European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 150 No 4
November, 2018

The Impact of Innovative Practices of Performance in Universities: An Exploratory Study in Brazil

Bruno Ribeiro de Freitas Machado and Selma Regina Martins Oliveira
Abstract:
The use of new practices in educational environments has happened for some time and play a reat impact in students’ and teachers’ development and behavior. Through an in-depth discussion under the light of the Brazilian reality, this article tried to evidence how these new educational practices impact on the institutional performance in higher education. This research covers a conceptual model composed by independent variables (practices of innovation on Education) and also dependent one (educational results, cost efficiency and personal satisfaction of the parties). To verify the conceptual model, the research was divided into two phases. On the first phase, we tried to identify to the light of specialized literature the innovation practices used on higher education institutions (HEI) and ways of measuring the performance of the institutions. On the second part of the study we tried to group the practices found through the cluster technique and, after that, we conducted a survey with specialists selected by technical and scientific criteria. We assessed that the impact of the practices is bigger when they are related to personal satisfaction of the participants, being followed by the educational results. Moreover, the most influent practices on institutional performance on higher education are associated to the use of Internet and mobile devices in the teaching and learning process, practices aiming to collaborative learning and pedagogical approach based on problems or projects. We conclude that this study presents relevant points and presents significant implications for educators and managers, as it may subside decision-making processes related to the implantation of new practices aiming to improve educational performance, besides pointing to new practices which can be very useful in different goals.
Keywords: Impact of innovative practices; Performance on results; Higher Education Institutions (HEI)/ Public Universities/ Brazil.



Effet De La Proportion De Fibre De Coco Ajoutée Au Sol Sur La Croissance Des Plants d’Acacia Mangium

Bongoua-Devisme A. J., Ndoye F., Gnimassoun E-G. , Diouf D., Balland Bolou Bi C., Djagoua E. M. V., and Yao-Kouame A.
Abstract:
Description du sujet : Ces dernières années, la fibre de coco a été testée avec succès en milieu horticole pour plusieurs cultures ornementales et agronomiques où, elle est utilisée comme substrat principal ou mélangée à tous types de supports. Possédant une excellente propriété d'aération et de rétention d'eau, la fibre de coco favorise une croissance rapide des racines et de la plante en général. Objectif : La présente étude vise à déterminer la proportion optimale de fibre de coco apportée au sol pour une meilleure croissance de plants d’Acacia mangium en conditions semi-contrôlées. Méthodes : Pour ce faire, des plants d’Acacia mangium sont cultivés sur différents substrats comportant différentes proportions de fibre de coco. L’effet de chaque substrat a été évalué par la mesure des paramètres de croissance tel que : la hauteur des plants, la biomasse totale, le taux de nodulation et la teneur en azote et phosphore de la biomasse totale. Résultats : Il ressort de cette étude que l’utilisation de la fibre de coco seule comme un substrat de culture ne favorise pas une meilleure croissance et nodulation de A. mangium. De plus, la proportion de 2/3 de fibre de coco et 1/3 de sol semble être la meilleure dose. Conclusion : Il est donc important de l’utiliser comme un compost dans le milieu afin d’avoir une meilleure croissance et une bonne nodulation.
Keywords: Acacia mangium, fibre de coco, substrat, proportion.



Effets Du Baume De Cajou Sur Les Pucerons Et Leurs Predateurs En Culture Cotonniere Biologique Au Centre Du Benin

Saturnin Azonkpin, C. Daniel Chougourou, Cocou Angelo Djihinto, H. Aimé Bokonon-Ganta, E. Léonard Ahoton, Joseph Dossou and M. Mohamed Soumanou
Abstract:
Le puceron Aphis gossypii est un piqueur-suceur qui demeure l’un des principaux ravageurs du cotonnier. L’étude vise à évaluer l’effet de deux doses de baume de cajou extrait à chaud et à froid sur les pucerons et leurs prédateurs. Le dispositif expérimental est constitué des Blocs de Fisher avec 6 objets en 4 répétitions. Les objets sont ‘’Non Traité’’, l’Agri-bio-pesticide dosé à 1 l/ha, deux concentrations (1% et 2%) du baume extrait à chaud et à froid. Les modèles linéaires généralisés ou non, à effets mixtes ou fixes, ont été utilisés pour déterminer l’influence des objets sur les pucerons et leurs prédateurs en 2015 et 2016 à Gobé. Le pourcentage de plants attaqués par les pucerons a varié de 10% (Baume extrait à froid et dosé à 1%) à 20% (Non Traité). La dose de 1% du baume suffit pour contrôler les pucerons. Le mode d’extraction n’influence pas l’efficacité du baume sur les pucerons. Ensuite, les biopesticides n’ont pas réduit le nombre de coccinelles, d’araignées, de Chrysopes, par rapport au Non Traité. Mais le nombre de fourmis a été réduit par le baume extrait à chaud. Le baume de cajou se positionne comme une alternative pour la gestion intégrée des pucerons en culture cotonnière biologique.
Keywords: Gestion intégrée, Aphis gossypii, prédateurs, baume de cajou, Coton biologique.



Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources in (Morocco) Case of the region of Khenifra, upstream of watershed of Bouregreg

El Houssaine Ouharba, Zine el Abidine Triqui and Rachid Moussadek
Abstract:
The hydrological regime of all the basins is characterized by a inter-annual variability marked by the alternation of the wet and dry episodes, intercalated by years of high hydraulic or severe drought. Most hydraulic basins faced water deficits. This situation is likely to deteriorate as a result of climate change and extreme events, particularly the reduction in rainfall and generalized drought. The threat of drought still occurs over the country, as in the periods of 1980-1985 and 1990-1995 and 1998-2002, during which almost all the watersheds faced a water deficit leading to the overexploitation of groundwater.
The aim of this work is to describe the meteorological conditions of the watershed of Bouregreg in order to characterize the effect of climate variability on water resources. This study allowed us to quantify the relationship between climate and surface water resources, through statistical analysis of climate parameters and climate projections. The result of this work will contribute to better understand water management resources, in order to develop mitigation strategies to reduce climate risks effects.
The work done is likely to further contribute to research on water management, in order to enrich and exploit water information systems and assist decision-makers in the development of the master plan for integrated water resources management of basin (PDAIRE) and (IWRM), and also in the direct contribution to the Sustainable Development Goals ("2. Food Security", "6. Water Resources" and "13. Fighting Climate Change".
Keywords: Water resources, climate change, Watershed, Modeling, Morocco.



The Impact of Innovative Practices on the Performance of Universities Under Effect of Resource Constraints: an Exploratory Study in Brazil

Bruno Ribeiro de Freitas Machado and Selma Regina Martins Oliveira
Abstract:
The adoption of new practices in educational environments has happened for some time and play an impact on the development and behavior of students and teachers. However, considering the reality of Brazilian Educational Institutions - where resources are scarce - is a priority need, specially when evaluating which practices should be adopted. Based on that, this research was based on a conceptual model composed by variables classified as independent (innovative practices on Education), moderator (resource constraints) and dependent (metrics for measuring the performance of Higher Education Institutions). For verifying the conceptual model this research was divided into two phases. At the first one, we tried to identify, to the light of specialized literature, the innovative practices used at the Higher Education Institutions (HEI), restrictive factors to this practice and ways of measuring performance of HEI. During the first phase we tried to group the practices found (193) through a the cluster technique and, after that, we conducted a survey with specialists selected by technique and scientific criteria. We found that, when not considered the resource constraints, the most influential practices on the performance of HEI are associated to the use of Internet and mobile devices on the teaching and learning process. However, when under influence of resource constraints there was an impact which reduced the results, and the practice related to the approach based on problems and projects stood out, presenting less reduction on its performance. We could conclude that this study presented relevant points and significant implications to educators and managers, once it may subside decision-making processes related to the implementation of new practices aiming to improve educational performance, specially when considering the absence of resources in the HEI.
Keywords: Impact of innovative practices; Resource constraints; Performance on results; Higher Education Institutions / Public Universities/ Brazil.



Étude de la Croissance de Pterocarpus Soyauxii Taubert (Fabaceae) dans les Forêts Dégradées du Mayombe (Congo)

Jean Pierre Kampé, Jean De Dieu Nzila, Victor Kimpouni, Aubain Rachel Saya, Jean Diamouangana and Fidèle Mialoundama
Abstract:
L’étude a été menée dans le massif du Mayombe où le taux de déforestation est de 0,06% par an. Afin de reconstituer ce massif forestier, un essai de reboisement avec Pterocarpus soyauxii Taubert a été mis en place sur cinq sites (Dimonika, Les Saras, Kondé, Koulila et Makaba). Dans chaque site, l’installation des 12 parcelles expérimentales de 784 m² chacune tient compte de 3 situations topographiques (haut de versant, mi-versant et bas de versant) et de 4 faciès floristiques (jachère, forêt secondaire jeune, forêt secondaire âgé et forêt galerie). La hauteur des arbres a été mesurée à la mise en place, à 8 et 15 ans après plantation. Les données obtenues ont fait l’objet d’une analyse de variance. Les résultats montrent qu’à 8 ans, la hauteur des arbres sur les différents sites est en moyenne de 4,90 m. Aucun effet n’est marqué à cet âge, entre les faciès de végétation et les situations topographiques (p > ; 0.05) ; à 15 ans, les sujets en bas de versant ont une croissance qui varient entre 9,46 et 10,13 m de hauteur sur tous les sites avec les meilleures croissances sous jachère (10,06 m) et les plus faibles sous forêt (9,89 m). Avec ces performances, P. soyauxii est une espèce adaptée pour reforester les zones dégradées du Mayombe.
Keywords: Congo, faciès mayombiens dégradés, Pterocarpus soyauxii, reconstitution forestière, Croissance en hauteur.



