European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 149 No 1
April, 2018

Characteristics of the Bim Platform in Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC)
Ana Carolina Amaral Marques, Solange da Silva and Carlos de Macêdo e Silva Filho
The Building Information Modeling (BIM) is an emerging modeling technology that challenges the existing procedures and practices in the building sector. This article deals with these challenges, problems and potential expansions of the BIM platform as a tool in the civil engineering building project. Systematic Revision was performed with scientific studies researches in two databases (CAPES and SCIELO). The criteria of inclusion used were: quantitative and qualitative studies. There was a restriction as for the date of publication (2011 – 2017) in the Portuguese and English language. The research contemplated publications of the last 7 years. 18 articles were identified which met the criteria of inclusion. These articles pointed towards the different interfaces between the parts that are examined in building projects. The implementation of BIM is currently spreading mainly in the activity of design for other phases of building projects, but its use is still limited in the other three interfaces of projects.
Keywords: Modeling of information in building; Social interfaces; Expansive learning; Project.

Diversity of Cowslip (Primula Veris L.) Natural Populations in Kosovo Assessed By Morphological and Chemical Markers
Muzafer Luma and Ndoc Faslia
Kosovo is very rich in biological diversity including many cowslip (Primula veris L.) populations which have important economical and scientific interest. The study for the assessment of cowslip natural population diversity was carried out in ten natural growing habitats (Roshkodol, Leqenat, Stankaj, Istok one and Istok two, Kacanik, Artana, Gollak, Shala e Bajgores and Radisevo) of Kosovo using 10 morphological characters (plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, leaf length, leaf width, flowering stem number, flowering stem length, number of flowers, number of seeds per flower and number of seeds per plant) and 2 chemical markers. Elevations per each trial site were also recorded. ANOVA, comparisons of means for all pairs using Tukey-Kramer test, principal component and regression analysis found significant variability among cowslip populations observed in natural growing habitats of Kosovo. Principal Components Analysis on Correlations identified the variances of the principal components (PC1, PC2 and PC3) that account for 85.7% of the total variation. Factorial analysis shows that the major source of variation was given by the first two PCs and by five morphological variables as plant height, flowering stem number, flowering stem length, number of flowers and number of seeds per plant. Results of this study found that geographic position and elevation above sea level have influenced on the cowslip morphological and chemical diversity. Regression analysis found significant linear relationships between quercetin (QE) and the total phenolic content expressed as the gallic acid equivalent (GAE) contents of cowslip populations and the elevation of plot sites (QE = 228.81781 - 0.0652783*Elev, and GAE = 183.33105 + 0.0341645*Elev).

Noise Reduction in Rice Leaf Disease Detection Using Gaussian Filtering Technique
Taohidul Islam, Tarina Rahman, Mahfuza Akter and Masud Rana1
This paper shows the noise reduction criteria for rice leaf disease detection through image processing. Though it is very common to find rice disease through pathological test in laboratory, automated rice disease detection is rarely seen in the agricultural field. Laboratory based test is tedious and time consuming for farmers in agro-management systems. With recent advancement in information technology, researchers use image processing technique in rice leaf disease detection. The motivation of this work is to introduce a simpler version of an automated system for rice leaf diseases detection through obtaining the pixel Red-Green-Blue (RGB) values of images at early stage. The methodology of this research includes three main phases of image acquisition, image preprocessing, and disease detection and grading. In the preprocessing step, Gaussian filter is used to reduce noise for reliable outcomes in image processing. The disease detections and grading steps are completed by finding threshold pixel values of healthy leaf image using MATLAB software and comparing them with the pixel values of an affected leaf image. The system is important for obtaining faster and accurate identification of rice leaf diseases at early stage.
Keywords: Rice leaf disease, image processing, noise reduction, Gaussian filtering

Détermination de quelques paramètres nutritionnels de différents organes de Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) de Côte d’Ivoire
Gué Lieuné Alexis, Kabran Guy Roger Mida, Kissiedou Rachelle, Boa David, Kourouma Touré Aisseta, Mamyrbékova-BékroJanat Akhanovna and Békro Yves-Alain
Some nutritional parameters of the organs of Moringa oleifera of Côte d’Ivoire were determined. The dosage of proteins indicated different contents in organs, with a predominance in leaves and seeds. The mineral composition determined by means of atomic absorption spectrometry revealed the existence of several minerals (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Br, Zn) in all organs with a significant presence of potassium and calcium. The quantities of minerals contained in a table spoon and tea spoon of the dried organs have been determined. The moisture and carbohydrate contents and the energetic value of the seeds are 2.57%; 22.08% and 582.16 kcal/100g, respectively.
Keywords: Moringa oleifera, Côte d’Ivoire, nutritional parameters, proteins, minerals, carbohydrate, energetic value.

