European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 154 No 4
December, 2019

The Green Revolution, Industry Agribusiness Complex and Economic, Social and Environmental Dimensions in the Brazilian Midwest
Antonio Pasqualetto and Ubirajara de Lima Ferreira
An institutional breakdown that occurred in 1964 with the advance of the military government proved pragmatic in the creation of public policies aimed at improving incipient agriculture. Thus, it measures whether selected options, such as the "technology packages offered by Americans" option, are effective quickly and deliver good results in the economic environment that extends over time. Ideologically, they apply to the ability to feed in a world which demographically grows geometrically to the detriment of the low food production capacity that occurs in most parts of the world. Malthus's theory is announced. The federal government develops a Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa, 1972), encourages the opening planting areas by means of public policies and the creation of agribusiness laws. It made possible the granting of rural credit at subsidized rates, the intensive use of science and technology, using the use of fertilizers, superseeds and industrial machinery and equipment that caused problems. Grain growth and field development: impact on water resources and deforestation, mainly in the Amazonia and in the Cerrado of the central west of Brazil. It is discussed about the adoption of new methodologies that, at the same time, maintain the grain grains achieved per hectare and promote economic, environmental and social sustainability.
Keywords: Green revolution, savanah, midwest, development, sustainability

Agrosystèmes et Conservation de la Diversité Végétale dans la Périphérie de la Forêt Classée du Haut-Sassandra (Centre-Ouest de la Côte d’Ivoire)
Issouf Bamba, Golou Gizèle Zanh, Beh Kambiré, Yao Charles Sangne and Yao Sadaiou Sabas Barima
Les agrosystèmes constituent des milieux anthropisés caractérisés généralement par une faible proportion de la biodiversité terrestre. Cependant, face aux pressions anthropiques croissantes sur les aires protégées, entrainant la raréfaction ou la disparition des espèces vulnérables, les agrosysytèmes pourraient être un apport considérable dans la conservation de la biodiversité. En Côte d’Ivoire, la Forêt Classée du Haut-Sassandra située dans la région du Centre-Ouest, a subi une occupation illégale et anarchique ayant pour conséquence la dégradation de ce milieu. Pourtant cette aire était réputée pour sa richesse en espèces végétales très utiles pour le quotidien des populations riveraines. Face à cette situation, les paysans vivant dans la périphérie de la FCHS ont tendance à préserver ou à introduire plus d’espèces dans leur plantation. Cette étude a consisté à analyser la diversité des espèces associées aux agrosystèmes à base de cultures pérennes à la périphérie de la Forêt Classée du Haut-Sassandra. Un inventaire floristique a été réalisé à travers des relevés de surface et itinérants dans différents agrosystèmes afin d’apprécier leur composition. De plus, une enquête a été réalisée auprès des paysans pour apprécier leur perception du rôle des espèces conservées dans leur plantation. Ainsi, 152 espèces végétales ont été recensées. Elles se répartissent en 74 genres et 45 familles. Concernant leur usage, 52 % des espèces ont été identifiées comme médicinales, 27 % interviennent dans l’alimentation, 14 % dans la construction, 4 % dans l’artisanat et 3 % dans la fourniture d’énergie. Les rôles écologiques identifiés sont : l’ombrage (72 %) et la fertilisation du sol (28 %). Les agrosystèmes s’avèrent ainsi comme des sites qui permettent de conserver la biodiversité.
Keyword: Périphérie de la FCHS, agrosystèmes, biodiversité, usages des plantes

A Human Rights-Based Approach to Education in Nigeria
Yinka Olomojobi and Goodnews Osah
This study aims to map the development of academic publications related to the subject of professional performance assessment in public administration and its interactions from 2008 to 2017. To that end, a bibliometric survey was conducted in the Scopus database on the subject. As a result, we identified: the countries that published the most during the period; the annual output; the journals with the greatest number of publications; the most frequent keywords; the most cited articles; and the most used references.
Keyword: Professional performance assessment; Civil service; Public administration; Bibliometrics.

Effect of Altitude on the Pomological and Physico-Chemical Traits of Dallahia Prickly Pear Fruits in Northern Morocco
Dramane Yewaga Koalaga, Zerhoune Messaoudi, Mohamed Ibriz and Lhoussain Ait Haddou
Opuntia sp., commonly known as cactus pear, originates from Mexico and illustrates the impressive genetic diversity of Cactaceae with 400 species and a great number of varieties for Opuntia ficus indica. Moroccan cactus presents a very high genetic variability and several cultivars exist. They are distinguished by the flowering period (early, late), the flower color (yellow, orange and pink), fruit and pulp colors (green, yellow, orange, red and purple), fruit shape (oval, round or oblong), organoleptic characteristics and antioxidant content of the fruit. Cactus crop plays an important role on the ecological and economical scales, but unfortunately, in Morocco, its production is faced with a high lost due to the lack of valorization prospects. Dallahia prickly pear variety, widespread in northern Morocco, is characterized by the green pulp color of the fruit. It is among the lowest valorized cactus varieties due to the low oil content of its seeds. Therefore, its fruits are mainly used for fresh consumption. The aim of this study is to discuss the effect of the altitude on the pomological (fruit dimensions, seediness and weight) and phytochemical (juiciness, sugariness…) characteristics of the fruits of this variety in northern Morocco in order to reconsider the different possibilities to transform the excess of the production.
Keyword: Opuntia ficus-indica, Dallahia, altitude, pomology, phytochemistry, HPLC

