European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 147 No 4
November, 2017

Benefits of Using Program and Project Portfolio Management on the Execution of Deliberate and Emerging Strategies: The Accountability Perspective
Ageu Barros and Selma Regina M. Oliveira
This article aims at speculating on the main benefits that can be derived from Program and Project Portfolio Management applied to the execution of deliberate and emerging strategies, within a governance, delegation and accountability framework. This study is supported by specialized literature, from which different authors and research papers were selected. Over the past six decades, the literature that addresses the strategic planning of public and private organizations has grown to become rich and diverse, while the body of knowledge of project management has also advanced, albeit more recently, in the direction of proposing project and program portfolio formats as viable tools for strategic execution. Although a large amount of research papers and magazine articles is already available on this application of Project Management methodology, we still lack sufficient literature on the accountability and reporting processes, which are basic governance tools designed for agency risk mitigation along the strategic execution road, while the organization implements deliberate strategies and must respond to volatility with speedy maneuvers and emerging strategies; This is, therefore, this paper`s intended value proposition.
Keywords: Planning; Execution; Benefits of Portfolio Management; Programs and projects; Deliberate and emerging strategies; Accountability; Reporting.

Innovation Ecosystem: Informational Evaluation of Recurrence in an Index Base
Aline Bianca Zanoni, Rafaela Aparecida de Almeida and Letícia Peret Antunes Hardt
The present article aims at identifying the occurrence of the term ‘innovation ecosystem’ and its connection networks in the specific context of the Google Scholar Index. In order to achieve this objective, the data were submitted to the UCINET software to generate grids and links. The methodology used was based on classics criteria, which is characterized by descriptive, qualitative, outlined, non-experimental, and bibliographic forms. The variables studied – keywords, authors, and repositories – showed differentiated results that indicate dispersion, specifically in the search of the keywords, whose conformation was presented with low linkages. On the other hand, the variable ‘repository’ demonstrated connections and network structure, earning centrality in the productions on the theme, considering the specific base of the research.
Keywords: Technological environments, Scientific production, Indexed works, Connection network analysis, Infometrics.

Consumer’s Attitude, Innovation, Involvement and Experience in Digital World
Thel Augusto Monteiro and Antonio Carlos Giuliani
This paper presents an analysis of concepts that covers the use of technology, and the relationship between technological change in e-commerce and buying behavior. The previous research is based in two projects in Brazil and two in Mexico. The first project presented the innovation influence, participation, attitude and experience with the Internet in the purchase decision. The second identified the variables of consumers’ motivation to buy luxury goods through the Internet. The third considered the components that allows the internet’s effectiveness. The fourth, reviewed the progress in the regulation of e-commerce. This paper is an exploratory, descriptive, and quantitative study, using the Techqual Index, and applied to consumers in Brazil and Mexico, within four concepts: optimism, innovation, discomfort and insecurity. The results are considered relevant for small and medium companies, as it can generate a better understanding of the consumer’s decision making in the digital environment. Previous and current subject studies, approach the characteristics of a single dimension, and are applied in a single market. The value and originality of this study, is in its application as a comparative research between Mexico and Brazil, and between theory and practice in studies of consumer behavior in the digital world.
Keywords: Consumer behavior, technology, digital environment.

Analysis Methods and Qualitative Diagnosis Chromatographic for Mixture of Narcotic Substances in Seized Materials
H. N. K. Al-Salman
In summary, the process of analysis involved in the detection and qualitative assessment of Narcotic substances includes three stages, as the first detection using the spot color under the Microscope using (20% HC2H3O2 and Platinic Chloride) as detector where it interacts with the molecule and gives a specific color of that molecule which can be detected clearly by an Optical Microscope with strength Zoom 20 Mega pixels and comparing the obtained images with photos of standard models. This method is important in the detection of the first Narcotic substances. The other detection involves HPLC-UV technique using the (Arcus EP-C18; 5μm, 4.5x250 mm) column with a flow rate 1 ml/min at 25oC and wavelength 275 nm where the number of samples in the mixture of Narcotics is isolated and diagnosis of the initial detection is confirmed by the number of peaks in this chromatogram So, the number of peaks in this method is five peaks indicating clearly the number of materials in the mix. The third detection was conducted by GC-Mass technology and included the separation of chromatography in the first phase and then estimate the mass spectrum of each material in the mix using the Instrument (Gas Chromatography-mass, MSDCHEM\1\METHODS\MUAFAQ.M) for the determination of (M/Z Negative Ions) at range Temperature (70-325) oC. The results showed the emergence of five clear peaks with the values of the molecular mass of each compound as indicated by the time of the warming of each appearance peak, also compare the results that obtained with the values of the reference library of the Instrument, where found a recovery by 91-95%.
Keywords: Raw opium, opiates, psychotropic stimulants, SEP methods.

