European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 145 No 3
May, 2017

The Need for Environmental Adult Education for Sustainable Development in Nigeria
Nwobi Anthonia Ujunwa, Onwuadi Charles Chibuike, Agboeze Mathias Ugwu, Ogbonnaya Kingsley Asogu, Okafor Ikechukwu Charles, Obetta Kenneth Chukwuemeka, Okeke Polycarp, Ekwealor Nwakaego Ebele, Nwachukwu Rufina Ukamaka and Imo Charity Onyeodiri
This study is on the need for environmental adult education for sustainable development in Nigeria. Adult literacy learners were the population of the study and women form the majority of the population. Three research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The population consists of 62, 986 registered adult literacy learners out of which 740 were selected considering the rural nature of the states in Nigeria. The instrument used was the Questionnaire on the Need for environmental adult education for sustainable development in Nigeria (QNEAESD). Mean and standard deviation were used in analysing research questions while t-test statistics were used for the hypotheses. The following major findings emerged: the respondents were of the opinion that environmental adult education creates awareness about environment and also enables them acquire skills that will help them prevent natural disaster. They also agreed on the best methods of delivering environmental adult education to be through campaigns, mass media among others. Based on these findings, recommendations were made. Environmental adult education should involve community leaders and youths in designing and implementing pro-environmental education programmes. Environmental adult educators should engage leaders of civil society, community based and Non-government organizations in programme planning processes for sustainable development among others.
Keywords: Environment, Adult education, Sustainable development.

Archeology of the Slave Trade in the Extreme South-West of Côte d'Ivoire (Gbôklè and San Pedro Regions): Identification of Material Traces
Mme KIENON-KABORE Timpoko Hélène and M. N’ZI Kouadio Jean
Considered an important platform in the exchanges between Côte d'Ivoire and the rest of the world, the sea facilitated the arrival of the first Portuguese on the coasts of present Côte d'Ivoire in the 15th century. The Atlantic Coast from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century experienced the slave trade. It is essentially based on trade in human beings, especially Africans. The Côte d'Ivoire, unlike other countries in the subregion such as Benin, Senegal, Ghana etc. Did not experience a large scale, spectacular trade that left visible traces of large scale. However, written documents of archives, oral traditions, material traces, immaterial data are evidence of the existence of this phenomenon on the Ivorian coasts. Our objective is to identify the places of material memory and to show the importance of the archaeological approach in understanding the history of the slave trade. To achieve our objectives, we consulted the archival documents, interviewed the traditionalists and made archaeological prospections.
Keywords: Sea, Slave trade, Slaves, Place of memory.

Effects of Gluteal Muscles Strengthening Exercises On Balance And Muscle Strength Of Knee Joint Following Meniscus Repair
Abdelrazek Youssef Ibrahim Bayomi
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of gluteal muscles exercise on balance and muscle strength in knee joint following meniscus repair. Sixteen football players aged 19-22 years were enrolled in this study. They had undergone arthroscopic repair after meniscus injury and started a rehabilitation program for 12 weeks after knee surgery. Patients were randomly classified into two groups, each group consisted of eight patients, study group and control group. Study group received gluteal muscles strengthening exercises with a rehabilitation program of the knee joint while the control group received only rehabilitation program without gluteal exercise. Balance score and strength of hip abductors, knee flexors and extensor were measured before and after 12-week intervention. The results showed significant improvement in muscle strengths in both groups after intervention (p<0.05). Also, There were nonsignificant differences in muscle strengths and balance score between the two groups after intervention (p>0.05). But, there were significant differences in muscle strength of the hip abductors between both groups after intervention in favor of the study group (p<0.05). The study group showed greater improvement in all measures than the control group. According to this study results, it was concluded that 12-week gluteal muscles strengthening exercises has beneficial effects to improve balance and muscle strength in knee joint following meniscus repair.
Keywords: Meniscus, Gluteal muscles, Balance, Muscle strength, Resistance exercise

