European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 146 No 3
August, 2017

Potential Use of Pseudomonas Fluorescens Chloroform Extracts against Phytophthora Colocasiae the Causative Agent of Taro Leaf Blight (TLB)
Ntyam Mendo Samuel Arsène, Kouitcheu Mabeku Laure Brigitte, Souk Tounkara Lat, Tchameni Nguemezi Séverin, *Sameza Modeste Lambert, Ngono Ngane Rosalie Anne
Pseudomonas spp. rhizobacteria are biological control agents widely used against plant pathogens. In the present study we evaluated the antimicrobial activities of chloroform extracts of Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates DS15V and DS17R against Phytophthora colocasiae, the causative agent of Taro Leaf Blight (TLB). Pseudomonas was isolated from Taro rhizosphere by soil dilution method while Phytophthora colocasiae was isolated from infected Taro leave. Phenolic and flavonoid content were evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride reduction methods respectively. Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) was used to evaluate the reducing power of the extracts. Antimicrobial activities were evaluated by agar incorporation method and dilution method while, in situ test were carried out by leaf disc test. The phenolic content of the extracts were 44.72 and 46.20 mgEGA/g respectively for the extracts from DS15V and DS17R while Flavonoid content were 3.01 and 5.18 mgEQ/g. The reducing power (IC50) of the extracts were 14.41 and 23.70 μg/ml for DS17R and DS15V extracts. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the two extracts on mycelial growth was observed at 1000 μg/ml. The Concentration that Inhibit 50% (IC50) of zoospores germination was obtained at 21.44 and 21.91 μg/ml respectively, for DS15V and DS17R extracts. The extracts showed total inhibition of leaves necrosis at 1000 μg/ml for both preventive and curative tests. These results suggest that Pseudomonas fluorescens extracts could be exploited as a potential biopesticide against P. colocasiae the causal agent of Taro Leaf Blight.
Keywords: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Phytophthora colocasiae, Phenolic and Flavonoid compounds, Taro Leaf Blight.

Phytochemicals Screening and Antioxidant Activity of Water Lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) Extract
Sabri Sudirman, Herpandi, Shanti D. Lestari, Wasahla
Effect of different extraction solvents such as n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol on phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) was studied. Multiple extraction procedure using maceration technique was conducted and the antioxidant activity of water lettuce extract was evaluated through free radical (DPPH) scavenging activity method. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of the crude extract was determined to test the presence of steroids, saponins, and flavonoids. The results showed that solvent with different polarity leaded to different yield, phytochemical compounds and antioxidant activity of the extract. Extraction using methanol gave the highest yield with the value of 3.04%. The concentration of phenolic on methanol extract was also the highest, which contributed to the best radical scavenging activity with the IC50 of 147.58 ppm. In general, the antioxidant activity of water lettuce methanol extract was categorized as medium.
Keywords: Antioxidant activity, extraction, methanol, phytochemicals, water lettuce.

Specific diversity of avifauna of wetlands of the Lower Delta of Ouémé (Ramsar Site 1018)
Jacques Boco Adjakpa, Vincent Tchabi, Justine Dossa, Louis Ezin Lawouin, Joselito Tossou, Wilfried L. A. Adjakpa, Jean-Michel Coquillat and Peter D. M. Weesie
The Lower delta of Ouémé presented a mosaic of wet natural habitats sheltering many species of resident and migratory birds. To determine their diversity and distribution in different habitats, bird inventories were carried out from 1998 to 2004 and 2008 to 2010. Transect, point count methods were used, as well as capture and release of birds. A total of 342 bird species belonging to 188 genera, 62 families and 19 orders were identified. With regard to habitat occupation, four main groups of birds were identified: 1) forest-dependent species (33 or 9.65%), 2) species associated with open habitats (131 or 38.30%), 3) species confined to waterways (87 or 25.44%) and 4) ubiquitous species (91 or 26.61%). The studied avifauna belonged to four biogeographical origins: the majority were resident species of Afrotropical origin (212 or 61.99%), species of both Afrotropical and Palearctic origin (66 or 19.30%), Palearctic migratory species (50 or 14.62%) and Afrotropical migrants (14 or 4.09%). Recommendations for the sustainable management of these wetland ecosystems have been also suggested.
Keywords: Birds, diversity, habitat, Lower Delta of Ouémé, Benin.