A Methodology of Leakage Estimation of VLSI Circuits and Leakage Aware Mapping
Manjunatha Visweswaraiah and Somashekar K.
The advent in semiconductor technologies have paved a way for mobile products and controlling power consumption is the primary limiter of scaling semiconductor process technologies and adding features to integrated circuits. This power consumption is divided between active, which is the power used while the product is performing its various functions, and leakage power which is the power consumed by unintended leakage that does not contribute to the IC’s function. Leakage is dependent on the process, threshold voltage variations, temperature and also input vectors. Designs which have high transitions at the input of the cells will have high leakage numbers due to input transitions. Chips implementing face detection technologies have extensive net switching and for lower technology nodes, the leakage power due to input transitions will be significant. In this paper leakage estimation using input vectors is carried out on face detection chips which process which is used to realize leakage aware mapping during physical synthesis and there by reduce the power consumption. The switching activity of the nets is determined by simulating the design using functional patterns and the cells having high transition at the input pins are determined. These cells are target cells for replacement with less leakage library cells during leakage aware mapping. The work also comprises of library generation to have liberty file contain the leakage power due to input transition.

Democracy, Intra-Party Struggle and Good Governance in Nigeria: The People's Democratic Party and all Progressive Congress Experience
Atelhe, George Atelhe, Abdullahi Mohammed Lawal and Alagh, Terhile
Democracy is no doubt the most suitable system of government in the modern day political system and development world over. Political parties and election are vital tools necessary for the achievement and advancement of good governance world over and Nigeria in particular. The paper, therefore, focus on intra-party struggle/conflict and how it affects good governance in Nigeria from 2013 to 2019 with general emphasis on 2015 and 2019 elections. However, the history of the country’s democratic experience shows that elections and electoral process have generated so much tension which has in some cases threatened the corporate existence of a country as indivisible entity. As a result, the paper, therefore, made attempt to among others, that political parties in Nigeria especially the PDP and APC should go back to the drawing board and understand their roles as political parties such as political socialization, internal democracy, adherence to party ideology etc. through this, they can instil in the minds of their members the democratic tenets and value which they will exhibit if eventually elected into power. By implication, this will doubt help in consolidating good governance in the country.
Keywords: Democracy, intra-party and Good governance

Internationalization Strategy: Bibliometric Analysis of National and International Scientific Productions of the Last Ten Years
Antonio José Patrocinio Pereira and Josir Simeone Gomes
The objective is to map the development of scientific production related to “internationalization strategies”, national, international and interactions, from 2009 to 2018. Methodology is bibliometric analysis, quantitative approach. The results of 421 articles published, used the keyword “internationalization strategy", Capes / Scopus portal, plus the VOSviewer tool. Result shows, that between the lowest and highest frequency, there was a positive variation of 90% in number of articles published. The most published authors, Di Maria, E., with five articles. The ten countries with the largest publications, make up 86% of the total. The well-placed journal represents 50% of the number two. The most cited article represents 50% of the 2nd place. The area Business, Management and Accounting, obtained a predominance of 43.3% of the total. The three most used keywords correspond to 13% of the total. The most cited bibliographic reference was Finally, the predominant methodological approaches were exploratory with 43.47%, qualitative with 62.23% and case study with 42.04% of the total, consider the motive aspects research and qualitative data not researched.
Keywords: Internationalization Strategy. Scientific production. Bibliometric analysis

