European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 152 No 4
April, 2019

The Challenges of Political Restructuring in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic: A Prognostic Analysis

Alafuro Epelle and Kenneth Nweke
In recent time there has been an upsurge in agitations by patriotic citizens and radical elements for a redefinition of the Nigerian state. Though clamour by centrifugal elements for the adjustment of the postcolonial Nigerian state along their desired direction is not a novel phenomenon. Bearing in mind that the country is yet to successfully weather an avalanche of other no less critical socio-political agitations like the demand for a sovereign national conference, resource control, true federalism, affirmative action, and sharia question, this paper has set for itself the task of identifying the problems and prospects associated with tinkering with the extant structure of the Nigerian state. Employing mainly documentary methods of data generation and analysis, and the Rawlsian theory of justice, the paper interrogates the rationale for the current agitation; and based on its findings, recommends that rather than push for the matter off the front burner of national political discourse and/or gag the agitators as our leaders are wont to, the issue of political restructuring needs to be dispassionately addressed as therein lies the prospect of accelerated development of the different nationalities that make up the Nigerian state.
Keywords: Political Restructuring, Sovereign national conference, true federalism, affirmative action, Nigerian state

Factors Influencing Consumers' Intention to Adopt and Use Mobile Banking Applications in Jordanian Islamic Banks

Mohammad Khasawneh and Talal Abd Alkareem Alquraan
The rapidly growth of Mobile technologies and its applications, in addition to pervade of information technology in all aspect of our life have made mobile banking (m-banking) progressively more in banking transactions services. Jordan Banks are aware the importance to adopt and usage of Mobile Banking Applications (MBA) to the customers, banks, and country. Unfortunately, the adoption and usage of these applications were quite low among the customers of Jordanian Islamic banks. This study therefore, is concerned with the enhancement of banking transactions and services through the adoption of MBA among the customers in the Jordanian Islamic banks. The main purpose of this study is to examine the potential prominent factors related to the adoption and usage of MBA in the Jordanian Islamic Banks. The main challenge of the study is to provide such an understanding on the ICT usage by applying the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and knowledge-based trust literature. Out of 250 questionnaires have been distributed, 188 are returned (75.0%). Based on a survey the study uses a structural equation modeling approach to investigate the research model. The results indicate that perceived ease of use, usefulness, competence and integrity significantly influence attitude, which in turn lead to behavioral intention to adopt mobile banking. The implications for research and practice and future research directions are discussed.
Keywords: Mobile Banking, Electronic services, Competence, Attitude, Adoption.

Optimization of Quali-Quantitative Production of Date Palm CV. ‘Mejhoul’ in Moroccan Oases by Biostimulants Application

Hakim Outghouliast, Zerhoune Messaoudi, Amina Ouazzani Touhami and Lhoussain Ait Haddou
In Moroccan oases, the major challenge for modern date palm production is mainly focused on increasing yield and quality of fruits as well as sustainability of the arid climate zones. The aim of this study is to evaluate effect of two organic biostimulants on yield and quality of dates.
The experimental trial was conducted out, in a conventional farm of palm date (Phoenix datylifera L.) cv. ‘Mejhoul’ during 2016 season, under pedoclimatic conditions of Tinejdad, Errachidia region, Morocco. To this end, the application of two biostimulants was performed by spraying and repeated three different times after pollination (on late April, beginning-July and mid-August). Three variants were compared (Control, Protifert LMW 6.3 and Vitazyme®), the experimental design is completely random blocks with three repetitions and three trees per variant (a total of 27 palm trees). Measurements were made on yield and pomological traits of fruits. In addition, reducing sugars quantification was made by HPLC.
Results obtained showed that treatment affected significantly all of the studied parameters. Indeed, Protifert LMW 6.3 increased the yield per tree by 18 and 27%compared to Vitazyme and Control, respectively. As for fruit dimensions, Protifer tspawned longer dates over than Vitazyme® and Control, whereas both biostimulants induced fruit of the same width but larger compared to Control. In addition, fruit weight ranged from a maximum of 14.50 ± 0.13 g recorded by Protifert LMW 6.3 and a minimum of 10.32 ± 0.15 g observed in the Control. However, fruits of treated trees by Vitazyme® were richer in flesh (92.62%) compared to those obtained by untreated trees (90.78%). Glucose and fructose content engendered by Vitazyme were slightly decreased in comparison with Protifert and Control.

