European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 153 No 4
August, 2019

The Impact of Board Characteristics on the Level of Sustainability Practices Disclosure in Jordanian Commercial Banks Listed on the ASE
Mohammad Z. M. Alotaibi, Naseem M. Aburuman and Lina F. M. Hussien
The current study aims at identifying the impact of the Board's characteristics represented by the size, independence, and rewards and the Board's activity on the level of disclosing the sustainability practices of the 13 commercial banks in Jordan during the period from 2008 to 2018. The level of disclosure of practices sustainability has been determined by analyzing the content of the banks' financial statements using the disclosure index created based on a set of previous studies in this area. Multiple Linear Regression has been used to illustrate the impact of the independent variables and the controlling variables on the dependent variable.
The study has found that there is a low level of disclosure of sustainability practices, along with a variation between Jordanian commercial banks in terms of the level of disclosure of sustainability practices. In connection with the impact of the Board's characteristics on the level of disclosure of sustainability practices, it has been found that there is an impact for Board characteristics in the level of disclosure of sustainability practices. This impact has been clear for each Board size, the independence and rewards charged by the members of the Board and the activity of the Board represented by the number of meetings on the level of disclosure of sustainability practices at the Jordanian commercial banks. Based on the above results, the study recommends that Jordanian commercial banks should strongly be focused on increasing the level of disclosure of sustainability practices in their financial reports, plus directing regulators to expand compulsory disclosure of such practices and compel companies to publish additional information in their annual reports.
Keywords: Board characteristics, Disclosure of Sustainability Practices, Jordanian Banks, Amman Stock Exchange.

Olive Mill Wastewaters Treatment and Valorisation in Irrigation of Sunflower and White Bean Crops
E. Elharchli, Z. Tabbakh and F. Khalil
The treatment of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) by coagulation-flocculation and the valorisation in irrigation of sunflower and white bean crops was investigated. The utilisation of three coagulants (ferric chloride, aluminium sulphate and lime) has shown that ferric chloride eliminates 99,77% of turbidity, 93,1% of COD and 98% of polyphenols. The germination kinetics of sunflower and white bean seeds by imbibition in raw OMW reveal a total inhibition of germinated phase. The plants of Sunflower and White Bean irrigated for one month with the treated OMW show significant vegetative growth, especially for testing with the OMW treated with lime. At the same time, the pedologycal monitoring of the tested soils reveals an increase in the levels of organic matter and carbonates, particularly for the irrigation test in OMW treated with lime. Similarly, microbiological soil characterization shows a clear increase for microbial biomass in irrigated soils with treated OMW relative to the control soils.
Keywords: Olive mill wastewaters, coagulation-flocculation, Sunflower, White bean, microbiological characterization, pedology, soil.

Study of the Association between Blood Groups, the Rhesus Factor and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in a Casablanca’s Population
Fatima zahra Kehailou, Mohammed Jabari, Ali Labriji, Ahmmed Dibane, Souad EL Amrani and Houriya Mestaghanmi
Studies have shown that there is an association between the ABO blood group and some diseases. The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between blood groups ABO, Rhesus and type 2 diabetes. To do this, we conducted a case-control study involving 266 diabetic patients and 257 controls. The results showed that the controls exhibited a lower prevalence of blood groups A, B, and AB compared to diabetics, and a predominance of blood type O. A significant difference was observed between diabetics and controls for the distribution of blood group O and no-O groups (V Cramer = 0.093; p = 0.035; OR = 1,452; IC = 1,027-2,051), with a protective effect for the blood group O (OR = 0.861; IC = 0,676-0,986) and a pejorative effect for no-O blood groups (OR = 1.185; IC = 1,185-1,388). In addition, no association was observed between diabetes and the Rhesus factor (p = 0,098). this study suggests a positive association between diabetes and no-O groups and a negative association with Group O. Regarding the micro and macro vascular complications attributable to diabetes, we have not noticed in our study, any association.
Keyword: ABO blood groups, Rhesus, type 2 diabetes, diabetic complications

The Effect of H1 Blocker on Tissue Wound Closure using N-Buyyl Cyanoacrylate in Rabbit' Maximization Test
Muhi .N. Salmam
BACKGROUND; Tissue adhesives offer significant potential advantages over traditional methods of wound closure. new n-butyl2-cyanoacrylate adhesive formulation was utilised for the closure of abdominal wounds after general and laparoscopic gastrointestinal surgery . OBJECTIVES; The guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) is applied using rabbits, exposing intradermally of n-butyl 2-cynoacrylate and in comparison with pretreated situ subcutaneous injection of diphenylhydramine 10mg as H1blocker to reduce the incidence of sensitization of intracutaneous reactivity of the closure of rabbits surgical abdominal wounds. METHOD; we investigated the feasibility of using a new sterile, transparent n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate adhesive formulation (CUTSEAL) for abdominal wound skin closure. RESULTS; the sensitization potential endpoint via application of maximization test using rabbits showed no sensitization reactivity with less healing time plus better cosmetic outcome of cases in prior dermal injection of H1blocker(diphenylhydramine). CONCLUSION;the subcutaneous injection of diphenylhydramine (H1) prior to the n-butyl2-cyanoacrylate application showed significant delay in normal parameters of sensitization reaction during healing process with less healing time.
Keyword: n-butyl 2-cyonacrylate plastic ampoule ,0,25ml.0.5ml ,1ml (cutseal) presented by (rusan pharma ltd .india).
Diphenylhydramine 10mg ampoule (avil ampoule )

