European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 150 No 3
October, 2018

The Importance of Logistics Costs for Organizations Applied to Logistics and Supply Chain Through Sustainable Management
Daniela Bonassina, Mauro Andreolla Dal Pizzol, Uiliam Hahn Biegelmeyer, Maria Emilia Camargo, Lucas Teixeira Costa, Ademar Galelli, Marta Elisete Ventura da Motta and Angela Pelegrin Ansuj
This article approaches the subject on the importance of logistics costs, logistics and supply chain for organizations. Reports the benefits of sustainable practices throughout the supply chain, to which adds value to the product and to the organization. Generates competitive advantage and market visibility in front of the competition. The goal of research on the topic discussed was the perception of a potential market, to which it has the opportunity and need for improvement and development within organizations. The development of the work was executed in qualitative bibliographic research through reasons of the relevance of integrated management and logistics costs, with the purpose of reducing costs, minimizing waste and optimization of resources.
Keywords: Logistics costs. Costs. Logistics. Supply Chain Management Sustainability.

Solving the Inexact Rough Intervals Vendor Selection Problems
H. A. Khalifa and M. Al- Shabi
This paper deals with vendor selection problem (VSP) in which a buyer allocates an order quantity for an item among a set of suppliers such that the required aggregate quality, services, and lead time requirements are achieved at minimum cost. The problem is considered by incorporating rough intervals in all of these characters adding to the allocated demand. A proposed procedure for solving the problem is suggested for obtaining optimal rough solution. A numerical example is given for illustration.
Keywords: Vendor selection problem; Rough interval; rough interval vendor selection; Uncertainty; Optimal rough solution.

Bioefficacite Des Huiles Essentielles De Trois Especes Vegetales (Ocimum Gratissimum, Ocimum Canum Et Hyptis Suaveolens), De La Famille Des Labiees Dans La Lutte Contre Sitophilus Zeamais
Felicia Johnson, Kouamé Raphaël Oussou, Coffi Kanko, Zanahi Félix Tonzibo, Kouahou Foua-Bi and Yao Tano
In order to develop alternatives for pest control to save food stock products, the essential oils of three plants (Ocimum gratissimum, Ocimum canum and Hyptis suaveolens) were tested with a focus on their effect on some biological parameters of Sitophilus zeamais, the main pest of cereals stores in Côte d’Ivoire. The essential oil of O.gratissimum is mainly composed of p-Cymene (33.5%) and Thymol (19.3%). For the essential oil of O. canum the major compounds areTerpineol-4 (24.6%) and 1,8-Cineol (10.8%).), while for the essential oil of H. suaveolens, the predominant compounds are β-Caryophyllene (33.9%) and Germacrene D (25.4%). These essential oils reduced the life time of S. zeamais by 98.33%. The emergence rate of the insect is reduced by 98.81%. The results also showed an inhibition of the development of Sitophilus zeamais at the end of the treatment with essential oils.
Keywords: Food stocks products, Cereals, Insect pests, Sitophilus zeamais, Essentials oils, Chemical composition.

Toxicité D’un Herbicide A Base De Glyphosate Sur Le Ver De Terre Eudrilus Eugeniae KINBERG, 1867 (Oligochaeta, Eudrilidae)
Gains Kouakou KPAN KPAN, Moïse N’guetta EHOUMAN, Mamadou TOURE, Lazare Yao BROU, Seydou TIHO, Sory Karim TRAORE and Ardjouma DEMBELE
Le glyphosate est l’herbicide le plus utilisé dans le monde pour lutter contre les espèces de plantes indésirables. L’emploi massif de cet herbicide nécessite la connaissance de son écotoxicité afin de mieux règlementer son utilisation. Cette étude avait pour but de caractériser la toxicité aigüe et de déterminer les effets à long terme d’une formulation à base de glyphosate sur Eudrilus eugeniae. Les essais ont été effectués à Azaguié (Côte d’Ivoire), sur du sol naturel enrichi aux crottes de lapin. La concentration létale (CL50) a été 7,80 &plusminus; 0,29 g/l pour 327 g de sol, soit 3578 &plusminus; 14,22 mg de glyphosate/kg de sol sec. La CL50 (7,80 &plusminus; 0,29 g/l) de l’herbicide a été supérieure à la dose de 5,47 g/l, recommandée par le fabricant. L’exposition des vers à 2000 mg/l de glyphosate soit 917,43 mg/kg de sol sec, a provoqué une réduction de 28,34 &plusminus; 2,89 % du taux d’éclosion et du nombre de juvénile/cocon. Bien que la CL50 de cette spécialité agrochimique soit plus élevée que sa dose recommandée, son utilisation peut être problématique pour l’environnement à cause de son effet néfaste sur la reproduction des vers de terre.