Keywords: Yield, quality, Biostimulants, date palm (Phoenix datylifera L.), ‘Mejhoul’, HPLC

Torque Estimator using MPPT Method for Variable Speed Turbines

Youssef Baala and Seddik Bri
In this work, a vectorial strategy for oriented stator flux GADA has been developed. It uses a second order sliding mode controller, using the super twisting algorithm. The simulation describes the effectiveness of the control strategy adopted. For two profiles of the wind speed, reveals better tracking and perfect convergence of the electromagnetic torque and the reactive power to the stator, and this for the two modes of operation of the machine, hypo-synchronous and hyper-synchronous. The torque response and reactive power are insensitive to disturbances and this control limits the mechanical stress on the transmission shaft, improves the quality of the currents generated on the network and optimizes the efficiency of the conversion chain.
Keywords: Wind turbine, MPPT, Kalman, Backstepping control, DoublyFed Induction, Generator (DFIG), Second sliding Mode control

The Quantized Atomic Masses of the Elements: Part-6; Z=100-107 (Fm-Bh)

Bahjat R. J. Muhyedeen
This paper is the sixth part of a series of eleven of QAM-UQAM-NMT-2017-Ver-3. An innovative semi-empirical atomic mass formula has been derived to calculate quantized atomic masses more precisely than macro-micro formula and purely microscopic HF-self-consistent methods. It is based on the novel mass quantization and the variable neutron mass concepts of new nuclear theory, the Nuclear Magneton Theory of Mass Quantization, NMT. It can calculate the atomic masses of non-existent isotopes based on the existing experimentally measured nuclides. The discrepancy (RMS) of the mass model is less than 335 keV for UQAM and 884 keV for QAM for the entire region of ground-state masses of 3160 nuclei ranging from 1H to 118Og. The quantized atomic masses of 16000 nuclei ranging from Z=1 to Z=226 have been calculated, 800 nuclides of them belong to Z=100-107 (Fm-Bh). The results are compared with those of other recent macroscopic–microscopic. Sn, Sp, β-, β+ and α decay energies are also given.
Keywords: Nuclear mass formula, neutron mass, atomic masses, new isotopes, super-heavy nuclei, alpha decay.

The Arbitrariness of the Administration in using the Authority to Amend the Administration Contract

Mohammed Ahmed Alobeidli
This research focuses on the explication of administrative arbitrariness in using the authority to amend the administrative contract in the UAE. In the study, secondary research is used as a methodology, and it plays an instrumental role in the presentation of the results. It demonstrates that arbitrariness entails resisting the established laws in order to benefit the administration’s side of the contract. With the arbitrariness exercised by the administration, private parties included in the administrative contract suffer extensively, especially since they may not receive the required compensation for damages. As much as the government could utilize the administrative arbitrariness to prevent the undesirable behavior such as corruption, it tends to violate the rights of the parties in the contract. For this reason, it is recommended that administrative courts be given the independence to adjudicate upon the administrative contracts to ensure that the rights of the private parties are respected.
Keywords: Administrative arbitrariness, administrative contract, UAE, administrative court.

A Survey of Survival Patterns of some Recidivists in Nigerian Prisons

O.Y. Halid, O.F. Ogunboyo and K. Adebayo
Recidivism, one of the most fundamental concepts in criminal justice, refers to a person's relapse into criminal behavior, often after the person receives sanctions or undergoes intervention for a previous crime. It is measured by criminal acts that resulted in re-arrest, reconviction or return to prison with or without a new sentence during a three-year period following the prisoner's release. Recidivism has become a global phenomenon. Its high prevalence rate and associated menace to the Nigerian society in recent times provide a great motivation for this work.
As a result, this work considered the application of survival analysis to the rate of recidivism of prison inmates in Nigerian prisons. It also examined the factors influencing recidivism using Ado–Ekiti and Olokuta Prisons in Ekiti and Ondo states respectively.
Data of recidivists collected from Nigerian Prison Service in these two states between 2011 and 2016 were fitted using the Kaplan-Meier Procedure and the Cox’s Regression Model while the influence of some factors on recidivism was carried out.
Results of the Cox regression model and the Cox-Mantel log-rank tests at 0.05 significant level show that employment status is the only factor influencing the rate of recidivism and it was concluded that of the factors considered, a major cause of high prevalence rate of recidivism in Nigeria is unemployment.
Keywords: Survival analysis, prison, inmates, recidivists, offence, Time to Event, Censoring, Survival function and Hazard function.

