European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 149 No 2
May, 2018

On Solving Multi-Objective Quadratic Programming Problems in A Fuzzy Environment
H. A. Khalifa and M. M. Alharbi
This paper deals with multi- objective quadratic programming (FMOQP) problem having fuzzy parameters both in the objective functions and constraints parameters. A proposed substitute problem whose objective function is the distance between the γ- ary restricted α- optimum values at each β- optimal solutions ( Kuwano et al., 1994) and the γ - ary fuzzy objective functions is given. Aa algorithm for obtaining the optimal solution is suggested. A numerical example is given in the sake of the paper for illustration.
Keywords: Fuzzy quadratic programming; Fuzzy multi- objective quadratic programming ; Goal programming approach; δ optimal compromise solution; Possibilistic variables; Metric of Hausdorff

Factor Analysis Approach to Multi-Criteria Decision Making Methods: An Application On Turkey and European Union Countries
Sait Erdal DINCER
The aim of the study is to show how multivariate statistical analysis methods can be used together with multi-criteria decision making methods which have not been done so in the literature to date. To this end, an interdisciplinary study was carried out using the Gray Relational Analysis Method, which is one of the multi-criteria decision making methods, and the Factor Analysis Method, which is a multivariate statistical analysis method. The study focuses on a comparison of Turkey and European Union member states based on socio-economic indicators in terms of their level of development. 48 socio-economic variables were identified to be used in the study and these variables were classified under 5 factors based on the factor analysis method. This factor obtained by means of factor analysis and the factor weights of countries were used to develop a decision matrix for Turkey and the European Union member states and the level of development of Turkey and the European Union states were compared applying a simultaneous analysis using the Gray Relational Analysis method which is a multi-criteria decision making method. The conclusion focuses on the review and analysis of the results obtained using both the Factor Analysis and the Gray Relational Analysis to rank Turkey and the European Union countries based on their socio-economic levels of development separately. The data used in the study are obtained from Eurostat, TUIK (The Turkish Statistics Institute), the World Bank and the OECD..
Key words: Multiple-Criteria Decision Making, Multivariate Statistical Analysis, Gray Relational Analysis, Factor Analysis.
JEL Classification Codes: C02, C44.

Étude Théorique De La Stabilité, De La Tautomérie Et De L’acidité De La 2,6-Dithioxanthine Par La Méthode De La Théorie De La Fonctionnelle De Densité (DFT)
Assoma Amon Benjamine, Bédé Affoué Lucie, Yapo Kicho Dénis, N’Guessan Boka Robert and Bamba El-Hadji Sawaliho
La stabilité relative, la tautomérie et l’acidité de la 2,6-dithioxanthine ont été étudiés en utilisant la méthode DFT avec la fonctionnelle B3LYP, associée à la base 6-311+G(d,p). Les géométries initiales des 14 tautomères de la 2,6-dithioxanthine ont été totalement optimisées. Les calculs ont été faits aussi bien en phase gazeuse qu’en phase aqueuse. Le modèle de solvatation utilisé est le Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM). Les résultats montrent qu’en phase gazeuse, la dithioxanthine peut exister sous forme de mélange de quatre tautomères qui sont dans l’ordre décroissant de stabilité : DTX(1,3,7), DTX(1,7,10), DTX(1,9,11) et DTX(1,3,9). En phase aqueuse, ce sont les tautomères DTX(1,3,7), DTX(1,3,9), DTX(1,7,10) et DTX(1,9,10) qui peuvent exister dans l’ordre décroissant de stabilité. L’étude des équilibres entre les tautomères montre que le tautomère DTX(1,9,10) se transforme au tautomère DTX(1,3,7) en passant par le tautomère DTX(1,3,9). L’étude de l’acidité révèle que l’acidité des atomes d’azote du tautomère le plus stable DTX(1,3,7) diminue dans l’ordre 7 > 3 >1 et 3 > 7 >1 respectivement en phase gazeuse et aqueuse.
Keywords: 2,6-Dithioxanthine, Stabilité, Tautomérie, Acidité, B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p).