Modified Activation Function to Reduce the Error in Back Propagation Neural Network
Dayashankar Singh, J.P Saini, D.S Chauhan
Activation function plays an important role in Error Back propagation neural network. Back propagation training algorithm is an efficient algorithm to train neural networks. The focus of the research is to find the most effective activation function for the back-propagation algorithm in terms of training time and least error. In this paper, various activation functions have been studied and a modified activation function has been proposed for Back propagation neural network. Experimental analysis has been carried out and result shows that modified/proposed activation function implemented in Back propagation neural network algorithm yields least error due to which training time of back propagation neural network is reduced. This modified activation function can be implemented in back propagation neural network and used for character recognition.
Keywords: Activation Function, Error Back Propagation (EBP), Sigmoidal Function, Training Time.

Monitoring Land use Changes in Al-Hofuf City Using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing(RS) Techniques
Aymen Abed Alkareem Taani, Abed Alhameed Ayoub AlFanatseh, Ayed Mohammad Ayed Taran and Fadl ALRashid
The purpose of this research is to study the land use patterns in Al-Hofuf city, Saudi Arabia. The study analyzed satellite images from 1984, 2007, 2010 by ERDAS and Arc GIS, where land-use practices of agricultural, residential, roads, space and desert lands have been mapped. The resulting maps showed that there were improper land-use and mismanagement practices, especially for agricultural and residential purposes. The study also revealed that the surface features play an important role in the prevailing land-use patterns of the region. It also showed an increase in the residential area from 3% in 1984 to about 6% in 2010. The calculations for the current and expected land uses up to 2030 have found that there is an increase in the various land uses indicating the need for a comprehensive development planning in the study area with increases in the agricultural uses of about 14.6%, and the residential of about 5.7%. It seemed that the topographic factors play a role in the distribution of land uses, with where the agricultural and residential land use has been commonly observed in areas with a slope steepness of 0 - 0.5 degree. The study recommended designated areas for parks and tourist sites in the desert areas to benefit from available areas, and to control the expansions of urbanization at the expense of agricultural land. It also suggested involving the private sector in land-use planning, and establishing database periodically updated to facilitate decision-making and proper planning.

Etude de L’héminégligence Spatiale Unilatérale Dans La Survenue des Accidents de La Voie Publique Chez Un Echantillon de Conducteurs au Maroc
I. Echerbaoui, I. Cherkaoui El Malki, A.O.T. Ahami, F. Elmassioui
Professional drivers are faced with multiple risks that sometimes prove to be harmful to their health, such as attentional disturbances, which is a widespread phenomenon on the driving environment. Our work focuses on identifying the links between the driver’s profiles and those of unilateral spatial neglect, in what concerns of tracking and rehabilitation, in order to reduce road accidents. The study is of descriptive transversal type, among 60 non-professional drivers and 60 professional taxi drivers in Kenitra in Morocco. The study was carried out by a questionnaire, a scale of unilateral spatial neglect (NSU), named Bells test. The drivers work 8 to 12 hours per day. The test result indicates that 17.5% and 10.83% of subjects present a profile of unilateral left and right spatial neglect successively. Thus, 43.33% of professional drivers use disorganized bell research (Strategy I), compared with 35% of non-professional drivers. A significant difference was observed between accident production, the unilateral spatial neglect profile and the scanning strategies adopted by drivers. The current study invites all the road safety field speakers and the public health speakers to intervene in the remediation with the lack of attention problem in order to reduce or eliminate the number of accident.
Keywords: Taxi drivers, attentional disorders, accident, unilateral spatial neglect, Bells test.

Effect of Base Station Antenna Parameters on the Transmitter Energy Consumption of Mobile Networks
Abdulaziz Alsayyari
Cellular networks require a greater amount of energy as the numbers of users and data transfer is drastically increasing. Therefore, creating innovative techniques to reduce energy consumption in such networks becomes a necessity. In this paper, the influence of the spatial orientation of base station antenna pattern on the energy characteristics of mobile station transmitter has been investigated. Furthermore, it has been shown that the energy consumption cost of mobile station transmitter can be minimized by changing the base station cell radius while fixing the antenna height.
Keywords: Mobile Networks, Cellular Networks, Base stations.