Investigation of RF Exposure Levels from Different Mobile Telecommunication Base Stations in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
I. B. Oluwafemi, D. Faluru, A. F. Ibikunle and J. O. Adeoye
This study investigates the radiofrequency radiation levels at selected cellular base stations and evaluated the results against the internationally recommended and accepted levels as well as against the required limit for non-occupational exposure with respect to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) standard for Radio Frequency (RF). The highest Radio Frequency (RF) levels at each base stations were computed as a percentage of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) recommendations in a given and selected environment in Ekiti State. Radio frequency radiation (RF) levels were measured at 15 selected cellular base stations of which 14 were Greenfields and only 1 was Hilltop base station in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. The mobile cellular network operators considered for this investigation are MTN, GLO, AIRTEL, ETISALAT and any other combined network operators on a mast. Detailed measurements of power density of RF radiation were recorded over 2G, 3G and 4G cellular frequency bands at which the cellular network operators transmit in Ekiti State. Measurements were taken at intervals of 5 meters away from base stations up to 260 meters of the prominent populated areas taking into cognizance the direction of antenna used to generate the maximum radiation. At a distance of 5 meters, the highest case of maximum RF exposure at 900 MHz frequency band was 0.0117 W/m^2 which is 0.26% of the ICNIRP maximum public exposure (MPE) limits of the frequency band. At 1800 MHz frequency band, the highest RF exposure recorded was 0.0046 W/m^2, which is 0.05% of the ICNIRP (MPE) limits of the frequency band. The highest RF exposure at 2100 MHz frequency band recorded was 0.0030 W/m^2, which is only 0.03% of ICNIRP (MPE) limit of the frequency band given the highest radiation levels by considering the base stations situated at Ekiti State University (EKSU), Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. This study reveals that the radiation exposure levels in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria emitted by the four mobile cellular network operators are of orders of magnitude below the maximum permitted limits by the local and international regulatory commission and council.
Keywords: Electric field; electromagnetic radiation; frequency spectrum; power density; radio frequency

Availability and Demand of Water Resources in Brazil and Italy
Antônio Pasqualetto, Diego Carlo Lo Presti and Aldo Muro Junior
The increase in demand for water resources has pushed up supply, so that the preservation of water sources becomes fundamental for environmental balance. In this sense, the objective was to analyze the availability and uses of water resources in Brazil and Italy, observing aspects that may contribute to the preservation of water sources, ensuring a balance between supply and demand guaranteed to preserve animal and plant life. Consultations were held within the environmental agencies of the countries on the subject in 2019. The results showed that there is a predominance of use in the agricultural sector; in addition, the water supply has changed due to changes in the hydrological cycle affecting availability and requiring the most efficient use by the human being.
Keywords: Demand; Availability; Water resources

Stock Market Liquidity and Manufacturing Sector Performance in Nigeria: An Application of Error Correction Model
Eze Onyekachi Richard, Ini Solomon Udom, Ugwu Okereke John and Onwe, Basil Uche
This study investigate the relationship between stock market liquidity and the performance of Nigeria manufacturing sector. The study adopted the ex-post facto research design and regression analysis as methodology. Annual time series data for a 32-year period, 1985-2017, were collected from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin, Stock Exchange Fact Book and World Bank Handbook of Statistics for the period. It was observed that Stock market liquidity has a positive and significant relationship with the performance of Nigerian manufacturing sector (coefficient of TSML = 0.676872; t-value = 2.602554; p-value = 0.0000 < 0.05). The implication of this result is that stock market liquidity variable (TSML) in Nigeria has been able to increase manufacturing sector performance in Nigeria. Also it implies that the growth of Nigeria economy through manufacturing sector performance can be attributed to the level of stock market liquidity available in the country. This also shows that government policies towards enhancing stock market liquidity have impacted on the performance of manufacturing sector. Therefore, increase in stock market liquidity with 67.67% resulted to recent economic growth of Nigeria through manufacturing sector performance. We, therefore, recommend that to boost and sustain the level of stock market liquidity variable (TSML) in the Nigerian so as to have more impact on the performance of manufacturing sector in Nigeria, there is need for availability of more investment instruments such as derivatives, convertibles, futures, swaps, and options in the market. This will thus increase the demand for the services of the stock market thus, encouraging more liquidity of the market.
Keywords: Liquidity, TSML, Industrial Development, Performance, Stock Market

