European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 149 No 3
June, 2018

Determination of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) Toxins in Pacific Costa Rica Bivalves By HPLC with Post-Column Reactor and Fluorescence Detection
Karla Rojas Arrieta, Yajaira Salazar Chacón, Federico Chaverri Suárez, José Luis Rojas Martínez, Emilia Calvo Vargas, Maricruz Arguedas González and Henry Borbón Alpízar
Objective: The analysis was performed to detect the presence of paralytic toxins STX (saxitoxins), GTX (gonyautoxins) and C (N-sulfocarbamoylgonyautoxins) in samples of bivalve mollusks on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, between May and December 2015.
Methods: The extraction of toxins was carried out using the method of Rourke et al. (2008), which uses trichloroacetic acid in a purification stage. The chromatographic analysis was performed by liquid chromatography with post-column reactor and fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD), also described by Rourke et al. (2008). A gradient program is established for the separation of STX toxins and GTX, and an isocratic method for the separation of C.
Results: Samples of oysters (Spondylus calcifer) collected at Playas del Coco in Guanacaste, showed concentrations of (19.5 &plusminus; 1.6) μg equivalent of STX/100 g and (98.1 &plusminus; 8.3) STX/100 g. The Japanese oyster sample (Crassostrea gigas) collected at Cedro Island in Puntarenas (November, 2015) showed a concentration of (90.1 &plusminus; 7.6) μg equivalent of STX/100 g, exceeding the maximum limit allowed (80μg equivalents of STX/100 g). The same oyster collected at Punta Cuchillo in Puntarenas (November, 2015) showed a concentration of (65.7 &plusminus; 5.5) μg equivalent of STX/100 g, close to the maximum limit allowed. This behavior is associated with the presence of high concentrations of Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum, dinoflagellate who produces paralyzing toxins.
Conclusions: The HPLC with post column reactor and fluorescence method is able to identify and quantify PSP toxins.
Keywords: paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), bivalve mollusks, HPLC-FLD, post column reactor, P. bahamense.
JEL Code: N56

Clinical Peer Review: A Concept Analysis from Nursing Perspectives
Fadi Fawares, Omar Ayaad and Eyad Abu Al-Haijaa
Clinical peer review according to nursing perceptive is defined as the collaborative process in one of healthcare organizations among nursing staff with the same experience and workplace to criticize their performance and effort against well-defined standards and policies to achieve certain benefits related to patient safety and quality of nursing care. As a widely implemented concept to nursing practice; Avant and walker eight-step methodology was utilized in this review. It was found that the most closely related terms to peer review were annual performance review and the peer evaluation concepts.

Depocenters Repartition and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Northern Part of the Kribi-Campo Sub-Basin (Cameroon)
Jeannette Ngo Elogan Ntem, Marie Joseph Ntamak-Nida, Dieudonné Bisso, Francois Mvondo Owono, Simon Ngos III, Paul Bilong and Philippe Njandjock Nouck
The geodynamic evolution of the Kribi-Campo sub-basin, using 2 D seismic data and sequence stratigraphy method, reveals 2 megasequences of 1rst order, one from Aptian to Eocene of aggradant geometry and the other from Eocene to Present of progradant architecture; five second-order sequences and one sequence of third order, corresponding to different stages of basin filling were highlighted. The first on, so-called Sequence I (Aptian-Albian), presents an aggradational architecture and corresponds to the flooding of the margin due to a uniform subsidence; Sequence II (Santonian-Maestrichtian), of aggradational geometry, initiates the destabilization of the margin by the Santonian compressive event at the origin of the folding; Sequence III (Eocene-Oligocene), of prograding architecture, marks the beginning of the progradation which brings about a general destabilization of the margin, resulting in basin and swell topography. Sequences IV (Aquitanian-Zanclean), V (Pliocene) and VI (from Pleistocene to Present) of third order, with a progradant-aggradant geometry that mark different phases of the tilting of the margin and its uplift; the predominant factor is tectonics. Also, deposits sequences, lowstand systems tracks and highstand systems tracks are highlighted. The depocenters are distributed seaward from Aptian to Upper Albian. Up to the Upper Cretaceous, the accumulation center is seaward but from the Eocene-Oligocene, the major shift in the displacement of the depocenters is towards the continent. The Miocene is marked by the fattening of the margin that occurs with the distribution of the depocenters on the continent. Another migration of the depocenters is observed, resulting on a larger lateral extension and an increase in thickness of deposits that extend over the entire plateau at the Pliocene and in the basin from Pleistocene to Present. The presence of faults (E-W and NW-SE) and the folds as well as the variation of slope denote a structural control over the displacement and distribution of the depocenters. Two hiatuses of erosion are observed from Cenomanian to Santonian and from Paleocene to Mid-Eocene.
Keywords: 2 D seismic data, depocenters repartition, sequence stratigraphy, geodynamic evolution, Douala/Kribi-Campo

