European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 153 No 3
July, 2019

What is the next borderless of innovation? Influence of Product Innovation Radicality on the Business Outcomes under moderate effect of Agility and Flexibility in Manufacturing Systems: Towards Multinational Corporations in Brazil
Julia Luiza da Cunha Callegari and Selma Regina Martins Oliveira
This study aims to evaluate the influence of product innovation radicality on the business outcomes under moderate effect of agility and flexibility in manufacturing systems, in multinational corporations in Brazil. A conceptual model was developed based on theoretical models and confirmed through consultation with specialists (product development managers, innovation and technology managers, R&D managers, among others). Then the conceptual model was tested in companies (production plants) in Brazil through their experts. The data were extracted through an array of trial of scalar type. To reduce the subjectivity of the results achieved were used the following methods: Matrix Scale Analysis and Neurofuzzy Analysis. The results were satisfactory, validating the proposal. In fact, few studies have investigated the relationship between radicality of innovation in products and the agile and flexible manufacturing systems. This study is intended to stimulate the development of research in this area of study due to the scarcity of studies more consistent and serve as a reference for the study of innovation in business.
Keywords: Influence of product innovation radicality; Business outcomes; Agility and flexibility in manufacturing systems; Multinational corporations in Brazil.

When Network Capabilities Influence Business Survival? A Review
Artur Aguiar de Albuquerque, Élico Vanderlei Gonçalves Júnior, Marcus Rogério Aguiar de Albuquerque, Maxwel Cavalcante Lacerda and Fábio Rogério de Morais
The objective of this article was to identify and analyze in the management theory the network capabilities that have relevance or are contributory to the business survival. It is known that alliances between companies can be strategic elements for organizations and/or management, used as a means to generate mutual gains and increase competitiveness. However, although alliances produce benefits, having the ability to manage such alliances and/or organizational networks may be more complex for management, as organizational forms are expanded in these organizational configurations. Thus, in order to fulfill the objective of this research, a systematic review of the literature was used to identify the concepts, to delimit the concept of competitiveness and business survival, and to analyze the influences of the network capabilities to the management of companies and in other aspects of the alliances that contribute to organizational survival. The research results show that network capabilities can contribute to organizational competitiveness when increasing efficiency in network management, improving the production, transfer and appropriation of knowledge in learning processes, and also allowing the centrality of the organization in the network, with broad spectrum of vision and network exchanges. In addition, the survival of participating network organizations can be positively influenced by network capabilities due to reduced opportunism and transaction costs in alliances between business partners, as well as minimizing losses in the use of available and/or shared external resources on the network.
Keywords: Network Capabilities; Strategic Alliances; Competitiveness and Business Survival

A Pragmatic Study of Hedges in President Muhammadu Buhari’s 2015 Inaugural Address
Idowu Olubunmi and Owuye Mercy
Political leaders are saddled with the responsibility of presenting full-strength, accurate and unadulterated information on national issues about the state of affairs of the country on national security, health care, economy and internal relations and one of the ways of transmitting this is through political speeches. However, studies have shown that hedges are used to avoid categorical commitment. This study, therefore, examined the pragmatic use of hedges and the contextual reasons for hedging in the inaugural address of President Muhammadu Buhari (PMB). The study adopted the Salager-Meyer (2007) classification on hedges and excerpts were purposively extracted for in-depth and textual analysis. Findings revealed that the preponderant hedging device was modal auxiliary verbs: will, should, would, can, might and may. The hedging devices employed were 50% representing 10 has modal auxiliary verbs, 25% representing 5 has approximators, 10% are epistemic verbs, 5% are hypothetical construction and 10% are adverbials. The contextual reasons for hedging were to: express uncertainty and imprecision; mitigate direct criticism and provocation; save the public self-image of PMB. The study concluded that there is a significant relationship between hedging and modality. The study, recommends the use of hedges for positive self-imaging and national development.