The Impact of Tax Planning on the Performance Level of Jordanian Public Joint stock Industrial Companies measured by the Balanced Scorecard (BSC)
Jomana Mostafa Albadainah
The present study aimed at identifying the impact of tax planning on the performance level of Jordanian public joint stock industrial companies that are listed on Amman Stock Exchange measured by the balanced scorecard (BSC). The study’s population consists from all the employees and financial managers working at the Jordanian public joint stock industrial companies that are listed on Amman Stock Exchange. A simple random sample was selected from the study’s population. 189 questionnaire forms were distributed to the selected sample. However, 141 questionnaire forms were retrieved. All of the retrieved forms are valid for statistical analysis. It was concluded that tax planning has an impact on the performance level of Jordanian public joint stock industrial companies that are listed on Amman Stock Exchange measured by the balanced scorecard (BSC). This relationship between these variables is considered very strong because the value of the correlation coefficient is 0.682.
In the light of the study’s results, the researcher of the present study suggests several recommendations. For instance, he recommends providing more attention to the tax planning process in the Jordanian public joint stock industrial companies. That should be done in the aim of reducing their tax liabilities and rising their profits and financial savings. Such saving and profits can be used in other areas for ensuring the survival of those companies and enabling them to compete. The researcher also recommends examining the weaknesses that that study’s results revealed in the Jordanian public joint stock industrial companies. That should be done to increase the tax savings of those companies. In addition, the researcher also recommends providing more attention to the strengths of those companies and reviewing them to ensure that those companies’ operations are conducted as planned.
Keywords: Tax planning, Performance Level, Jordanian Public Joint stock Industrial Companies, Balanced Scorecard (BSC)

A Hybrid Whale Optimization Algorithm with Adaptive Spiral For Terrorism Prediction (The Case of Egypt)
Ghada M. A. Soliman, Tarek H. M. Abou-El-Enien, E. Emary and Motaz M. H. Khorshid
This paper proposes a hybrid prediction classification algorithm based on a modification in the recently proposed whale optimization algorithm (WOA), which mimics the social behavior of humpback whales. The modified WOA proposed to enhance the exploitation capability of the original WOA by introducing a modified spiral to simulate the helix-shaped movement of humpback whales. The proposed hybrid prediction modified WO algorithm is used to predict the terrorist group responsible of terrorist attack(s) on Egypt based on the prediction by the classification algorithm combined with the wrapper feature selection based approach to select the optimal feature subset for the classification purposes. The proposed algorithm has been tested on real terrorism data of Egypt, as well as the results have been compared with other well-known nature-inspired algorithms as Moth Flame Optimization algorithm (MFO) and the two modified versions (MFO-2, MFO-3), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Genetic Algorithm (GA). A set of statistical assessment indicators are used to evaluate and compare between the obtained results which proved that the proposed hybrid prediction modified version of WOA provides very promising and competitive performance as well as achieves an advance over the original WOA algorithm with high stability over other searching methods.
Keywords: Bio inspired computing, Swarm intelligence, Feature selection, Whale Optimization Algorithm.

Availability and Integration of Electronic Media Into Teaching and Learning of Distance Education Programmes of Tertiary Institutions in South East Nigeria
Uzoamaka L. Koledoye, Christian N. Olori, Ikechukwu C. Okafor, Nwakaego E. Ekwealor and Stella C. Nwizu
This study investigated the availability and integration of electronic media into teaching and learning of distance education programmes of tertiary institutions in South East Nigeria. Two research questions and one null hypothesis were developed to achieve the purpose. The descriptive survey research design was adopted in the study. The population for the study was 9,572 made up of 489 facilitators and 9,083 students in all the 40 learning centres from the five South East States. The sample size of 1,221 comprising 294 facilitators and 907 students from 20 centres) was drawn from the entire population using the multi-stage sampling procedure and simple random sample technique by balloting. Data collection instruments were observation checklist and researchers’ developed questionnaire titled: ‘Questionnaire on Integration of Electronic Media into Teaching and Learning of Distance Education Programmes’(QIEMTLDEP). The questionnaire instrument was face validated by three validates. A reliability index of 0.83 was obtained using the Cronbach Alpha Statistic Tool. Data were analysed using the percentage and mean for research questions one and two. The t-test statistic was used to test the null hypothesis at .05 level of significance. Findings of the study revealed that available electronic media facilities for integration into distance education programmes were mainly computer technology which includes internet, e-mail, social network, and CD-ROM. Findings further revealed that the extent of integration of electronic media into teaching and learning of distance education programmes of tertiary institutions in South East of Nigeria was poor. With regard to the null hypothesis, significant difference was not found in the mean ratings of facilitators and students on the extent of integration of electronic media into teaching and learning of distance education programmes. Based on the findings, some recommendations were made, amongst them were the provision of adequate funds by the government through the education ministry for the procurement of multimedia facilities and the effective use of available electronic media into teaching and learning for qualitative delivery of programmes.
Keywords: Availability, integration, electronic media, distance education, programmes, institutions.