Vers une démarche système qualité d’une formation en ligne
ELMADHI Adil, ALMAKARI Ahmed and AIT SAGH Lahoucine
Interrogeant la qualité dans un dispositif de formation à distance, cet article explore une part d'un champ de recherche prometteur. Nous allons emprunter une démarche propre au domaine économique en l’occurrence le Système Management de Qualité pour le transposer au champ de l'éducation et plus précisément aux formations en ligne. Pour ce faire, notre étude tentera de décrire les différents axes relatifs à la qualité dans une formation à distance à l’aide d’une grille d’analyse « critériée » inscrivant ainsi notre recherche dans une démarche qualitative qui trouve sa référence dans le Système Management de Qualité ISO 2015.
Keywords: évaluation, Formation à distance, qualité, éducation, pédagogie numérique, SMQ ISO 2015.

Acute Pesticide Poisoning in the Tanger-Tétouan-Al Hoceima Region: Risk Factors and Outcome
Soumaia HMIMOU, Hinde HAMI, Latifa AMIAR, Rachid HMIMOU, Zineb NABIH, Abdelmajid SOULAYMANI, Abdelrhani MOKHTARI and Rachida SOULAYMANI-BENCHEIKH
The aim of this study is to determine the epidemiological characteristics of acute pesticide poisoning and associated risk factors in the region of Tanger-Tétouan-Al Hoceima in Morocco. This is a retrospective study of pesticide poisoning cases, reported between January 2014 and December 2016 to the Moroccan Poison Control Center and recorded in the registers at 11 hospitals in the region studied. The data were cleaned up. Several cases had been identified more than once. These duplicates were eliminated. During the study period, a total of 706 cases of acute pesticide poisoning were collected. Of these, 21.84% were children under the age of 15 years. The average age of the patients was 21.45±12.23 years. Nearly two-thirds of the cases (66.1%) were females with a female-male ratio of 1.94. The risk was mainly related to the use of rodenticides (70.11%). According to the results, 32.5% of pesticide exposures were intentional. About 51% of the patients had moderate symptoms. Among the 581 cases for whom the outcome is known, 5.33% of them died. For other cases, the outcome was favorable with or without complications.
Keywords: Pesticide poisoning, Rodenticides, Tanger-Tétouan-Al Hoceima, Morocco, MPCC.

Financial Analysis Effectiveness in Predicting Companies Default
Dr. Mo’tasim Al – Dabbas
The researcher’s study includes testing the extent of effectiveness of using the financial statements analysis to predict the companies default. An applied study on the Jordanian industrial public stock companies.
The study’s problem lies in answering some questions the researcher poses, where he seeks to achieve the study’s objective, therefore, the study’s problem is presented by knowing the influence of using the profitability ratios, liquidity ratios, the activity ratios and the debits ratio on the firms default.
Due to the importance of the industrial companies sector and their rule in developing the national economy, this study has been tested on this sectors through using the financial ratios as an important financial tool to know the problems that face companies which lead to their financial default.
The study used mathematical and statistical methods to measure the functional relationship between the variables in order to reach the range of variability between them.
This study is different of the previous studies, as most of these studies focused on using the financial ratios to predict the default of banks and companies through developing a model from the financial ratios through which the default can be predicted.
Most of the previous studies used the method of multivariables linear analysis, therefore, this study was different because the researcher used the financial ratios to predict the banks and companies default through adopting the existence of a loss exceeds 50% of the subscribed company’s capital.
The study’s population included the Jordanian population, while a sample of the Jordanian public stock companies has been chosen from the industrial sector during three years, from 2007-2009.
The study’s hypothesises have been tested and analyzed by using the descriptive statistical program (SPSS).
The researcher concluded that there is a relationship between using the profitability ratios to predict the default at companies, there is no relationship between using the liquidity ratios to predict the companies default, there is no relationship between using the debts ratios to predict the companies default and finally, there is a prelateship between using the market ratios to predict the companies default.
At the end of the study, the researcher recommended to use larger samples, for longer periods, and to extend the data base of companies default to include the full public sector, and not only the industrial companies.