Optimized Security of Data Aggregation Technique Using A Secure Leach Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

Dina Abdel-Halim Badawy, Tamer M. Barakat and Ahmed A. Nashat
Abstract:
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are utilized as a part of an assortment of fields which incorporate military, social insurance, ecological, organic, home and other business applications. With the tremendous headway in the field of inserting PC and sensor innovation, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), which is made out of different a huge number of sensor hubs, which are fit for detecting, inciting, and handing-off the gathered data, have had a noteworthy effect all over.
In this paper presents enhance the security of data aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). The proposed scheme presents three phases of LEACH protocol; network initialization, Security keys establishment and data transmission to provide protect the proposed against attacks. There are three keys in this proposed; network key (KNet), key between the cluster head and its members (KCHi, Si) and key between base station and cluster head (KBS, CHi) to provide secure data aggregation in the network.
Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, leach protocol, secure data aggregation, Security keys establishment, Attacks.



A New Proposed Fuzzy Programming Approach for Solving a Fully Fuzzy Linear Programming Problem

H. A. Khalifa, Elshimaa A. Elgendi* and Abdul Hadi N. Ahmed
Abstract:
In this paper, a new fully fuzzy linear programming (FFLP) problem with equality and/or inequality constraints is formulated. The FFLP problem is considered by incorporating triangular fuzzy numbers in all parameters and variables. A proposed method to find the optimal fuzzy solution for the FFLP problem is suggested. As the proposed method is applied to the FFLP problem, a classical multi-objective linear programming (MOLP) problem is obtained. Then, a fuzzy programming approach is applied to the MOLP problem by defining linear as well as non-linear membership functions to find the optimal compromise solution. The approach leads to an efficient solution as well as optimal compromise solution. The methodology is illustrated with the help of solved numerical examples using GAMS modeling language.

Keywords: Fully fuzzy linear programming; Triangular fuzzy numbers; Multi-objective linear programming; Fuzzy programming; Linear and non-linear membership function; Optimal fuzzy solution; GAMS.



Journalist Protection During Armed Conflicts in the Light of Rule of International Humanitarian Law

Dr. Ola Ghazi Abbasi
Abstract:
Journalists and their crew members who take the risk of covering armed conflicts are exposed to grave dangers as a result of warfare operations, and they might become victims of the hostile acts taking places on fields of battle, such as air raids, shootings or explosion of mines. One the other hand, journalists and their accompanying teams may also become victims of random acts of violence such as killing, detention, torture, and disappearance.
Based on the foregoing, this paper explores he provisions of International Humanitarian Law that provide protection to the media and facilitate the exercise of their profession, with a view to clarify that the assault to which journalists and their crews are exposed can be substantially mitigated if these provisions are observed and more strictly applied.
Keywords: International Humanitarian Law, Journalist, War Correspondent, Protection.



Simulation of Ready Mixed Concrete Supply Chain in the Building Industry Using the Software Flexsim

Cesar Augusto da Cunha Vilela, Ricardo Luiz Machado and Karolline Fernandes Siqueira
Abstract:
The research aims to reduce the arrival rate of concrete mixer trucks by enhancing the process of unloading the concrete to concrete slabs, applying the computational simulation. The process is carried out by truck-mixers aided by a pump-lance assembly to discharge the concrete into the slabs. The data were collected in the field, quantifying the time of arrival, the beginning and the end of the concrete discharge by concrete mixer trucks, checking the waiting times. The results of the simulation found a rate of reduction of the time between arrivals of 20%, reducing idleness of the observations by 34% for a mean time of permanence of the truck between arrival and end of discharge of 29.30 minutes below the limit prescribed by NBR7212 / 12 of 30 minutes. The application of this work provides a model to reduce the loss of time (idleness) by assisting in the supply of the concrete machined in the concreting of the vertical constructions using truck-mixer trucks with pump-lance, providing precedents for future studies in this area.
Keywords: Queue. Concrete. Discret event. Flexsim. Simulation.