Salinization Risk Assessment of Soil and Groundwater: A Case Study in Sidi El Hani Basin (Central-Eastern Tunisia)
M’nassri Soumaia, El Amri Asma, Dridi Lotfi, Tagorti Mohamed, Hachicha Mohamed and Majdoub Rajouene
The aquifer of Sidi El Hani, located in the central-eastern part of Tunisia, is the main source for irrigation activities. However, in the last decades, it is largely threatened by salinization. Therefore, a campaign of groundwater samples was carried out in the Ouled Chamekh plain. A campaign of soil samplings was also performed in a parcel located in the study area. A 27 soil samples were collected with a total depth reached 30 m. In addition to the experimental approach, we used statistical and hydrochemical analysis to assess the major processes of salinization of soil and groundwater. The results show that the degradation of the groundwater quality mainly results from natural factors such as rock weathering and anthropogenic factors associated with the irrigation water return. Moreover, based on the generalized Residual Alkalinity (RA) concept, calcite and gypsum have a tendency to precipitate when the soil solution gets concentrated under evaporation. This is in agreement with the saturation index. Furthermore, the RA reveals that the soil solution follows a neutral saline pathway.
Keywords: soil degradation, groundwater salinization, residual alkalinity, concentration factor, Sidi El Hani.

Quality of Antenatal Care Services in Morocco: Case of the Women Delivering At Souissi Maternity
Y. El Housni, A. Khadmaoui, A. Kharbach and E. Boussalwa
The main objective of this study was to identify and analyze the prevalence and associated risk factors of good monitoring of pregnancy, among pregnant women who delivered in Souissi maternity in Rabat, capital of Morocco. Among 230 pregnant women, a cross-sectional study was done from 2 to 14 April 2013. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data related to socio-demographic characteristics, medical, obstetric and dietary practices. Antenatal care Quality was determined by using new quality criteria (9 items). According to the study, 96.5% of women had at least one prenatal visit and were attended to by a trained health personnel, 63.5 % attended at least four prenatal visits with trained staff, and 78.82 % attended a prenatal visit in the first trimester. But, only 23 % of women received good quality of antenatal care while nearly 3.5 % did not receive any of the 9 quality criteria. The bivariate logistics regression analysis showed women’s decision making power (OR=3.82; 95% CI: 0.87-16.8); Women's positive experience at first prenatal visit (OR=2.4; 95% CI: 0.95-6.02); satisfaction with quality of antenatal care services (OR=2.16; 95% CI: 0.98-4.76) and reason of first prenatal visit (OR=3.9; 95% CI: 1.88-8.11); were significant predictors associated with quality of antenatal care services. To improve the quality of prenatal care, we recommend that health professionals complete physical and diagnostic tests, and encourage pregnant women to start antenatal care early, have adequate number of visits and obtain quality antenatal care from trained health personnel.
Keywords: quality, criteria, antenatal care, monitoring, pregnancy, Morocco.

Processus Sédimentaires et Paléoenvironnement des Formations Détritiques et Terrigènes de la Baie d’Abouabou (Lagune Ebrié, Côte d’Ivoire)
Kando Aney Marie-Laure, Yao N’Goran Jean Paul, IRIE Bi Trazié Jean-Gaël, Kouamé Aka Ferdin, Coulibaly Aoua Sougo, Monde Sylvain and Aka Kouamé
This study aims to characterize the detrital and terrigenous formations of Abouabou Bay. To achieve this, thirty-five (35) sediment samples were taken. These samples made it possible to determine the nature of the sediments, the processes involved in the transport and deposit of sands, to trace the history and transport conditions of these sands as well as the origin of the rocks that make up these detrital and terrigenous formations. . The results indicate that the sediments encountered in the bay are vases and sands. The vases are the most represented. The sands are of medium size. They were deposited by a variation of the competence of the transport agent in a more or less agitated environment. Their current of transport is fairly regular. The main mode of transportation is saltation. This grain transport is mainly in an aqueous medium. The bay is supplied with sands either by the Comoé river or by the surrounding fossil cords. The sand sediment deposition medium is of the fluvial type and of the beach or coastal dune type. The mineralogy of the sands is composed of Citrine, tourmalines, ilmenite, garnet and diopside. The vases consist of quartz, kaolinites, pyrite and halite.
Keywords: Abouabou Bay, mineralogical composition, detrital and terrigenous formations, Ebrié Lagoon, mode of transport, sediments.