Keywords: glyphosate, Eudrilus eugeniae, formulation, toxicité aigüe, effet à long terme.

Relationship between Knowledge Conversion Modes and Innovation
Uiliam Hahn Biegelmeyer , Maria Emilia Camargo, Vilmar Antonio Gonçalves Tondolo, Suzana Leitão Russo , Mariane Camargo Priesnitz, Angela Isabel dos Santos Dullius , Angela Pelegrin Ansuj , Ademar Galelli and Marta Elisete Ventura da Motta
This study aims to analyze the relationship between the modes of knowledge conversion and innovation in technology companies of Local productive Arrangement, Trino Polo of Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul. The research conducted is a quantitative descriptive character type, with cross-cutting, operationalized through a survey of type survey, formed of 24 insertions. The population is composed of all employees of companies belonging to the Trino Polo. The sample is stratified by size and probability of company. The data were collected through a questionnaire applied in person and electronically with the tool Google Drive, to 127 respondents during the period from 25 July to 03 November 2016. For the treatment of data, descriptive statistics were used and multiple regression analysis. The hypothesis that there is significtiva relationship between the modes of knowledge conversion and innovation was accepted at a significance level of 5%, in the context in technology companies of Local productive Arrangement, Trino Polo.
Keywords: Knowledge conversion modes, product innovation, process innovation.

Attenuation of Toxic Power of Atractylis Gummifera
Siham Errai, Youssef Khabbal, Badia Lyoussi, Mohammed Faid, Mohammed El Midaoui, Abdelouahed Maataoui, Mohammed Benbella and Abdelfattah Abdellaoui
Atractylis gummifera is a plant belonging to the Asteraceae family which is known for its toxicity due to the presence of the two hetero glucosides Atractyloside (ATR) and carboxyatractyloside (CATR). Despite this toxicity and fatal poisoning, the plant is still widely used in traditional medicine for therapeutic purposes such as fumigation against colds, dizziness and headache, infusion against bleeding during childbirth, anti-syphilis as well as against boils, as a purgative, emetic and worming. Many studies reported in the literature are concerned with the toxicity of Atractylis gummifera specially in areas where it frequently grow. In absence of a specific antidote likely to mitigate the toxicity of this plant, the search for factors that attenuate its toxic power is of extreme importance. The Effect of some parameters such us pH and Temperature on the toxically compound ATR and CATR has been a subject of previous works on several herbal medicine decoctions except for this species plant for wich no work was undertaken on the Effect of pH, temperature, exhaustion technical and conservation of the degradation of the toxicity compounds of Atactylis gummifera known as ATR and CATR. The aim of this study was to develop a method which will mitigate or abolish the toxicity power of Atractylis gummifera in order to reduce risk factors related to the use of medicinal herbs such as Atractylis gummifera in the pharmaceutical industry and ethnopharmacology.The attenuation of the toxicity of Atractylis gummifera extract by hydrothermal treatments.This attenuation was observed at high and moderate temperatures, and increased with increasing of incubation time: approximatly 50% of toxicity could be removed by hydrothermal processing at 100°C for 2 hours. Acidification also enhances the efficiency of the attenuation of the toxicity at pH=2. Furthermore, the hydro-exhaustion allows reducing of toxicity of these extracts to 100% probably by total elimination of toxic substances (ATR and CATR: water soluble) contained in the root extract. The attenuation of the toxicity of Atractylis gummifera is possible through to a simple and practice mechanism of the hydrolysis of sulfate and isovalerate groups and whose efficiency can be increased by acidification and hydrothermal treatment.
Keywords: Atractylis gummifera, Toxicity, Attenuation

Minnesota Innovation Survey at the Brazilian Hospital Services Company
Helder Pacheco de Medeiros, Eric Lucas dos Santos Cabral, Wilkson Ricardo Silva Castro, Felipe Martins Pedrosa, Davidson Rogério de Medeiros Florentino, Júlia Lorena Marques Gurgel, Hélio Roberto Hékis, Ricardo Alexsandro de Medeiros Valentim, Custódio Leopoldino de Brito Guerra Neto, Amália Cinthia Meneses Rêgo, Irami Araújo-Filho
Promoting innovation is bringing to the field of organizations (public or private) a strategic bias recommended for decision-making. Knowing their determinants factors is one of the essential tasks that managers face due to the high level of complexity involved. The purpose of this study was to present, through the Minnesota Innovation Survey (MIS) method developed by the Minnesota Innovation Research Program (MIRP) of the University of Minnesota in the United States. The characteristics favorable to the innovation environment in University Hospitals agreed to the Brazilian Company of Hospital Services (EBSERH), considered one of the largest public company of public character in health services in Brazil. Seventeen hospitals (43.59%) from a total of 39 branches were surveyed in all regions of the country, through a structured electronic questionnaire containing 83 questions related to the 29 dimensions directed to the development of health innovations. With this, it was sought to determine the main variables related to change in this context. As a result, the characterization of eleven dimensions favorable to innovation in these hospital organizations was verified, with a strong correlation between them, determinants for an innovative environment in public health policies. In terms of contributions, the research developed an essential method for management, control and innovation of health care service providers, which can be used in a wide range of contexts, highlighting the main factors favorable to organizational environments focused on innovative processes, creating a theoretical basis pleasant practice for new research to be carried out using the methodology used.
Keywords: university hospitals, health care reform, organizational innovation, health services administration, health care survey, public health systems research.