Concerted Digital Watermarking Algorithm Based on DWT-DLT Transformation and Henon Map Encryption
Heba M. Fadhil
Communication is a useful exchange of information between two entities or more. In this age of electronic communication, any non-physical data that has been digitally encoded for the purpose of storing and processing of information transfer, the first concern is about the security of the content that is shared during communications.
This research has embraced a digital watermarking technique that operates in the frequency domain: a hybrid watermarking scheme based on Discrete Wavelet Transform – Discrete Laguerre Transform (DWT-DLT); In addition to Henon Map Encryption. Its main objective is to test whether this technique can withstand attacks (its robustness) and invisibility (its imperceptibility), achieved by taking DLT of the DWT coefficients of the LL mid-frequency sub-bands from third level HL and LH band. To ensure security, the secret code (watermark) is scrambled using the Henon Map Encryption which is embedded in the original image.
The tests were performed using MATLAB. The proposed system achieves significantly higher robustness. Comparative results are measured using signal-to noise ratio criteria, mean square error and normalized cross correlation. The results of this research reveal that the secret code (watermark) is strong enough against threats and shows higher robustness against common signal processing attacks.
Keywords: Digital watermarking, Encryption, DWT-DLT transform, Henon Map, PSNR, NCC.

Shot Boundary and Key Frame Detection for Content Based Video Retrieval Using HSV Colormap and Edge Density Difference
Kalpesh M Shah and Ramji Makwana
In this paper color features are used to describe the content of video frames. Video shot is a boundary exists in between series of consecutive frames where two boundary frames are gradually or significantly changes either by its content or background of the frame. Shot boundary detection is a key step for video processing in indexing and retrieval applications. We inspired to use color features because its statistical features are independent of size and orientation of content of the frames. Color features may contribute major role when frames are changing by background. We used statistical features of HSV color map. Euclidian distance is used to calculate the difference between two consecutive frames. Frame rate is used as threshold for boundary detection. Higher the difference between two consecutive frames indicates video frames are changing by its content and so video cut may exist there. Thus, different shots can be detected using HSV color statistical features. Recall and Precision are generally used as a detection accuracy measures. Pass and fail rates are used to find detection accuracy. Videos from various activities like news, sports and cartoons are used to detect the shot boundary.
Keywords: Video content analysis, video shot segmentation, HSV color map, Edge density, Threshold selection, Cut detection.

Design of Reconfigurable Noc Router By Using Distributive RRA with 3 PE for High Speed Applications
M.Senthil Kumar, Marri Ravindranath and G.V.R.L.Maccalay
The network on chip (NoC) is mainly used to transfer the data from source to destination based on the address contains in the register and priority. It act like router switches. NoC based routing is incorporated into system on chip (SoC) integrated circuits for complex routing. Various routing technique are available to transfer the data such as adaptive routing , XY routing, weighted routing, non-adaptive routing, west first routing, odd even routing. From that, we are using XY routing (vertical and horizontal) technique to reduce the resource utilization and increase speed of the router. NoC router contains FIFO to store the data, arbitration technique, finite state machine (FSM) and crossbar switch (multiplexing and De-multiplexing). Arbiter is the most significant element in the network on chip. Arbiter is used to generate only one grant signal at the time when multiple channel request to transfer multiple data at the time. Distributive Round Robin Arbiter (DRRA) is used to route the data based on the FSM is mainly used to generate the control signal. It control all the blocks. The main aim of the project is to increase the performance of 3x3 NoC switch router based on mesh topology. Circuit switching is performed by using three programmable elements with DRRA in the proposed NoC router. Circuit switching by using two programmable elements with DRRA is designed in the existing router. Comparison between existing and proposed circuit switching are performed by using 2PE and 3PE. From the obtained results, it describes that the proposed NoC router offers high speed than the existing method.
Keywords: Distributive round robin arbiter, 3 PE, Reconfigurable NoC router, Circuit switching and SoC.

