European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 145 No 2
May, 2017

The Erosion of Social Health As A Social Problem
Ebrahim Ansari and Maryam Zare
The social health of women is a vital issue that nowadays, has been faced with the many challenges; the importance of this issue is such a way that some studies have shown a growing trend lot of these problems. The study has examined the social health of women and the causes and consequences of its erosion. This study has studied the erosion of women’s social health as a social problem from the perspective of social disorganization; In terms of theorists of social disorganization while a part or parts of the social system create disorder, so, occur the anomie and the society is facing to the social problems; So, according to this approach and based on the idea of the health, each person is deemed healthful that has the high level of social health; the healthful person has the good performance socially that consider the community as the meaningful ,understandable and 66potential collection for growth and participate on the prosperity and development of society; In the context of social disorganization approach, has been used Maslow's theory and theory of social system of Parsons, for analysis of social health; So can be said that will be created the disruption in the social relations or in one of the social institutions, other sectors of society are also experiencing disorder; According to the above theory can be said that low level of individual health, the public health, reduction of social security, lack of attention to the economic needs of individuals and other items will be also reduced to the social health; the erosion of women’s social health, reduce their social participation and will facing with social passivity in society.
Keywords: social health, social issues, social disorganization, women and social participation.

Health Information Needs of Rural Women in Sub Sahara Africa: A Case Study of Nigeria
Nwobi Anthonia Ujunwa, Ogbonnaya Kingsley Asogu, Agboeze Mathias Ugwu, Nwachukwu Ruphina Ukamaka, Obetta Emeka, Okeke Polycarp M.D., Ugwuoke Ngozi, Okafor Agnes Ebelechukwu, Iheanacho Victoria Afoma, Koledoye Uzoamaka Lucinder, Egenti, Nkechi Theresa and Eseadi Chiedu
This study is on the health information needs of rural women in Sub Sahara Africa especially in Nigeria. Rural women form the majority of the population of any nation, yet they are generally miss out on the position cycle because they have little or no education, they have little or no knowledge of health practices and are limited to economic opportunities. This situation is made worse with the cultural values of our societies. It is based on this premise that the researchers investigated health information needs of rural women Sub Sahara Africa especially in Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. The population consists of 1,789,220 rural women out of which 555 rural women were selected considering the rural nature of the states in Nigeria. The instrument used was the questionnaire on Health Information Needs of Rural Women in Nigeria (QHINRW). Mean and standard deviation were used in analysing research questions. The following major findings emerged: those rural women in Nigeria needs information on health to enable them avert a lot of health problems facing them as women. They also agreed that the rural women needs health information to get to them through appropriate dissemination of local town criers, age grades, etc to enable them access and utilise the information gathered very well. Based on these findings, recommendations were made. Considering the importance of rural women in national population and development, the policy makers, librarians, educational administrators should serve as a guide to the rural women by making sure that information are being repackaged to enable the rural women be deeply and effectively involved in all the health programmes that affects them individually and collectively for a better living in the society.
Keywords: Health, Information, Rural Women, Diseases.

Dietary Patterns of Pre-School Children in Rural Communities in Enugu State, Nigeria
Ngozi M. Eze, Ezeda K. Ogbonnaya, Elizabeth Chukwuemeka, Michael C. Abonyi, Bibian Amaka Ezeanwu and Helen Amaka Njoku
Dietary patterns reflect the routine practice of exposing foods and nutrients and an ideal means to evaluate diet and disease relations. The current study aimed to evaluate the dietary patterns of pre-school children in rural communities in Enugu State, Nigeria. The study is a cross-sectional descriptive survey. Participants included parents/guardians of 640 school children attending nursery schools and these children in the study area. Data on socio-economic status of the children’s mothers and feeding pattern (24-hour dietary recall) were obtained by the use of semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Nutrient intakes of the children were calculated for a three day weighted food intake. Food intake data was converted to raw food values and calculated as mean nutrient intakes using Platt’s food composition version. Adequacy of nutrient intakes was assessed as percentages of FAO/WHO requirement. The results showed that all pre-school children (male and female) did not meet the requirement for all the nutrients except for vitamin A. The males aged 2 – 6 years had above average intake for these nutrients; energy (79.11%), calcium (77.14%), zinc (60.00%), thiamin (80.00%), and riboflavin (68.33%), while the females had above average intakes for all nutrients except zinc (30.30%). The males had significantly (p<0.05) higher nutrient intake than the females. The 24-hour dietary recall results showed that a greater percentage of the respondents (66.25%, 18.75%, 18.75% ) consumed Cassava fufu and Ogbono soup, Ayaraya (mixed corn meal), and Dried Cocoyam Cornel respectively. The study showed that for most nutrients, the dietary intake of the pre-school children in the study area was below the recommended nutrient intake. Poverty and under-education of the parents could be major causes of the poor dietary intake in many parts of Nigeria. More efforts must be geared towards improving the standard of living of people in rural communities in Nigeria.
Keywords: Dietary Pattern; Preschool Children; Rural Communities; Enugu State

