European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 154 No 3
November, 2019

Utilization of Prostate Cancer Screening Services in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: Situation Analysis and Implications for Oncology Social Workers
Abonor Lazarus Bassey, Isangha, Stanley Oloji, Eya, Oliver Ifeanyi, Umoh, Victor and Afia, Maurice Oti
In Nigeria, most men are preoccupied with providing for their families, thus, they tend not to be perceptive of subtle health issues, making the idea of routine screening an uncommon practice. In this study, utilization of prostate cancer screening services is investigated among men aged 40 and above in the Niger-Delta Region. We also examine the influence of knowledge and other factors on utilization.
Findings revealed a statistically significant relationship between knowledge of prostate cancer screening and utilization of prostate cancer screening services at p<0.000. Factors such as marital status, level of education, occupation and monthly income where statistically significant with knowledge of PCS and utilization of PCS services at p<0.011, p<0.004; p<0.002, p<0.007; p<0.000, p<0.048 and p<0.000, p<0.000 respectively while place of residence was not statistically significant with knowledge of PCS at p<0.279 but was significant with utilization at p<0.044. In the prediction of their long term influence on utilization, only Knowledge of PCS, marital status and place of residence were significant at [WALD=14.285, P=0.000 (<0.05)], [WALD=14.954, P=0.000 (<0.05)] and [WALD=4.540, P=0.033 (<0.05)] respectively. The results of this study have implications for oncology social workers.
Keywords: Oncology social work, prostate adenocarcinoma, Prostate cancer Screening, utilization.

The Effects of Voiceless Glottal Fricative /h/ Sound on the Spoken English Language in Non-Native Contexts: A Case Study of Sagamu Local Government Primary School Teachers
Oyinloye, Comfort Adebola, Osikomaiya M. Olufunke, Idowu, Olubunmi and Fatola, Olugbenga Lasisi
The paper focused on the study of the effects of voiceless glottal fricative /h/ sound on the spoken English in non-native contexts. The study adopted pretest post-test experimental design. Two research questions were answered, and one hypothesis was tested. The population of the study consisted of 46 primary school teachers in Sagamu Local Government, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria. The participants were a combination of the major tribes in Nigeria: Yoruba, Hausa and Igbo linguistic backgrounds. The instrument used was a reading passage which was given to the participants to get their pretest scores after which they were exposed to a four-week study of classroom teaching which served as a post-test. Descriptive statistics (Mean, Standard Deviation) and inferential statistics (paired t-test) were used to answer research questions and test hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that among the common errors made by the teachers were in pronouncing /h/ sound are /'hapi/ for [api] (deletion), /ℇg;/ for [hℇg;g] (insertion). The study also revealed that one of the effects of the errors made in English pronunciation of /h/ sound among others is wrong communication between the listeners and the speakers as a result of wrong pronunciation of /h/ sound of English language. The study also found that exposition teaching strategy was effective in the group and the teachers had significant improvement in the use of voiceless fricative glottal speech sound /h/.
Keyword: Voiceless, Glottal Fricative, /h/ sound, English, Non-Native context.

Professional Performance Assessment in Civil Service: A Bibliometric Study from 2008 to 2017
Deborah Moraes Zouain, Flora Thamiris Rodrigues Bittencourt, Leonardo Ferreira Bezerra, André Luís Faria Duarte and Luiz Alexandre Valadão de Souza
This study aims to map the development of academic publications related to the subject of professional performance assessment in public administration and its interactions from 2008 to 2017. To that end, a bibliometric survey was conducted in the Scopus database on the subject. As a result, we identified: the countries that published the most during the period; the annual output; the journals with the greatest number of publications; the most frequent keywords; the most cited articles; and the most used references.
Keyword: Professional performance assessment; Civil service; Public administration; Bibliometrics.

Historical Persepective of Tax Laws in Nigeria; from the Inception of Colonial Rule to 2019
Ademola Taiwo, Adeyinka Ilori and Eunice Emenike
Civilisation of Nigeria particularly with regards to modern taxes and its enabling statutes begun with the intrusion of the British into Nigeria. However, the evidence of various existing taxes in Nigeria long before the British set foot in Nigeria testifies that the issue of tax in Nigeria is a practice of great antiquity. It was therefore of great importance for laws to be created to govern tax and taxation in Nigeria. These laws have evolved over time to include and subtract certain matters and taxes; and today, we have laws which are suitable for the current society. Nevertheless, the main theme of this article is to trace the history of tax laws in Nigeria particularly from the inception of colonial regime to 2019. The main method of collecting data is through application of secondary means by making use of scholarly published books, online and internet materials. This paper recommends among others that, it is necessary for the current tax laws and relevant statutes be reviewed from time to time by the appropriate authorities to meet the current domestic and international challenges.
Keyword: History, Perspective, Tax, Law, Colonial Rule

