European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 154 No 2
October, 2019

Effet Insecticide des Extraits Aqueux de deux Plantes surHellula undalis Fabricius,1781 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Ravageur de la Culture de chou Brassica oleracea L. (Daloa, Côte d’Ivoire)
Tano Djè Kévin Christian, N’Depo Ossey Robert, N’Guessan Ange Parfait, Obodji Adagba, Yéboué N’Guessan Lucie and Aboua Louis Roi Nondenot
La nécessité de lutter contre les ravageurs du chou en Côte d’Ivoire, a conduit à évaluer la bio-efficacité d’extraits aqueux de deux plantes locales (Hyptis suaveolens et Ricinus communis) sur Hellula undalis. H. undalis est l’un des potentiels ravageurs du chou. Les essais ont été réalisés en champ sur une parcelle expérimentale à l’Université Jean Lorougnon Guédé de Daloa. Le dispositif expérimental utilisé était un dispositif randomisé constitué au total de douze parcelles élémentaires correspondant à trois traitements et une parcelle témoin non traitée. Les parcelles ont été traitées à la concentration de 70g/l avec les deux extraits aqueux de plantes et 0,093g/l pour le K-optimal 35 EC (insecticide chimique de référence). Le pourcentage global d’efficacité sur les larves a été de 73,24% (capsule de R. communis), 80,31% (feuille de H. suaveolens) et 96,66% (K-optimal). Les masses de chou en pommes commercialisables les plus élevés ont été obtenues sur les parcelles traitées avec l’extrait aqueux de H. suaveolens (1297,60 ± 182,54 grammes) et le K-optimal (1267 ± 445,74 grammes). L’extrait aqueux H. suaveolens pourrait être utilisé pour contrôler les larves de H. undalis.
Motsclés: Chou, Hellula undalis, bio-efficacité, Extraits aqueux de plantes, Côte d’Ivoire

Utilization of Antenatal Care Services, Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness among Pregnant Women in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun State
Okueso, Grace O, Ayodele, Kolawole O., Farotimi Adekumbi,Nwaomah, Esther and Okwuikpo, Margret
Antenatal care promotes the detection and care of illnesses that are likely to endanger the life of a pregnant woman and her unborn baby and also enhances birth preparation and complication readiness. The objective of this study was to assess the utilization of antenatal care services, Birth preparedness and complication readiness among pregnant women in Ogun state, Nigeria. This was a descriptive study conducted in four primary health care centers in Ikenne local government area of Ogun state, Nigeria to assess the utilization of ANC, birth preparedness & complication readiness among pregnant women. A total enumeration sampling technique was utilized for this study and 75 respondents participated in the study. A pretested adapted questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection. Data collected were analyzed through descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment correlation coefficient was used to provide answers to the research questions at 0.05 level of significance.
Results showed that majority of the respondents (77.3%) were at their reproductive age, 53.3% did not attend ANC regularly while 50.7% poor utilization of ANC services was observed. Also, knowledge of birth preparedness and complication readiness was discovered to be poor as most of the respondents could not identify the danger signs in pregnancy/labour and puerperium. The results further revealed a positive and strong significant relationship between the educational status of the pregnant women and their level of birth preparedness and complication readiness (r=687; P <.05)
It is concluded that while efforts are made to reduce maternal & morbidity and mortality in Nigeria, there is need to increase the sensitization of the relevance of utilization of ANC service, birth preparedness and complication readiness.
Keyword: Antenatal care, Utilization, birth preparedness, complication readiness, Pregnant Women.

Apport de l’Analyse Hydrologique et de la Modélisation de la Relation Pluie-Débit dans le Suivi Quantitatif des Ressources en Eau dans un Contexte de Variabilité Climatique: Cas du Sous-Bassin Versant du Kouto (Nord de la Côte d’Ivoire)
Adja Miessan Germain, Djémin Edoukou Jacques, N’Dri Okon Franck-Armstrong, Tohouri Privat, Kouamé Kan Jean and Jourda Jean Patrice
Water resources of Kouto sub-watershed are influenced by climate variability and therefore by the decrease in rainfall which leads to the decrease of these, especially in the dry season. This study aims to deepen knowledge of water resources of this sub-watershed for their sustainable management. Thus, the methods of hydrological analysis of drying up of Bagoé River, aquifers recharge, and modeling of the rainfall-runoff relationship with GR2M model were used. The results showed that the drying up coefficient of Bagoé River increases (from 0.022j-1 to 0.036j-1) and mobilized water volume by aquifers decreases (from 1.13km3 to 0.66km3) respectively before and after the hydrological break in 1970. GR2M model, which was used for the hydrological simulation of Kouto sub-watershed, performed only during the wet periods of 1961-1965 and 1966-1975 with Nash criteria values of 68.10% and 78.60% respectively in calibration and 69% and 52.10% in cross-validation. Aquifers recharge analysis highlighted two episodes of deficit recharge (-108.02mm and -84.97mm) which frame an episode of excess recharge (398.38mm). A deficit of 87.7% was recorded during the last episode of deficit recharge, thus showing groundwater decrease. Adaptation strategies to climate variability must be implemented to sustain the water resources of Kouto sub-watershed.
Keyword: Climate Variability; Water Resources; Drying up; GR2M; Recharge; Kouto Sub-watershed