Effect of Perception of Employees to Leadership Change in South East Nigerian Universities
Nwachukwu, Obinna Johnson and Agbaeze, E.K
Changes in organization are an indispensable part of life of that organization. The need for such changes is often due to the need to solving problems and challenges faced by the organization. Change in leadership can either be voluntary or non voluntary. For Nigerian Universities, change in leadership is not voluntary but regulatory induced. Hence resentments by employees are often observed after the change. It is therefore against the need to gauge the perception of employees that this study explored the perception of employees to leadership change especially in South East Nigerian Universities. This study adopted the survey research design and data obtained from primary sources through the use of likert scaled questionnaire. The population of the study comprised of all staff in the Five Federal Universities in South East Nigeria. The convenience sampling method was adopted to select 100 employees and the hypotheses were tested using factor analysis. The result revealed that there was no positive relationship between employee’s perception and reaction to involvement in change and leadership change in Nigerian Universities; there was no positive relationship between employee’s perception and reaction to trust and leadership change in Nigerian Universities. However there was a positive association between employee’s perception and reaction to fear to change consequences and leadership change in Nigerian Universities and there was a positive relationship between employee’s perception and reaction to career enhancement and leadership change in Nigerian Universities. This study therefore concluded that employee’s perceptions about change were contradictory and this study recommends that management should provide adequate communication during the change process as to carry everyone on board.
Keywords: Perception, Employee, Leadership Change
JEL Code: L00

Organisational Corporate Social Responsibility on Acceptability of Mobile Telecommunication Services
Agbaeze, E.K and Nwachukwu, Obinna Johnson
This study aimed at investigating MTN corporate social responsibilities on acceptability of mobile telecommunication in South East Nigeria. The objectives included identifying social responsibility performance by MTN Nigeria in their area of operation; finding out the adequacy of existing techniques of social responsibility performance of MTN Nigeria and identifying ways MTN Nigeria has actually benefited from its CSR programmes. To achieve these objectives, three research questions were asked and three hypotheses were formulated. A twenty-one item survey questionnaire and four interview questions were constructed, validated, tested to be reliable, and administered to a sample of one hundred and seventy-five respondents, and one hundred and sixty were duly returned. Their responses were coded and statistically analysed. The findings were that that host community needs are positively related to MTN Corporate Social responsibility performance, that there is significant relationship between MTN corporate social responsibility and its CSR objectives and that there is a positive correlation between MTN business benefits and its social responsibilities programmes in its operational communities It was also found that MTN Nigeria is socially responsible to the society in which it operates.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Acceptability, Organisation
JEL Code: L00

Impacts of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement on Brazilian Agribusiness
Rodrigo Abbade da Silva, Daniel Arruda Coronel and Mygre Lopes da Silva
The objective of this study is to evaluate the impacts of the formation of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) on Brazilian agribusiness. To this end, not only the changes in the economy were analyzed when eliminating all tariff barriers, but also the elimination of tariff barriers combined with the elimination of subsidies between the regions of the agreement. The Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP), a General Equilibrium model was used to achieve the proposed objective. The results indicated, in the first scenario, that the economic impacts on Brazilian agribusiness were mostly negative, mainly affecting the meat, corn and wool sectors. In the second scenario, the impacts generated on Brazilian agribusiness were more intensively positive on the wheat, vegetable and oilseed sectors.
Keywords: Agribusiness; Computable General Equilibrium Model; Preferential Trade Agreements; Regional Integration; Trans-Pacific
JEL Code: Q13; Q17; D58.

Occupational Stress, Age and Duration of Exposure to Metal Fumes on Psychological Well-Being among Welders in Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Ronald C. N. Oginyi, Ofoke S. Mbam, Ekwo J. Chukwudi, and Udo T. Ogbonne
Objectives: This study examined occupational stress, age and duration of exposure to metal fumes on psychological well-being among welders in Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
Methods: Participants comprised a total of 1500 metal welders who were randomly selected. The age of the participants ranged from 18 to 50 years, with mean age of 32.5years. The study adopted a cross - sectional survey design. The Occupational Stress Questionnaire (OSQ, Salami, 2003) and Psychological Well-Bing (Ryff & Keyes, 1995) were used to measure occupational stress and psychological well-being of the participants. While age and duration of exposure to metal fumes was elicited through the demographic information of the participants.
Findings: Three hypotheses were tested using three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results revealed a statistically significant difference between young and old age on psychological well-being among welders, F (1, 1496) =50.43, P<0.001. Results also showed statistically significant difference between high and low occupational stress on psychological well-being among welders, F (1, 1496) =67.52, P<0.001. Also, the results indicated that there is statistically significant difference between long and short duration of exposure to metal fumes on psychological well-being among welders, F (1, 1496) =81.49, P<0.001.
Conclusions: Young age, high occupational stress and long duration of exposure to metal fumes participants had low psychological well-being. Therefore, there is need for counseling, training and safety education of these workers to achieve optimal psychological well-being and increased productivity.
Keywords: Occupational stress, age, duration of exposure, metal fumes, psychological well-being, welders