Hydrogeological and Geochemical Approach in the Study of Groundwater Salinity of Central Haouz
Amina Rmiki, Abderrahim El Achheb and Nasser Ennih
This study aims to improve knowledge of the hydrogeology of the Haouz Central aquifer and to record a hydro chemical characterization of groundwater and surface water. The geological map of the area shows a basin deposited on a Paleozoic basement, filled with the dismantling of the upper Atas and Jbillets, and crossed by outcrops of the Paleozoic basement (Exp: Guemassas and Tazakourt).
On a hydrogeological level, groundwater circulation is geologically controlled and traces a flow to the northwest. The study area is drained by wadi Rhyghaya, wadi N'fiss and wadi Assif l’mal. The groundwater circulation is geologically controlled and traces a flow to the northwest.
The study of groundwater mineralization has shown the strong bond between it and chlorides, sulphates, calcium and sodium. It increases gradually from South to North, recording calcium saturation along the wadi Tensift. The study of strontium and sulphates proves the contribution of evaporitic rocks of Trias.
Keywords: Central Haouz, hydrochemistry, groundwater quality, Salinity.

A Comparative Evaluation of Growth and Yield Response of Barley under Fresh and Brackish Water Irrigation: An Inevitable Step towards Improving Food Security in Arid Region
Habibah Al-Menaie, Abdullah Al-Shatti, Ouhoud Al-Ragom, Ian McCann, Mai El-Hadidi and Merlene Ann Babu
The cultivation of salt tolerant crops using brackish water under proper soil and water management practices could enhance sustainable crop production in semi-arid and arid regions to a great extent. The present study determined the yield and yield components of 12 different barley cultivars, one of the most drought and salt tolerant cereal crop under brackish water irrigation in Kuwait for two seasons. The combined analysis of variance for yield and yield components across all cultivars over two seasons has revealed a significant impact of irrigation on all parameters except harvest index. The varietal difference imposed a significant effect on plant height, number of tillers, 100 kernel weight, grain yield and biological yield; whereas only plant height, biological yield and harvest index varied significantly between the two seasons. In addition, a significant interaction was observed between variety*year for grain yield, variety*irrigation for plant height and year*irrigation for grain yield, harvest index, number of days to heading as well as maturity. The analysis of grain and biological yield across all the varieties over two seasons under fresh and brackish water irrigation revealed Kuwait 3 followed by Kuwait 4, Kuwait 1 and California Marriot as potential barley varieties suitable for cultivation under brackish water irrigation in Kuwait. In addition, the stress tolerance indices calculated based on yield under stressed and non-stressed conditions presented Kuwait 3 as the best cultivar to be cultivated with brackish water irrigation under Kuwait’s environmental conditions followed by Gustoe and California Marriot.
Keywords: brackish water, barley, biological yield

Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Guenfouda Clay Deposit, Jerada province, Northeastern Morocco
Hafida Dahmani, Mohamed Jadid, Kamal El Hammouti, Fouad Talbi and Meriam EL Ouahabi
The Guenfouda clay deposit is located at about 36km to the southwest of Oujda city and 6km to the south of Guenfouda village. It belongs to the Jerada Province of the northeastern Morocco and hosted within the Upper Visean calc-alkaline dacite lava interbedded within a schisto-volcanic complex. This deposit is mined for more than 15 years and the product being mainly used for refractories and industrial ceramics.
This clay deposit is funnel or trough-like in form, narrowing downwards and display a E–W trend, which follows the major dextral strike-slip fault that passes through the south of the deposit. Based on mineral assemblages, four lateral alteration zones were defined from the north to south parts of the deposit: the Illite zone, the Pyrophyllite-illite zone, the Pyrophyllite zone and the Quartz zone.
The presence of high-temperature minerals such as pyrophyllite, diaspore, the alteration zonation pattern and the chemical characteristics are diagnostic of hypogene origin. However, the variation diagrams, Zr vs TiO2 and P2O5 vs SO3 as well as the values of the chemical Index of Weathering (CIW) and the Alteration Index (AI) revealed a mixed type. It seems that the genesis of Guenfouda clay deposit was first controlled by the east-west strike-slip faults, which brought ascending hydrothermal solutions that led to clay formation and finally, the weathering processes have continued and extended the argillization.
Keywords: hydrothermal alteration, mineral zoning, weathering, Guenfouda, Northeastern Morocco.