Treatment of Tannery Effluents of Fez City By the Sequential Batch Reactor
Karima ELKARRACH, Mohammed MERZOUKI, Omar Laidi, Anass OMOR, Mohamed BENLEMLIH
The tannery effluents are characterized by a very high pollutant load, the toxicity of these effluents is mainly due to chromium and sulfides used in the tanning of animal skins. Indeed, the effluent discharge into the environment without treatment can lead to harmful or even catastrophic effects, therefore the treatment becomes indispensable.
The physicochemical characterization showed that this effluent does not meet the Moroccan standard in terms of the COD, the EC, the BOD5, the SS, the S2- ions and the Cr. However, the microbiological characterization revealed a total absence of pathogenic germs.
The treatment of these effluents was by SBR which is based on treatment with aerobic activated sludge, using a medium and high load with one cycle per day. Moreover, the treatment has yielded satisfactory results by using the medium load, whose the abatement rates are 95%, 98%, 97.4%, 99.8%, 98.3% and 93.4% respectively for the EC, the COD, the BOD5, the S2- ions, the SS and Cr. However, the high load revealed that the treated effluent still remains out of the Moroccan standard, despite the abatement rate which exceeds the 60%.

Keywords: Tannery, Effluent, Chromium, Treatment, SBR, organic load.

Kinematic Assessment of Bronllywd Grit Formation around Snowdonia National Park, Llanberis, North Wales
Ibrahim Muhammad Umar and Nura Abdulmumini Yelwa
Kinematic appraisal of the sandstone dominated Bronllwyd Grit Formation around Snowdonia National Park, Llanberis in North Wales for possible future Engineering works is widely applicable. The rock unit exhibits three recognizable discontinuity patterns which are related to Caledonian Orogeny and the reactivation of the Dinorwic Fault system of mid- Carboniferous Veriscan Orogeny. Determination of cut face orientations for future engineering designs involved the assessment of failure modes relating to these discontinuity patterns that could result in toppling, planar failure, wedge failure or shallow failure or even failure of overall slopes. Kinematic assessment revealed one failure mode; wedge failure. Limit equilibrium stability analyses, utilizing the laboratory determined direct shear strength show that although a wedge failure is kinematically possible, the factor of safety is significantly high enough to prevent such failure. Further analyses demonstrate that the rock material is highly competent and failure will only be due to discontinuities and not the rock material.

Comparison of Two Processes of Activated Carbon Modification Based on Nitrogen Incorporation in Order to Improve Its Adsorption Capacicity of Cd2+
Kouakou Vianet Bossombra, Tchirioua Ekou and Lynda Ekou
In this study activated charcoal synthesized from coconut shell was modified by adding nitrogenous functions from urea following two methods (M1 and M2). To detect the presence of nitrogen functional groups on the surface of ACU-1 and ACU-2, the resulting AC, ACU- 1 and ACU-2 were characterized by different techniques including N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, elemental analysis, Boehm titration, spectroscopic methods (SEM, FTIR) and pHpzc determination. It appears after characterization that the modification methods employed leading to ACU-1 and ACU-2 respectively allow the incorporation of 2.15 and 0.26% of nitrogen. A comparative study of Cd2+ ions adsorption carried out on the supports obtained shows that the first modification improves the adsorption capacity of activated carbon from 15.96 to 25.42 mg g-1 while a slight decrease from 15.96 to 13.92 mg g-1 was noted following the second modification. The adsorption capacity was strongly influenced by the solution pH and the optimum pH was ~5. The modeling of the adsorption data through the nonlinear Langmuir and Freundlich equations showed us that the equilibrium data for AC, ACU-1 and ACU-2 is well adapted to the Freundlich model. The adsorption kinetic study shows that the equilibrium can be reached after 4 hours. and that the data is better described by the pseudo-second-order model.
Keywords: Activated Carbon, Nitrogen functional group, Urea, Cd2+ ions removal.