On the Combustion and Performance of A Natural Gas Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine with Spark Plug Fuel Injector At Near Idling Condition
Taib Iskandar Mohamad
Direct injection in natural gas engine offers a potential of improved performance and thermal efficiency due to increased cylinder charge heating value and possibility of fuel stratification. An engine was converted to direct injection of natural gas using spark plug fuel injector which combines fuel injector and spark plug for easy conversion. The effect of injection timing on the performance and combustion in a 0.507L single-cylinder engine fuelled with natural gas substitute, methane was investigated. Engine was run at of 1100 rpm, 25oCA BTDC ignition and stoichiometric mixture. Start of injection were varied between 160o and 200o BTDC. The optimal start of injection, SOI timing is 170oCA BTDC at the test conditions. Higher burning rate at rapid combustion phase and longer ignition delay are evidenced over port injection. Total combustion and rapid combustion duration are longer with early injection. At the optimal SOI, combustion analysis indicated that long ignition delay, short rapid combustion duration and phasing angle of 1.5oCA ATDC produced highest heat release rate and engine performance. DI operation improves volumetric efficiency by up to 13% especially at low engine speeds. At the optimal SOI, volumetric efficiency, MEP and fuel conversion efficiency are 83.4%, 625 kPa and 21.8% respectively.
Keywords: Natural Gas Engine, Engine Fuel Conversion, Direct Fuel Injection, Burning Rate, Combustion Characteristics, Indicated Performance.

Analysis of the Phytosanitary Situation and Risks of Pesticides in Sanitary Protection of Mint (Mentha Spicata L.) In the Province of Benslimane in Morocco
Hamid El-Haoud, Moncef Boufellous, L.Aicha Lrhorfi, Rachid Bengueddour and Faid Mohammed
In order to high light the eventual problem of pesticide residues on spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) in the province of Benslimane (Morocco), a survey was conducted in four districts involving 38 growers. It appears that 5 active ingredients of insecticides, 7 fungicides and 1moluscicide are commonly used. belonging to different chemical groups, are applied in different formulations on mint against organisms harmful to this crop. Given the low level of technicality of farmers, the unreasoned use of these pesticides on mint can have adverse effects on human health and the environment.
In this working context, we interviewed mint growers in the province of Benslimane using a questionnaire in which we focused on the cultivation techniques practiced, especially those related to phytosanitary practices. Factor analysis allowed us to identify the main pesticides used on mint in the province, and the technical application of these pesticides.
Keywords: Morocco, Spearmint, Pesticides, Sanitary and environmentally risks.

Evaluation of the Physicochemical and Agronomic Quality of the Composts of Urban Waste of the Towns of Lome and Kara in Togo
Tchanate Kolani N, Segbeaya Kwamivi N., Koledzi Komi Edem and Baba Gnon
Household refuse of the towns of Lomé and Kara (Togo) was collected, sorted, and put into Andean for composting respectively by ENPRO and AVROVIKA. This work aims at studying the quality of the produced composts. The results show that the mature composts obtained at the end of 90 days have an organic matter rate around 16,6 to dry matter 24,4%, a total nitrogen content included/understood enters and 0.40 -1.33% of dry matter, a total phosphorus content (mg P 2 O 5 / g) located in the range of 08.63 – 14.04 mg P 2 O 5 / g, a ratio C/N around 10,67 to 26.25, a pH in range 9.6 to 10.4 for the pH (water) and 9.0 to 9.6 for the pH (KCl) Le relative humidity is between 3.85 and 7.15% compared to the dry weight. These contents are average compared to the international standards.
Keywords: compost, organic matter, total organic carbon, pH