psychometric Scaling: A Survey from Brazilian Experience
Aline Rodrigues, Erinaldo Nascimento, Pedro Pereira and Selma Regina Martins Oliveira
The present research aims to prioritize risks in road transport infrastructure investment projects by Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) in Brazil using psychometric scaling. For that matter, it was initially sought to select and categorize, following the guidelines provided by specialized literature on the subject, the risks involved in those types of projects. Following that, a matrix of such risks was constructed and submitted to evaluation and approval by a specialist in risk management within those projects. Afterwards, the given results were e-mailed and sent via LinkedIn in the form of a questionnaire intended for professionals who work both in the private and public sections, people with experience in project management, concessions and Public-Private Partnerships. The data resulting from the questionnaire were then analyzed by means of the usage of the psychometric scaling method in order to capture the thoughts of specialists on the degree of impact made by each risk. The results achieved during the course of this work were satisfactory, given that it was possible both to achieve the intended goal and to provide an answer to the presented research-related problem. The risks to be prioritized in the follow-up of the projects were properly identified.
Keywords: Risks, Road infrastructure investment projects, Public-private partnership (PPP), Psychometric scaling, Brazilian experience.

Exploring the Influence of Leadership on Technology Innovation Project Management in Industry 4.0 in Brazil
Marcela de Alencar Saraiva, Ricardo Araújo Machado and Selma Regina Martins Oliveira
This research's objective is to verify leadership influence on technology innovation projects outcomes performance in industry 4.0, in Brazil. The study was applied to Brazilian Multionational Companies. A conceptual model was drawn and confirmed with specilists. This way, at first, in order to reach such a goal, an exploratory research was developed in light to the literature to gather the variables that make up the conceptual model. Afterwards, these defined variables have been subjected to a selected group of specialists with due knowledge regarding the research object for their evaluation. The data analysis allowed to answer the core question of this research, demonstrating which are the knowledge, skills and attitudes more relevant to a leader to have influence on the technological innovation project management on the industry 4.0. This research started from a gap in the literature and it is hoped that this study can contribute to the art and state of practice, increasing the spectrum of decision making in light of the leadership skills of a technological innovation project in this category of companies.
Keywords: Leadership; Technology innovation project management. Industry 4.0 in Brazil