Contraries in William Blake's Poetry
Ishraq Bassam Al-Omoush
William Blake was an influential poet whose poetry contributed a lot to the Romantic era. In his poems, he addresses the ills of urbanization and nineteenth century industry through a symbolic and biblical language. This paper sheds light on the way Blake employs the term ‘contraries’ in his songs of Innocence and Experience. For Blake, innocence and experience are two states that complement each other since he believes that there is no progression without contraries; they lead to each other, and one cannot understand ‘innocence’ without understanding ‘experience’. In fact, innocence is associated with the ‘good’ part of the human soul, while experience reflects the ‘evil’ one of the human soul. The two opposites are to be reconciled at the end, for they do not negate one another. Blake’s idea is deeply rooted in his apocalyptic vision and the ‘fallen’ and ‘unfallen’ worlds mentioned in the Bible.
Keyword: Romantic Poetry, Contraries, Innocence, Experience, Apocalyptic visions, Biblical Symbols

Knowledge of Cancer Patients on Self-Management of Selected Post Chemotherapy Symptoms: The Role of Demographic Predictors
Sikaiye, Oluwaseun Temitope and Sowunmi, Olanrewaju
Cancer patients experiences various unpleasant symptoms including fatigue, nausea and vomiting which could be induced by the disease or its treatment which lead to poor adaptation as a result of inadequate knowledge of self-management. This prompted the researcher to investigate the influence of gender and education on knowledge of cancer patients on self-management of selected post chemotherapy symptoms in two tertiary institutions in Lagos State, Nigeria.
A descriptive survey research design was used and a sample size of 218 respondents (LASUTH-121 and LUTH-97) that have commenced chemotherapy course at the oncology clinics was recruited using total enumeration method and purposive sampling technique. A self-designed questionnaire was used for data collection, which was pilot tested through split half approach and yielded a reliability coefficient index of 0.75.Three research questions and three hypotheses were formulated. Analysis of data was done using t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at 0.05 level of significance.
Findings of the study revealed that there were significant differences between male and female level of knowledge of self-management of chemotherapy symptoms (t = 2.251, df = 216, p = .027), also there is significant difference among different educational level (f = 3.309, p = .012) with respondent that attained university/polytechnic education exhibiting higher knowledge. Significant difference were also observed between respondent self-management knowledge of fatigue (p = 0.00), nausea (p = 0.01), and vomiting (p = 0.00) in the two hospital.
In conclusion, gender and educational level had significant influence on the respondent’s self-management ability, and there were differences in the knowledge of self-management among the respondents in the two hospitals under study. It was therefore, recommended that patients should be educated on strategies to manage post chemotherapy symptoms such as fatigue, nausea and vomiting.

Keywords: Fatigue, Nausea, Post-chemotherapy symptoms, Self-management, Vomiting.

Impact of Banking Sector Reforms on Economic Growth in Nigeria
Innocent Obeten Okoi, Stephen I. Ocheni and Akaninyene Billy Orok
The study empirically examined the impact of banking sector reforms on economic growth in Nigeria using the annual time series data for forty six years (1970-2015). The major objective of the study was to examine how banking sector reforms impact on economic growth in Nigeria. The design of the study was ex-post facto and desk research design. Data for the study were sourced from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) statistical bulletin and International Monetary Fund (IMF) journals. The study was based on Financial Repression Hypothesis (FRH) by Mckinnon and Shaw (1973. The data were analyzed using Johnansen cointegration test and Granger-causality test for the period 1970 – 2015. Autoregressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) test was adopted in the study. From the ARDL test results, it was found that interest rate spread (INRS) was correctly signed in the model and adequately predictive of economic growth indicator studied while other exogenous variables {exchange rate (EXR), bank capital base (BCAB) and corporate governance disclosure index (CGDI)} studied did not impact positively on gross domestic product growth in Nigeria. The ARDL bound test revealed the existence of a long-run relationship among these variables. The speed of adjustment parameter as indicated by the coefficient of the Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) was significant with appropriate negative sign. The study concluded by recommending that, the policy of deposit and lending rate should be made reasonable as smaller spread between savings and deposits rates influences efficient financial intermediation. Finally, since corporate governance disclosure is seen as an indicator of the company’s openness index, companies should always make full disclosure, thereby not withholding any relevant information to external stakeholders