Language and Knowledge Construction: A Pragmatic study of select Yoruba Proverbs in Nigeria
Idowu Olubunmi
Every instance of language use aims at creating meaning and invariably new knowledge of the context of use and the social realities within which we operate as language users. This linguistic endeavour is germane to pragmatics, which is the study of language in use within specific social contexts. In view of the fact that Proverbs are unique linguistic properties that are usually based on the traditions of its users, this paper investigates select Yoruba proverbs pragmatically. Although several works have been done on Yoruba proverbs that project and share their universal essence through the compilation and categorization of these proverbs (See Akporobaro, F.B.O. and Emovon, J.A.1994, Bamgbose1968, Yusuf 1995), this paper aims at bridging the gap of contextual analysis for the dissemination of the unique cultural heritage and the understanding of key concepts and issues of a typical Yoruba speech community through the intellectual and pragmatic imports of the select Yoruba proverbs. It is expected that this study will enhance knowledge construction; and thus, reflect and communicate the various processes and techniques that the language users utilize to construct, interact and interpret the world around them in a typical Yoruba speech community. Data is selected randomly but purposively from text compilations and a Yoruba Television program on African Magic Yoruba. The pragmatic analysis is based on The Systemic Functional Linguistic theory which emphasizes the matching of linguistic form to function , in order to highlight the importance of context to the interpretation and construction of knowledge for the younger Yoruba generations who are gradually becoming alingual and acutural. Apart from explicating the connectedness between the linguistic forms of the Yoruba proverbs and their functions /multifunctionality, this pragmatic investigation will enhance the communicative competence of the Proverbs for the construction of meaning and knowledge. Finally, this study can be replicated in any other society based on the mutual relationship that exists between the language and culture of a people.

Extractive Industries Reporting: Harmonizing Practices in Developed and Emerging Markets
Jay Stephen Siy
This study reviews the public reporting of extractive industries in both developed and emerging economies. The objective is to assess the extent of convergence within two sets of disclosure regimes: mineral and financial reporting. The standardization in reporting is borne out of the need for materially complete, accurate and timely disclosure of information. Information derived from harmonized reporting standards facilitates decision-making in an increasingly integrated minerals industry market. To provide empirical support, the practices of Philippine extractive firms are compared with their global market peers in terms of their similarities and differences in mineral and financial disclosures. The results show that (1) divergence in mineral reporting guidelines, and (2) policy differences between IFRS and national accounting standards continue to impede progress towards full convergence. These issues stand in the way of efficient public reporting and hampers the comparability of extractive industries firms. The ensuing diversity prevents meaningful assessment by users undermining investment attractiveness and the ability to communicate achievements and potentials.
Keywords: public reporting, mineral disclosures, financial reporting
JEL Classification Codes: L72, M41, M42

Sorting and Miniaturization of Household Waste
Guitta Sabiini and Jihad Rishmany
Waste sorting and miniaturization is an important step in waste management and recycling, since it allows the recovery of a decent percentage of the resources contained in the disposed waste. The aim of this study is to implement this procedure at small-scale levels such as households or municipalities. In this context, a waste sorting and miniaturizing unit is proposed consisting of two miniaturizing techniques: a ball grinder for turning glass into cullet and a shaft compactor for miniaturizing metals, plastics and paper. The design is established following a series of drop tests and compression tests on various types of waste. It could be easily scaled to bigger sizes such as municipal level. The implementation of this concept at small-scale levels will help in spreading environmental awareness, involving individuals in waste management, and inciting municipalities to host waste treatment facilities. All this will help build a more “Green” society.
Keywords: Household waste; solid waste management; municipal solid waste; waste sorting; waste miniaturizing; recycling; waste-to-energy

Institutional Performance in Public Service: Evaluation of the Goals of Two Federal Autarchies
Leonardo Ferreira Bezerra, Augusto Meira Homrich, Ovidio Orlando Filho, Deborah Moraes Zouain, Marcus Gomes Brauer, André Luís Faria Duarte, Luiz Alexandre Valadão de Souza, Flora Thamiris Rodrigues Bittencourt, Davi dos Santos Marques, Guilherme Teixeira Portugal and Sidmar Roberto Vieira Almeida
The objective of this evaluation study was to evaluate the quality of the institutional goals for purposes of a performance bonus of two federal autarchies, the National Nuclear Energy Commission and the National Supplementary Health Agency. The proposed quality evaluation was guided by two aspects: alignment of the goals to the institutional competencies of the organizations studied and their adherence to the legal guidelines. These two aspects were broken down into 11 quality criteria extracted from the legislation. The institutional goals of the two organizations were analyzed by means of a roadmap containing the quality criteria. In both cases evaluated, nine of the 11 criteria outlined in the legislation were met, indicating a high standard of quality of institutional goals. In final considerations, recommendations are presented to the managers of the people management and planning units of the two organizations, as well as to the Ministry of Planning, Development, and Management, as the central body of the Civilian Personnel System of the Executive Branch.
Keywords: Evaluation; Management; Public Administration