The Relevance of Entrepreneurship Education to the Development of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in Nigeria
OSENI, Elizabeth Funmi
Incorporation of entrepreneurship education as a course and subject into the educational curricular of vocational studies, secondary, tertiary institutions and entrepreneurship agencies has become a globally accepted initiative to address the increasing unemployment rates. This study assessed the state of entrepreneurship education and the impact on the development of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in Nigeria. The study observed an insignificant correlation between the existing Nigerian educational system where entrepreneurship education is optional and restricted to only tertiary institutions and entrepreneurship development. It also observed that the withdrawal of entrepreneurship education from the nation’s tertiary educational curriculum would be of little or no effect on the efforts in curbing employment in Nigeria. The paper puts to test, the preceding assertions with the aid of Kruskal Wallis test. From the test, the paper refutes the former assertions on the reasoning that their P-values were less than 5% level of being deemed to be significant. Based on its findings, the study therefore concludes that for entrepreneurship education to be effective in addressing unemployment in Nigeria, it should be incorporated into the nation’s educational system right from secondary school.
Keywords: Educational Curricular, Entrepreneurship Education, Bank of Industry (BOI), Small and Medium Enterprises Development Agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN).

Modelling and Optimized Control of a 7.5MW Hydraulic Energy Conversion Chain Connected to Distribution System
Chirine Benzazah, Loubna Lazrak, Mustapha Ait lafkih
The main purpose of this article has been the modeling and simulation of a Multi-Pole Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator MP-PMSG direct driven with a hydraulic turbine. The MP-PMSG is connected to an uncontrolled rectifier followed by a DC/DC type boost converter. In order to couple the system to the distribution grid, three levels NPC inverter (Neutral Point Clamped) is used with a LCL-filter. All the conversion chain is utilized as a full power capacity AC-DC-AC converter. Through the generator side converter, the control strategy requires only one active switching device (IGBT) which is used to control the inductor current (inner loop) in the boost converter, the reference current is given by controlling the difference between the reference speed and its measured (outer loop).The grid side converter is mainly used to keep the voltage in the DC-link capacitor constant, to control the active/reactive power delivered to the grid and to resolve the problem of voltage unbalance of DC capacitors that leads to system instability. Simulation results using Matlab-Simulink/SimPower Systems prove the effectiveness and performance of Hydraulic Energy Conversion System HECS model along with the control strategy method which shows extremely good dynamic and steady state performance.
Keywords: Hydraulic Turbine, Multi Pole Permanent Magnet, Synchronous Generator, Uncontrolled Rectifier, DC/DC Boost Converter, NPC Inverter, LCL filter.

Biodiesel Cotton Seed Oil NOX Emission and Combustion Process Analysis on Ship Diesel Engine
Semin, Ayudhia P. Gusti, Gage C. Hadi1
The use of biodiesel by using plant oil and animal fats is strived to the maximum extent possible, in order to maintain its sustainability. Cotton seed oil is one alternative that can be used as a replacement fuel. There are four advantages of using cotton seed oil as a substitute fuel which are produce a low level of pollutant, guaranteed availability, can be used for diesel engines with little or no modification and in certain mixes can increase engine lubrication that should increase engine life. The research was conducted through combustion performance and NOX emission test of YANMAR TF85-MH diesel engine using cotton seed oil biodiesel with mixture of B30, B20 which has be compared with using YANMAR TF85-MH diesel engine. From the results of combustion test, it showed that the using of cotton seed oil give lower maximum pressure, shorter ignition delay, lower heat release rate value and lower potential of knocking than fossil diesel fuel use on the same engine. NOX emission of cotton seed oil has lower value than fossil diesel fuel. The result show that the addition of biodiesel cotton seed percentage into the fuel provide lower NOX emission but it provide the higher knocking potential.
Keywords: Biodiesel Cotton Seed (Ceiba Pentandra), Combustion Process, Emission, NOX, Renewable Fuel, Ship Diesel Engine.