Étude Morphologique et Histologique de l’Encéphale d’Oreochromis aureus
Moustapha DIABY, Gatien Konan Gboko BROU and Koffi Dongo KOUASSI
Trente-quatre spécimens d’Oreochromis aureus de tailles comprises entre 8,5 cm et 20,7 cm ont été étudiés. Apres extraction et fixation, le traitement histologique des encéphales a été fait avec le violet de crésyl afin de mettre en évidence les aires et noyaux encéphaliques. La morphologie de l’encéphale est semblable à celle des téléostéens perciformes. Sur le plan histologique, le Nucleus dorsolateralis au niveau du télencéphale montre une organisation structurale complexe avec trois zones reconnaissables par la taille et la densité de leurs cellules, suggérant de ce fait une importance de l’olfaction chez cette espèce. Au niveau du mésencéphale, le toit optique, bien développé, est constitué de six couches classiques. On y note un épaississement du stratum opticum, centre de projection des fibres rétiniennes et un épaississement du stratum griseum centrale, lieu de projection des impulsions olfactives. Le diencéphale diffère peu de celui des autres téléostéens avec un Nucleus preopticus bien développé. Dans le cervelet, les cellules de Purkinje se retrouvent dans les couches moléculaire et granulaire, caractéristique des espèces à activité motrice modérée. Enfin, dans la moelle allongée, les lobes vagaux corrélés à la gustation sont peu développés.
Keywords: Oreochromis aureus, Encéphale, Morphologie, Histologie, Comportement.

Caractérisation Et Dégradation Des Pierres Calcarénitiques Monumentales Des Kasbahs De Kenitra Et De Mehdia, Maroc
Mohssine ZAIDI
Comme partout au monde, le patrimoine bâti au Maroc, laissé à l’abandon, est très vulnérable puisqu’il se trouve confronté à de multiples facteurs de dégradation qui risquent de le faire disparaître à jamais du paysage marocain et du patrimoine mondial.
La Kasbah de Mehdia, classée patrimoine historique depuis 1916, et la kasbah de Kenitra, monument important de l'histoire de la ville actuelle de Kenitra, témoignent de la diversité architecturale de plusieurs dynasties qui s’y sont succédées au fil du temps. Ces Kasbahs construites essentiellement à base de la roche calcarénite plioquaternaire de la région de Sidi Taïbi souffrent d’une dégradation accélérée depuis plusieurs années à cause de l’impact de l’agressivité des conditions environnementales.
En vue d’identifier les différentes formes d’altération superficielles rencontrées sur les façades des monuments étudiées, nous avons mené une étude, consacrée à la description de ces altérations, qui a montré une dégradation poussée des pierres en œuvre traduite en surface sous forme de biodégradation, de noircissements, de croûtes noires, d’alvéolisation et d’efflorescences salines.
Pour cerner davantage le problème de l'altérabilité de ces calcarénites, nous avons axé notre travail sur la détermination des caractéristiques pétrophysiques et géomécaniques du matériau calcarénitique sain, puis nous avons procédé à leur comparaison avec celles de la pierre de taille utilisée pour l’édification des deux Kasbahs étudiées. Enfin, nous avons identifié et analysé des échantillons des produits d’altération prélevés au niveau des deux Kasbahs.
L’objectif principal du présent travail est de mettre à la disposition des chercheurs futurs et restaurateurs du patrimoine bâti une base de données pour répondre à la problématique de la conservation de ces monuments tout en optimisant le choix des matériaux de remplacement lors des travaux de restauration et de conservation qui sont souvent critiqués et mal faits.
Keywords: Altération, Calcarénites, Monuments historiques, Caractérisation pétrophysique, Produits d’altération.

MAX-DAOS Observations of NO2, SO2, O3 and NH3 Tropospheric Trace Gases in Bamako City (Mali)
Hamidou dit Togoudogoly SAGARA and Cheick DIARRA, Abdramane BA
We have used the Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) which is widely used technique to determine the concentrations of trace gases fromabsorbance measurements by scattered solar radiation. This study concerns two campaigns of measurement which are from 21March to 2April 2017 and from 13 to 25July 2017. The considered tropospheric trace gasesfor this study are SO2, NO2, O3 and NH3. The mass concentration spectra of these trace gases SO2, NO2, O3 and NH3, are estimated by applying concentration equations calculus.Average mass concentrations for SO2dining the two campaigns are ranged from 3.06 to 44.10μg/m3, for NO2 its average mass concentrations are ranged from 33.84 to 99.49μg/m3, for O3, the average mass concentrations are ranged between 7.89 to 41.40μg/m3 and for NH3its average mass concentrations are estimated from 5.71 to 50.31μg/m3.
Results of this study indicate that the ozone (O3) gas has lower estimated values of mass concentration, and NO2 gas has higher values of mass concentrations estimations. Also estimated values of the mass concentrations of the four trace gases are higher dining the dry season (the first campaign) than those in the wet season (second campaign).
Keywords: MAX-DOAS, tropospheric trace gases, NO2, SO2, O3, NH3, absorbance, concentrations.