Using GIS for defining public services catchment area at Jeddah City
Abdulkader A Murad
The aim of this paper is to build a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) application for evaluating spatial locations of public services in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. The first part of the paper discusses previous studies that have applied GIS for planning public services worldwide. Meanwhile, the second part of the paper discusses the created GIS application which covers two types of GIS- based public services catchment models called customers distribution catchment area and drive time catchment area. The former is produced based on actual location of service visitors, and the latter is created using network analysis modeling technique. ArcGIS software was applied in this application and used for building these catchment models. Each catchment are model can be used further for market analysis of public services and for services demand identification purposes.
Keywords: service Catchment Area, GIS, services planning, Drive Time

Combined Remote Sensing and GIS for Assessment of Groundwater Volumes Pumped for Irrigation in the Plain of Sidi Bouzid, Tunisia
Manel Boughanmi, Lotfi Dridi, Nouha Jridi, Gerhard Schäfer and Rajouene Majdoub
The use of groundwater for irrigation is considered as the key asset of agricultural development in the plain of Sidi Bouzid. Consequently, the sustainability of groundwater resources requires a good estimation of groundwater extraction. This work aimed to assess the groundwater volume pumped for irrigation during the hydrological year 2013-2014, based on combined remote sensing and GIS; and to compare it with annually pumped volumes estimated by the Tunisian water management authority. High-resolution spatial Landsat-8 images have been used. The supervised classification was carried out to obtain the land use map. This map allowed us to determine the different irrigated crops and to calculate the Irrigation Water Requirements (IWR) of the crops. The estimation of the pumped volume was determined after subtracting the Crop Water Requirements (CWR) from efficient rainfall (ER) and floodwater (FW) used for irrigation in the plain of Sidi Bouzid. The results showed that the groundwater pumping volume is approximately 63 Mm3.This volume is 1.4 times higher than that stated by the Tunisian water management authority which is equal to 44 Mm3. This significant difference may be due to the increasing number of illegal wells, the absence of water metering at the wells and the uncertainties of the classification method.
Keywords: Irrigation, pumping, remote sensing, land use, FAO-method, Sidi Bouzid.

Evaluation des risques d’exposition à la gestion des déchets solides ménagers à Lomé
Yabatcham Kpabou; Komi Edem Koledzi; Gnon Baba; Komlan Batawila; Yaovi Améyapoh
Les risques sanitaires et environnementaux liés aux méthodes de traitement des déchets ménagers dans les Pays en voie de développement apparaissent plus complexes. L’évaluation de ces risques liés aux différentes méthodes de traitement des déchets ménagers est un outil stratégique de traitement. Les émissions de polluants potentiellement dangereux et les germes pathogènes qui se développent dans les tas de déchets ménagers entraînent des impacts néfastes considérables sur l’environnement et accentuent, par conséquent, la dégradation des conditions sanitaires des populations.
Le travail de recherche entrepris dans ce cadre concerne d’une part le dénombrement des germes pathogènes et d’autre part la détermination du degré des risques d’exposition de la gestion de ces effluents sur la santé de la population.
Le dénombrement montre qu’il existe dans les déchets ménagers solides produits à Lomé, une forte proportion de coliformes, de streptocoques fécaux, d’anaérobies sulfito-réducteurs respectivement 9 100 000 ufc/ml, 9 000 000 ufc/ml et 400 000 ufc/ml ainsi que des kystes, œufs et parasites (Kop) tandis que les salmonelles sont totalement absentes. De même, le compost obtenu à partir des déchets solides ménagers, révèle la présence de ces mêmes germes avec à un taux plus bas.
Keywords: Impact, déchets solides ménagers, gestion, santé, pathogènes.

An Experimental Model of a Qualitative Decision Support System for Quality Assessment Support at Higher Education Institutions
Mohamed Abd-ELfattah and Mona A. S.Ali
Decision-support systems are essential technologies for addressing the numerous issues faced by decision-makers. These systems help decision-makers to obtain the necessary data and insight in a timely and precise fashion; particularly relevant to decisions that rely on quantitative information. Nonetheless, technologies for monitoring and arranging qualitative data could also be advantageous to decision-makers. The Institution of Literature has a vast array of e-texts and e-data, which means that physically assessing this data can be a lengthy process. Qualitative data plays an important role in decision making and as such it is important that this data is easy to comprehend and is well-organized. Creating a system that uses NLP and text mining methods to evaluate the data and help individuals make decisions is one of the main long-term objectives of this research. This system will ensure the standards of the data and comply with the Higher Education Institution's guidelines. This research will hopefully prove helpful to future decision-making systems. Such systems frequently need to identify and confirm data obtained from numerous places. Once evaluated, this data helps individuals at the Institution of Higher Education to make decisions.
Keywords: NLP techniques, Text Mining TM, document relevance, higher education, Qualitative Decision Support