Single and Multiple Object Tracking Algorithm Based on a Particle Grouping Approach with Occlusion Handling

D. Sudha and J. Priyadarshini
Multiple object detection and tracking is one of the hot research topics in the field of intelligent transportation systems, computer vision, robotics and medical image processing that is aptly fitting to solve the real time applications like traffic monitoring, occlusion handling, collision avoidance, lane changing assistance, public safety on the road and much more. When there is a huge necessity of detecting and tracking multiple objects in motion there exists a several challenges such as object shape, size, speed, memory, appearance, varying illumination, camera oscillations, cluttering, animals crossing on the road and shadowing etc. Ensuring that robustness and accuracy requires most optimized algorithms that aptly fit into the multiple object tracking problem. In this paper, we addressed a problem of single and multiple object tracking algorithm based on a particle grouping method and fusion of two optimal filters such as particle filter and Kalman filter for solving the linear and non- linear motion respectively, and also we addressed the other problem of various occlusion states such as full occlusions, semi occlusion, half occlusion and so on. The first step is for preprocessing which means system automation is to act intelligently in detecting the region of interest from a given input video by using haar trainer formerly known as viola Jones method paired with Adaptive Discrete Boost Classifier. In the experimental results we have shown that the training mechanism attains the accuracy of 85.9% detection rate of multiple objects in the presence of various occlusion states. The second step is used for particle generation and then next step follows particle grouping, trajectory estimations and tracking the multiple objects in a given input video of 20 frames per second. The final step towards the results of object detection engine, then the accuracy of the system has improved in comparison with that of the background subtraction and segmentation technique. Experimental results were implemented by using MATLAB 16.0.0a has proved that the particle grouping technique offered a 50% reduction in the number of particles that are required to be processed for tracking in comparison with that of particle filter alone. On an average the performance of the proposed system has increased by 40% in comparison to the existing systems. It can also be inferred that the accuracy in case of occlusions has an increased by an average of 30% in comparison with the application of existing filters.
Keywords: Adaptive Boost Classifier, Back Propagation Network, Haar Training, Multi Layer Perceptron, Particle Grouping, Particle Filter, Occlusion handling.

Growth of Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L.) under Waterlogging Condition

Erhenhi, A.H., Lemy, E.E., Vwioko, D.E. and Imene, O.
This study was carried out to determine the effects of flooding on the germination and growth of tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Seeds of tomato were purchased from Agricultural Procurement Agency, Ministry of Agriculture, Warri, Delta State and were subjected to flooding. The study showed high percent germination in the control (100%). The highest percentage germination of 74% recorded was in the one week waterlogged treatment, this was followed by 70% and 60% for three weeks and two weeks waterlogged treatment. The values for mean plant height obtained after 56 days of waterlogged treatments showed that the treatment affected the plant height in the two and three weeks waterlogged treatment. The least and highest height were recorded to be 6.00cm and 13.30cm. Similar trend were recorded in stem girth and number of leaves. There were observed differences in the mean values obtained in the adventitious with the control having the highest of 10.9 after 56 days of planting. Percentage survival was highest in the control (90%) followed by three weeks waterlogged (82%). The fresh and dry weight of the plants after fifty six (56) days of growth showed that the root had higher weight compared to the stem and leaves in the control compared to other water logged conditions. Soil physicochemical parameters determined also recorded variations in the study.
Keywords: Growth indices, waterlogging, tomato, plant stress.

Logistics Performance and Freight Sector in Jordan

Mohammad M. Hamed
Logistics performance and its impact on international trade and competitiveness of countries have been attracting a great deal of attention. The World Bank Logistics Performance Index has been widely used since 2007 as a tool to measure and compare the performance of the logistics sector among countries and regions. This paper addresses the performance of the logistics sector in Jordan using the LPI’s six sub-dimensions over a span of eight years. Results clearly indicate that Jordan’s LPI score has dropped significantly in 2018 when compared with 2016 score. Challenges to the logistics sector are clearly reflected in the overall LPI score value and its sub-dimensions. The results show a decline in sub-dimensions: efficiency and effectiveness of the clearance process by customs and other border control agencies, ease and affordability of arranging priced shipments, competence in the local logistics industry (e.g. freight forwarders, transport operators, customs brokers) and timeliness of shipments in reaching destination has been significant. Ease of arranging competitively priced shipments sub-dimension came out to be the weakest forcing the overall international LPI score down. The paper presents a number of actions authorities could take to improve the logistics performance over the coming years.
Keywords: Logistics performance, Logistics Performance Index (LPI), Transportation sector, logistics facilities, inland ports