Safe Landscape: Analysis of Technological Solutions
Vitor Pereira Morandin, Letícia Peret Antunes Hardt, Carlos Hardt and Victor Augusto Bosquilia Abade
Technology is a multifaceted concept, including widespread proposals for urban sectors organization. In this context, technological and methodological tools have evolved for the control of problems related to the safe space. Given these considerations, the main objective of the research is to systematize technological solutions to improving the quality of the urban landscape associated with the prevention of violence in cities. Therefore, its specific goals are: to identify techniques, methods, theories and concepts for this study design; to interpret technological solutions for surveying and mapping violence paths in urban environments, and to determinate, from the previous results, these solutions for the association of qualitative patterns of the urban landscape integrated with the prevention of violence in cities. The methodological procedures were divided into two phases. At first, concerning general aspects, the techniques included a selection of top-level international ranking journals, in addition, beyond those of urban study areas, others linked to security themes. From these references, a bibliometric analysis was performed by means of selected keywords pairs, with a view to generating specific results, which were cataloged by the Mendeley software. The time frame of the publications was established between 2001 and 2017, justified by the interstitial implementation of the first cycle of municipal master plans (MMPs) based on the City Statute, instituted in Brazil the former year. Subsequently, given the high number of articles found (15,478), a narrow selection was performed for exclusive reading of those most relevant to the work. The results show that camera monitoring systems (CCTV - closed circuit television) are one of the main alternatives for controlling violations in urbanized areas. It is also frequent the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs), which, although the vast majority do not constitute specific instruments, enables analysis of applicable methods. In the second phase, application examples of these and other solutions are presented. Thus, it can be concluded that the technological and methodological tools applied in urban environments are evolved when implemented according to social and locational studies. Finally, it is considered the importance of the relationship between different technologies for their evolution and improvement, with the intention of promoting safe landscapes in cities.
Keywords: Urban landscape. Crime and security. Innovation and technological solutions. City planning and management

Planned Landscape: Debates on Technology and Innovation for the Improvement of Urban Quality
VictorAugusto Bosquilia Abade, Letícia Peret Antunes Hardt, Carlos Hardt and Vitor Pereira Morandin
This research aims ats the analysis of the academic-scientific framework of the studies related to the new technological and innovative solutions applied in the process of planning for the improvement of the quality of urban landscape. From this perspective, its specific objectives are: to broaden the mapping of the debate on technologies and innovations that are essential to the correct interpretation of the central subject, and to develop subsidies for management, planning and design for appropriate urban landscape treatment within the framework of municipal master plans (MMPs) and the democratic administration of urbanized spaces. The research was developed in three main phases, including exploratory, descriptive and analytical methods. The first one - extension of the mapping, linked to the first specific objective - promoted the examination of theoretical and methodological references for understanding the theme. Thus, it was concentrated in the bibliographic consultation and in the bibliometric inference of papers available in the Journal Portal of the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES - Coordination of Improvement of Personnel of Higher Level) of 2001 - year of edition of the City Statute - until 2016 - first cicle of MMPs. The search of the articles was performed by inserting pairs of keywords in three languages (English, Portuguese and Spanish), and after that, submiting them to different selection criteria, therefore forming a set with a direct approach to the subjects of interest. Next, the most relevant were interpreted, cataloging them according to typologies of technology and innovation, secondary themes associated to the main ones, and geographic determination of the cases, thus allowing realization of the final stage of subsidy development. The main results point, in the first place, at deficiencies in scientific scenario of Brazil, regarding both the quoted portal, as well as the quantitative representativeness of Brazilian studies. On the other hand, it is possible to verify that geographic information system (GIS) is already consolidated in urban planning as the most widely used alternative, while information and communication technologies (ICTs) constitute the future trend in terms of public management and integration of the population. Furthermore, innovative processes are associated with analysis of regions’ economic improvement, whilist debates on technological options address themes such as urbanistic growth models, urban expansion forecasting and integrated development. It is also diagnosed the association of these subjects with both ‘smart cities’ - aiming at the digitization of citizens' experiences, as well as ‘geodesign’ - evidencing the propensity for territorial plans. Therefore, it is concluded that there is a need for greater investments in scientific research in Brazil, considering its lag with respect to other countries and the imperative of integrating technological typologies, with a broader digitalization of procedures related to city management, thus, producing important reflections on the context of the project and planning of cities landscape.
Keywords: Urban landscape. Planning and management. Innovative and technological processes. Theoretical-methodological references. Municipal master plans

Constructivists’ Theory and Science Education Classroom
Nja Cecilia Obi, Cornelius-Ukpepi and Ndifon, Rita A.
Learning theory of Constructivism has revolutionized the act of teaching and learning. Constructivist theory as explained by psychologists gave a detailed insight as to how learners learn. Prior to the 21st century, the teacher was the center of teaching and learning. Learners were blank slate waiting to be written upon by teachers. Constructivist theory has changed a passive classroom to activity-based classroom. Learners do not learn individually but learn in groups. Teaching is done by first ascertaining what the learners know before teaching. The role of the teacher has changed from a transmitter of knowledge to a facilitator of idea and knowledge. The teacher in todays’ classroom can be compared to a football team coach who does not play football in the fields of play but instructs the team to victory. Learners can learn by constructing their knowledge only when the materials to be used have relationship with what they have learned. Founding fathers of constructivist theory were Jean Piaget (1896 – 1980), Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky (1896 – 1943), John Dewey (1859 – 1952) and Jerome Seymour Bruner (1915 – 2016). A constructivist classroom is expected to have a model of working together, Scaffolding Learning and the Spiral Curriculum. This paper further discuses history of constructivist learning theory, as well as constructivist learning styles or strategies.