Addition of Silver Nanoparticles on Media with Observe the Effective Growth of some Dermatophytic
Noor Jasim Mohammed
Silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) were synthesized and their antifungal effects on fungal pathogens of the skin were investigated. Nano-Ag showed potent activity against clinical isolates Trichophyton mentagrophytes and microsporum species (1,2,4 µg/ml). The activity of nano-Ag. Additionally, we investigated their effects on the growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and microsporum species. The results showed nano-Ag exerted activity on the mycelia. Thus, the present study indicates nano-Ag may have considerable antifungal activity, deserving further investigation for clinical applications.
Keywords: Silver nanoparticles, antifungal effect, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, microsporum species

Nurses’ Care Attributes and Ward Environment as Predictors of Patient Satisfaction in Selected Government Hospitals in Lagos State
Nneka J. Odum-igwe and Adekunbi. A. Farotimi
Background: Patient satisfaction with nursing care has become increasingly important to health care providers in recent years as nurses gives the most direct care to the patient in the ward. When hospitalized patients’ expectations are not met, dissatisfaction may occur. This study is to determine patients’ satisfaction with the nurses’ care attributes and ward environment as predictors.
Methodology: This is a descriptive survey which used multistage sampling technique to select the hospitals and a questionnaire to collect data from 196 participants for the study.
Result: The age range of participants was 18-73 years and a mean age of 41.3. The nurses’ care attributes was rated high at 75.7% and ward environment was rated moderate at 57.1%. Patients’ satisfaction with nurses’ care attributes was 68.4% while the satisfaction with ward environment was highly rated at 91.3%. A significant relationship was found between nurses’ care attributes and patient satisfaction (r = .803; p = .00), equally a positive and significant relationship was found for Ward environment and patient satisfaction (r = .410; p = .00).
Conclusion: Nurses’ care attributes and ward environment are predictors of patients’ satisfaction. Therefore, for high patient satisfaction, standard of practice should be maintained in all hospitals and nurses should communicate often with their patients from the day they are admitted to the ward till they are discharged. Nurses should be dynamic in caring as different patients have different needs, values and expectations binding on the practice of patient-centered care.
Keywords: communication, nurse care attributes, patient-centered care, patient satisfaction, ward environment

Intensification of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Forage Production Using Biochar, Animal Manure and Specialty Chemicals – Case of Kuwait
Hana’a Burezq
Given the mounting pressure on forage production due to climate change, dwindling water resources and diminishing arable lands there is urgent need to develop strategies to intensify forage production locally and internationally. This is required to meet the demand of the unprecedented increased population for animal-based products. Kuwait is hot arid country and facing severe water scarcity to meet demand of various sectors. Kuwait produces daily 2,432 million M3 of water through desalination plants which is very expensive and costing 1.82 KD/M3. Agriculture in Kuwait is practiced on small, medium and large farms of various sizes. The soils of Kuwait are dominantly sandy and infertile and forage production is water intensive system. Therefore, it is in need to find ways to intensify forage production using approved and tested best soil management practices. To intensify forage production in Kuwait a trial was conducted on loamy sand soil in Shegaya to grow alfalfa [Medicago sativa (L.) Pers.]) by improving soil health through using biochar, animal manure and specialty chemicals. The results have shown 55% more fresh biomass production with the combined use of biochar + animal manure + sulfonated naphthalene formaldehyde (SNF) + Urea formaldehyde (UF) and poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) compared to the control treatment. With the same treatment 52% increase in plant growth is recorded. The trial has shown great promise to intensify alfalfa forage production under harsh climatic conditions of Kuwait. It is recommended to include soil health improvement plan in future agriculture activities in Kuwait to be cost effective and ecofriendly.
Keywords:Alfalfa; forage production, specialty chemicals, biochar, animal manure, Kuwait

Determinants of the Economic Profitability of Soy Production in North-East Benin
Ifèoluwa Martial AFOUDA, Clarisse TAMA, Ibidon Firmin AKPO and Jacob Afouda YABI
Soybean production is the most important legume grown in Benin. This crop offers many opportunities in terms of food-processing and it is thus a product with high added value. The aim of this research was to analyze the determinants of the economic profitability of this crop in order to improve the economic performance of soybean farms in northeastern Benin. The study involved 300 soybean producers randomly sampled in the communes of N'dali, Pèrèrè and Nikki. The estimation of the determinants of the economic viability of soybean production was done by estimating a multiple regression with the ordinary least squares method. This study shows that soybean production activity is economically profitable and this profitability is determined by several factors, such as sex, household size, Farmer Business School (FBS) training, municipality of Nikki, amount of capital and the total cost of production. Policies need to be put in place considering these factors in order to improve income and living standard of the soybean producers.
Keywords: Economic profitability, determinants, soybean, northeast Benin