Inhibitory Effect of PBO and DEF on Detoxification Mechanisms Involved in Deltamethrin Resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Benin, West Africa
Eric Tossou, Elie Ayitondji Dannon, Innocent Djegbe, Francis Zeukeng, Romaric Akoton, Genevieve M. Tchigossou and Aimé H. Bokonon-Ganta
Pyrethroid resistance has been a growing problem in the management of Helicoverpa armigera populations in West Africa; with the metabolic resistance considered as a prominent resistance pathway. Formulating insecticides with synergists that counteract metabolic resistance might help overcome insecticides resistance in this pest. This study aimed to evaluate the metabolic enzymes involved in the resistance of H. armigera to deltamethrin. To assess the mechanism involved in the H. armigera resistance, we evaluated the effect of two synergists (piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) on deltamethrin efficacy in four resistant strains. A high synergism ratio (SR) of the three top resistant field strains Allada (RF=372); Malanville (RF=476) and Djidja (RF=516) was revealed when PBO was used with deltamethrin (Allada SR=128; Malanville SR=98 and Djidja SR=243) compare to a moderate resistance locality (Kassakou: RF= 13; SR= 25). Whereas, application of DEF had no synergistic effect in the farms located in the northern part of Benin (Kassakou, Malanville: SR=1) compare to the southern localities where the farmers used pyrethroids insecticides in several crops production (Djidja SR= 206; Allada SR= 8). The synergism data collected strongly suggest that detoxification enzymes play a significant role in the resistance of H. armigera. The development and use of safe metabolic synergists that suppress detoxification enzymes offers an interesting avenue for the management of insecticide-resistant field populations.
Keywords: H. armigera, deltamethrin resistance, insecticide synergism, oxydase, esterase.

Assessment of the Maturity of Textile Waste Compost and their Capacity of Fertilization
Saloua Biyada, Mohammed Merzouki, Hamada Imtara and Mohamed Benlemlih
Over time, we observe the emergence of two environmental problems that have become increasingly serious, which are chemical fertilizers and the excessive production of textile waste. The purpose of the present contribution was to valorize the textile waste by finding alternatives allowing replacing these chemical fertilizers by biological fertilizers. At the end of the treatment, we managed to compost the textile waste which is mixed with cardboard waste and green waste. The storage of this waste has changed considerably over time. According to the physico-chemical, microbiological, metallic analyses and germination test, we found that among the five mixtures, the C mixture (40% of textile waste, 30% of paper and cardboard waste, 30% of green waste) presented the best result with a carbon content (TOC) of 26.06%, a total Kjeldahl nitrogen content (TKN) of 1.5%, a C:N ratio of 17.37 , a NH4+/NO3- ratio of 0.57, decrease of heavy metals concentrations analyzed and with value of germination index of 134.91%. This degradation is the result of an intense microbial activity which ultimately results in a stable and mature product. The Biodegradation of organic compounds was confirmed by statistical analysis.
Keywords: Composting; Organic waste; textile waste; NH4+/ NO3- ratio; C:N ratio. Germination Index

Contribution à la Caractérisation du Climat Marocain
Khaoula Lagrini, Abdessamad Ghafiri, Abdellah Ouali, Khalid Elrhaz, Rhizlane Feddoul and Saida El Moutaki
Les conditions de température de l’air sont parmi les paramètres les plus importants du climat d’une région ou d’un pays. Trois aspects de la température sont traités, à savoir les températures minimales, les températures maximales et l’amplitude thermique. Des cartes ont été créées à l'aide de données d’observation issues de la Direction de la Météorologie Nationale. Les résultats ont montré qu'il existe une certaine variabilité entre les différentes zones du Maroc, principalement en raison des différences d'altitude (présence de séries de montagnes), de la proximité de la côte et d'autres aspects météorologiques. Une carte de vulnérabilité a été élaborée à partir des résultats précédents et analysée. Les résultats ont montré que les villes les plus vulnérables sont Béni Mellal, Ouarzazate et Rachidia. Cela implique par exemple que les planificateurs nationaux des secteurs de l'agriculture et des transports / infrastructures dans la partie centrale du pays doivent prendre en compte les vulnérabilités liées à la température lorsqu'ils élaborent des stratégies et des plans sectoriels.
Keywords: Climat du Maroc, Carte du gel Maroc, Carte de température, Gradient thermique, Vulnérabilité à la température