Modeling the Stochastic Volatility of the MAD/EURO and MAD/USD Exchange Rates Using the Kalman Filter
Benbachir Saâd, Ezznati Mohammed and Benbachir Anas
Our paper focus on the modeling of the stochastic volatility of the Moroccan Dirham vs Euro (henceforth MAD/EURO) and the Moroccan Dirham vs the US Dollar (henceforth MAD/USD) foreign exchange log-returns using the Kalman filter. The data used is composed by the daily closing MAD/EURO and MAD/USD exchange rates over the period from 2 February 2000 to 3 March 2017 totaling 4457 observations. We begin our study by first formulating the stochastic volatility model in the linear space state model. Then we fit the Kalman filter model to the two foreign exchange log-returns. From the estimation of the state-space model, we deduce the predicted, filtered and smoothed estimates of the unobserved latent volatility of two underlying return series. The persistence coefficients are close to one with that of MAD/EURO slightly greater than that of MAD/USD. The results show also that the autocorrelation functions decreas exponetially to zero. We note likewise that the volatility predicted for the MAD/EURO exchange rate reach its highest value at the date 01/05/2001 and its lowest value at the date 12/07/2007, while the MAD/USD exchange rate reach its highest value at the date 27/11/2008 and its lowest value at the date 11/08/2014.
Keywords: Stochastic volatility, State-Space model, Kalman filter, filtering, smoothing
JEL Classification Code: C20, C53, C58, F31

Income and Investment Portfolio of Smallholder Farmers in Ezza South Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Nwibo Simon Uguru, Nwakpu Cletus and Eze and Anayochukwu Victor
The income generation and investment portfolio of smallholder farmers in Ezza South Local Government of Ebonyi State, Nigeria, seems not to have been empirically documented. The study employed a combination of multistage and purposive sampling techniques to elicit relevant information from 120 Agricultural Development Project contact farmers in the area using structured questionnaire administered as interview schedule. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics such tables, frequencies, and percentages to realize objective (i); and inferential statistics involving Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to achieve objectives (ii) and (iii). Results showed that farm and non-farm activities are the major sources of income for the smallholder farmers who invest mainly on the procurement of seeds/seedlings, storage, money lending, trading, landed properties, and hire purchase. Meanwhile, production, infrastructural and institutional factors were observed to have influenced income generation whereas, intrinsic and extrinsic factors influenced investment portfolio of smallholder farmers. The study recommended increase in the income generating potential of the farmers as to enhance their investment behaviour.
Keywords: Income, investment, behaviour, smallholders, farmers

Sanitary Inspection of Wells for Domestic Use in Rural Areas in Department of Tiassalé, Côte d’Ivoire
Adidjatou Ouattara, Alassane Meite, Theodor Dally, Howele Ouattara and Seraphin Kati-Coulibaly
Sanitary inspection of wells was performed according to World Health Organization (WHO) procedures using risk of contamination scoring, in department of Tiassalé, in Côte d’Ivoire. The level of risk of contamination for each well was determined from a checklist with ten questions on risk factors for contamination, recommended by WHO. The results of surveyed wells showed a risk of contamination ranging from a low rick to very high risk. The microbiological quality of water was assessed using total coliforms, faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and faecal enterococci. Microbiological pollution levels exceeded the WHO drinking water quality recommendations throughout the investigation period.
They were identified and counted in water samples of 90% of the wells surveyed. The analysis of the correlation between the level of risk of contamination of the well and the level of water pollution was significant (0.60<R2<0.80; p<0.05). The level of protection of well and environmental conditions were determinants for water quality in the study area. The present results indicate that sanitary inspection could be an interesting tool for the management and monitoring of the quality of well water in rural areas in developing countries.
Keywords: Risk of Contamination, Well Water, Sanitary Inspection, Pollution

Bioaccumulation capacity of Cu and Fe on lichen Parmotrema dilatatum
Yacouba Zoungranan, Lynda Ekou, Tchirioua Ekou and Kouacou Venceslas Agenor Kouadio
Atmospheric pollution by heavy metals is one of the most important problems in urban environments. Heavy metals are not biodegradable and tend to accumulate in living organisms causing serious health problems. These living organisms are known to accumulate a variety of contaminants. Lichens are generally considered as useful organisms to monitor air quality. In this work we determine the joint effect of elements such as pH, contact time, Effect of temperature, and competitive effect of Cu and Fe adsorption on lichen surface.
As result we have found that Cu and Fe sorption are strongly depended on pH solution, temperature and initial concentration. The adsorption reaches the equilibrium at 80 minutes. Finally the competition adsorption study of Cu and Fe shows that iron has more affinity adsorption on lichen surface.
Keywords: atmospheric pollution, heavy metals, lichen, bioindicators.