Factors Affecting the Default of Credit Facilities in Jordanian Commercial Banks
Talal Alquraan, Abdul Aziz Farid Saymeh and Marwan mohammad Abu Orabi
This study aims to analyze the factors that affect the faltering of credit facilities in commercial banks in Jordan. This will be done by studying two types of variables; economic variables (real GDP growth rate, and government capital expenditure), and banking variables (bank size, Interest rate on granted credit facilities, degree of bank risk and bank management) for the period (2003-2014). The study included a descriptive analysis as well as employing an economic model that reflects the relationship between these variables. The time series methodology was used in a sample of three banks: two local and one foreign.
The results of the study showed that the phenomenon of credit facilities default is not a growing phenomenon in the Jordanian banking system due to its high financial solvency and the retention of high rates of liquidity as well as its high provisions to face any failure of these facilities. The results of the study also showed a negative statistical relationship between the size of defaulting credit facilities, and each of the factors: Growth in real GDP and bank size. On the other hand, the results of the study showed that there is no statistically significant relationship between defaulting credit facilities and the size of the government capital expenditure, the interest rate, the degree of banking risk and the management of the bank. The results of the study also showed a low level in the impact of external crises on the Jordanian banking system due to the robustness of the banking controls imposed by the Central Bank of Jordan on the commercial banks.
Therefore, the study recommends the need to determine standard rates for credit defaults to be commensurate with the volume of credit facilities granted by the bank, in addition to the importance of maintaining aggressive rates of economic growth because of their positive impact on the reduction in the volume of faltered credit facilities.
Keywords: bank failures, collateral, indicators of credit default, credit facilities, debt default, commercial banks, borrowers.

Geometric Morphometric analysis of hybrid supposed to be from Tilapia zillii (Gervais, 1848) and Tilapia guineensis (Bleeker, 1862) in Ebrié Lagoon (Côte d’Ivoire)
Bopo Zadi Sylvain Olivier, Nobah Céline Sidonie Koco, Sokouri Didier Paulin, Atsé Boua Célestin and N’guetta Assanvo Simon-Pierre
Geometric morphometric methods were used to identify hybrids from Tilapia zillii and T. guineensis in Ebrié lagoon among seven groups of tilapia. Artificial hybrids, obtained in breeding design from crosses between pure species of Tilapia zillii and T. guineensis, and natural known hybrids sampled in Ayamé I man-made Lake, were used as reference specimens. The other specimens were obtained from sampling carried out during a whole year in five sites of Ebrié Lagoon (Layo, Songon, Taboth, N’djem and Ahua), characterized by a great chemical pollution. The morphometric studies were based on 19 landmarks and Procrustes superimposition was used to extract shape data. Average body shape was compared among groups using Canonical Variates Analysis (CVA), Cluster Analysis and MANOVA. There was no significant difference between hybrids (putative hybrids from Ebrié Lagoon, natural hybrids from Ayamé I man-made Lake and artificial hybrid from breeding design) and their morphology was intermediate to those of parental pure species. Moreover, pure species of T. guineensis is very close to putative hybrids from Ebrié Lagoon and ones from AyaméI Lake, contrary to Tilapia zillii. Thus, high introgressive hybridization was probably happened between hybrids and T. guineensis. That is a real threat for T. guineensis pure species which is disappearing progressively to be replaced by hybrids.
Keywords: Geometric morphometric, introgressive hybridization, shape analysis

Exploring the Mediating Role of Knowledge Sharing between Human Resource Development and Organizational Ambidexterity
(An Empirical Study on Jordanian Telecommunication Companies)
Khaled Mahmoud Al-Shawabkeh
Jordanian telecommunication companies meet several challenges such as technology, short life cycle of products or services, knowledge, globalization and the unstable competitive environment. These challenges have led to the need of configuration intensive efforts to obtain the potential growth opportunities; this is achieved through reducing the conflict between moving forward from through new ideas and opportunities or to retain traditional methods, and to achieve this balance between these contradictions the concept of organizational ambidexterity has been emerged.
The current study aims to explore the mediating role of knowledge sharing between human resource development and organizational ambidexterity in Jordanian telecommunication companies. This study adopted descriptive analytical method; a simple random sampling was selected (161) at the middle and top levels. A theoretical model has been proposed and tested using SPSS and Amos.
Set of results have been revealed, there is statistically significant effect of human resource development (Formal Education, Assessment & Feedback, Job Experiences and Interpersonal Relationships) on organizational ambidexterity in Jordanian telecommunication companies at level (α≤ 0.05); There is a statistical significant effect of knowledge sharing in explaining the effect of human resource development on organizational ambidexterity in Jordanian telecommunication companies at level (α≤ 0.05).
This study recommended that Jordanian telecommunication companies should pay an attention to develop human resources as a consequence of its significant impact on achieving organizational ambidexterity, especially attention to share knowledge and maximizing job experiences through job enlargement, job rotation, enrichment work and empowering employees.
Keywords: Human Resource Development; Organizational Ambidexterity; Knowledge Sharing; Jordanian Telecommunication Companies.