African Parents’ Perceptions, Stress and Coping Strategy
Joshua, Idowu Ayinla, Chang, Ho-ji and Ayodele, Kolawole Olanrewaju
The presence of an autistic child in a family has adverse effects on marital adjustments, sibling relationships, and daily family routines. Parents having autistic children experience periods of disbelief, deep sadness and depression, and self-blame and guilt whereas others experience helplessness, feelings of inadequacy, anger, shock, and guilt. Members of families with autistic children are often perceived as experiencing negative psychological effects that may include higher risk for depression, social isolation, and marital discord. Therefore, this study attempted to help in understanding the coping mechanisms of African parents whose child(ren) are living with autism, their relationship with the said child(ren), the traumatize experience they are passing and have passed through, etc using Nigerian families living in Africa as case study.
This study used a descriptive survey design of ex-post-facto type. A purposive–convenience sampling procedure was used to recruit the one hundred and fifty-one parents (151) from the government approved Autistic Centers in Lagos, Nigeria. Data were collected using four adopted instruments. Five research questions were raised to guide this study, while data were analyzed using of means, standard deviation, and Multiple Regression Analysis significant at 0.05 alpha level.
Results indicated that majority (76.6%) of the respondents (African parents) had poor or inadequate perception of autism and autistic children; 64.5% of the respondents (African parents) had fair or mild degree of stress in raising autistic children; and the coping strategies of raising the autistic children was found to be fair. The study concluded that parenting stress is associated with parent gender, child gender, and birth order, while mothers of children with autistic disorder were more prone than other family members to high levels of parenting stress. Parenting stress effects were consistently observed among different groups of parents, and parental coping on the other hand, could be sensitive to cultural influences or caregiving demands from the environment. It was recommended, amongst others, that Parents should not have guilt feeling and tension towards ASD children. They should consider them as normal, helping them in their cognitive, affective, and psychomotor development. This will help them to understand the particular limitations and accept the children as they are and treat them like normal children.
Keywords: African parents, Autism, parenting stress, coping mechanism

Sustainability Reporting Practices in Aviation - an Air Travel and Tourism Perspective
Jay Stephen Siy
Tourism serves as the lifeblood of the Hungarian economy by generating business activity and employment in both the formal and informal sectors of the society. The air travel sector that experienced rapid growth in recent years with the entry of low cost carriers despite the closure of Malev Hungarian Airlines in 2012. With their innovative business models, low cost carriers are crucial to the continued growth of air passenger numbers and the tourism industry as a whole. At the same time, these firms are expected to be role models in adopting environmentally sound business practices and in leading initiatives on sustainable tourism. Following a comparative research design, the paper uses the case approach to study how EasyJet and Ryanair balance profit goals and their societal roles. The results show that the companies made innovative changes in their operational processes to minimize carbon footprint while maintaining business growth. However, both firms lacked industry initiatives that outline how going green in the tourism value chain can have a profound and sustained impact on the environment. There is also a need for more inclusive strategies that detail how stakeholder participation and empowerment are helping firms achieve their societal roles in a more meaningful way.
Keywords: Sustainability, innovation, air travel

Academic Stress and Workload in Relation with Marital Satisfaction: A Study of Married Employed Students in Ogun State, Nigeria
Uwannah, Ngozi Caroline, Aderanti, Ruth Adenola, Starris-Onyema, Promise Nkwachi and Mark, Onyinyech Gif
This study investigated the influence of academic stress and workload on marital satisfaction among married employed students in Ogun State, Nigeria. A total of 190 married employed students on part time studies in educational institutions in Ogun State, Nigeria served as participants in the study. The ages of the participants ranged from 18 to 64 years with 85 males and 105 females. Three instruments were used in the study. They included a 6-item Workload Scale, a 40-item Academic Stress Scale, and Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale (EMSS) which contained 15 items. Four hypotheses were posited and tested in this study at the .05 level of significance using multiple regression analysis. Results showed that academic stress and workload significantly combined to influence marital satisfaction (F(2,187) = 198.820, p < .05) accounting for 67.7% of the variance in marital satisfaction (R2(Adj) = .677). Findings of this research also show that academic stress and workload have significant individual influences on marital satisfaction with academic stress (β = -.444, t = 5.149, p < .05) having the stronger and more significant negative influence on marital satisfaction than workload (β = -.407, t = 4.724, p < .05). Further analysis reveal that there is no significant moderating role of gender on the influence of academic stress on marital satisfaction (t = .2606, p > .05) while gender significantly moderated the influence of workload on marital satisfaction (t = 2.2158, p < .05). Based on these findings, it was recommended that spouses should be supportive of their partners educational and work activities by assisting with assignments and house chores to reduce the effect of academic stress and workload, teachers should be empathetic and considerate while management should relax policies in order to meet the needs of their employees who are working and schooling.
Keywords: Academic Stress, Workload, Marital Satisfaction, Married Employed Students