Environmental & Human Exposure to Chloral Hydrate Toxicity as By Product of Chlorine –Disinfections In Public Drinking Water – Stations Supply In Baghdad
Muhi N.Salmam
1)The aim of this study is to estimate the concentrations of liberated chloral hydrate by analytical laboratory methods to get precise results at several pH values (6,7.2,7.6,8.4) samples of chlorinated drinking water withdrawn from public drinking water –stations supply distributed in Baghdad in related with mild gastrointestinal toxidrome treated symptomatically in primary health care centers .Chloral hydrate is a disinfection by-product formed(DBP) as a result of water treatment using chlorine or chloramine which may result in its release to the environment through various waste streams. The related aldehyde chloral is readily photolyzed in sunlight based on its atmospheric half-life of 4.5-6 hours; therefore, atmospheric photolysis of chloral hydrate may be a major degradation pathway. (2)The result , chloral hydrate concentrations is formed from the exothermic reaction of chloral with water ranging from minimum 17ug/L to maximum 26 ug/L at ph values (6 to8.4) . (3). Conclusion , is the general population will be exposed to chloral hydrate mild toxidrome via ingestion of chlorinated drinking water, and dermal contact with this compound IN CHLORANATED SWIMMING P00LS depending on that the resulted range of chloral hydrate concentrations in this study in more higher than the established (WHO) a provisional guidelines.
Keywords: chloral hydrate ,chlorine , ,chloramines. disinfection by-products , toxidrome

Patriarchy and Spinsterhood in Morocco: Dher El Mehrez Faculty, FLDM, as a Case Study
Sofian Herouach
The present study is an attempt to investigate students’ attitudes about the issue of spinsterhood as a social phenomenon in Morocco; and the variables that may influence in a way spinsterhood such as religion, culture, international human rights, marriage legislation and women education. The paper uses a theoretical and practical part. The review of literature is quiet broad and inclusive that it trespasses the national intellectual framework on the issue of spinsterhood to the western one. The field work is conducted through distributing a representative number of questionnaires, 350 questionnaires. Briefly, the findings proved that the majority of respondents, 51% believes that the society considers spinsters as those who had never been proposed to. Moreover, 52% of respondents hold the view that spinsters are old women who had never been married. Both may imply a negative connotation set by society and culture for unmarried women. As to the gender perception factors that may further stereotype spinsters, the findings proved that the majority of the respondents, 55% stress that religion stands as a primary factor behind conservative gender perception, and an important percent of 49% of the respondents believes that the lack of education is the factor behind such perceptions of gender.
Keywords: unmarried women, spinsters, singles, human rights, gender, marriage legislation, women education

Effets des Terrils de Manganèse de la Mine de Moanda (Gabon) sur Quelques Caractères Morphométriques de l’Arachide (Arachis hypogea L)
Ephrem Nzengué, Alexis Nicaise Lepengué, Antoine Mitte Mbeang Beyeme, Stéphane Mombo, Dhert Souviens Tshi-tshi Ontod, Aurélien Mokéa, Jacques François Mavoungou, lfred Ngomanda, Donald Midoko Iponga and Bertrand M’batchi
Le manganèse est un micronutriment indispensable aux processus métaboliques des plantes, dont l’excès de disponibilité dans le sol peut exposer la plante aux phénomènes de toxicité. Le but de cet essai était de quantifier l’effet de terrils de manganèse sur la croissance et le développement d’une Fabaceae: Arachis Hypogea L. Les semences locales ont été pré-germées au laboratoire. Après 4 jours, les plantules ont été transférées en serre sur 5 milieux dont 4 enrichis en manganèse et 1 non enrichi. L’effet manganifère a été évalué par la mesure des paramètres morphologiques de croissance des plantes (nombre des feuilles, hauteur de la plante, nombre et diamètre des tiges). Les effets des 5 traitements ont été comparés sur R à partir d’une Anova et une Classification hiérarchique du degré de ressemblance morphologique des plantes traitées. Les résultats obtenus ont révélé que le manganèse induisait des symptômes visuels de toxicité et une réduction de la croissance longitudinale des tiges à forte concentration (C=75% et 100% Mn). Il entrainait également une réduction de l’abondance des feuilles (C=50%, 75% et 100% Mn) et de la croissance radiale des tiges (C=25%, 50%, 75% et 100% Mn).
Keywords: Arachis Hypogea L., Terrils, Manganèse, paramètres morphométriques, toxicité