Procedures for the Construction and Development of Psychological Test
Patricia Odinaka Eze, Vera Victor-Aigbodion, Osita Victor Ossai, Amanda U. Ugwoezuonu, Nkechi T. Egenti and Chiedu Eseadi
A test is a set of stimuli capable of measuring an individual’s cognitive ability, affective and psychomotor behaviors. This review paper aimed to provide an insight on test construction and development in that most readily available tests are defective as they often measure one aspect of a course content leaving other very important aspects. In order to construct and develop a valid and reliable test, one must endeavor to identify item topics by consulting test plan, ensure that each item presents a central idea or problem, write items drawn only from testing universe, write each item in clear and direct manner, use vocabulary and language appropriate for the target audience, take into account racist language, make all items independent, and ask experts to review the test items to reduce ambiguity and inaccuracy. Overall, it was observed that test construction and development must span through the following stages: test planning, test preparation, trial testing, test evaluation and test production. Thus, the construction of psychological tests should be systematic and purposeful.
Keywords: Test Construction; Test Development; Psychological Tests; Procedures.

Sales Forecasting in the La Casera Company Plc, Nigeria
Salami, A, O; Okpara, K. K.; Abiodun, A. J and Mustapha, R. O
Sales forecasting is one of the most common phenomena observed in industry, as it assists other subsidiary department of the industry such as finance, human resources, marketing, supply chain etc. Although forecasted values are obtained through several qualitative and quantitative methods, each method has its own pros and cons. The selection of these models depends upon the knowledge, availability of data and context of forecasting. The purpose of this research paper is to forecast the 12 months sales of Lacasera using Auto Regressive, Integrated and Moving Average (ARIMA) model, which is also called Box-Jenkins method. The purpose of ARIMA is to find a model that accurately represents the past and future patterns of a time series where the pattern can be random, seasonal, trend, cyclical, or a combination of patterns until the errors are distributed as white noise.
The study observed that the series have irregular pattern, after taken the first differencing the series became stationary. Nevertheless in modelling ARIMA (p, d, q) the best model is ARIMA (1, 1, 1) for production and ARIMA (0, 1, 1) for utilization. A 12 months forecast have also been made to determine the expected amount of sales revenue in year 2016. The time plot reveals seasonal variation. It thus concludes that that there is increase in sales revenue of Company with time, hence these models can be adopted for sales, production, utilization and demand forecasting in Nigeria.
Keywords: Sales Forecasting, Time Series Analysis, ARIMA.

Ensuring Data Integrity in Distributed System Architecture
Vipul Narayan, YashPal Singh, Vimal Kumar and Sanjay Kumar
The cryptographic hash function is a special kind of function in which we take any input in an arbitrary length and produced an output put of fixed length. The feasibility of implementing cryptographic hash functions is for ensuring integrity and sender individuality. This paper makes available a comprehensive summary of cryptographic hash functions. It clearly demonstrates evolution, fundamental, classification of various types of attacks, construction and also their important applications. A new method is introduced for ensuring data integrity, distributed system architecture by using the RSA asymmetric key algorithm which minimized attack on integrity problem and ensured data integrity among distributed system. By using this new method we achieved higher security among cloud data which is distributed at various locations.
Keywords: Cryptographic hash function, encryption, attacks, SHA-1, SHA-2, SHA-3 and MD-5.

Detection of ECG R- Waves using Wavelet Transform
Afroz and Abdullah
There are numerous algorithm has been developed to determine instantaneous heart rate (IHR) as well as other parameters of electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. There are many artifacts of ECG is removed using wavelet transform. There are many techniques has been developed for R-waves of ECG signal detection like slope detection technique and appropriate thresholding. IHR time series is made out from the R-peaks. Application of this process to the 10 records of ECG information of MIT-BIH data base shows that the common effective peak detection rate is around 99.6 percent. The heart rate variability (HRV) is determined from IHR time’s series and HRV data analyzed with discrete wavelet transform. In this paper, used ECG records are taken from MIT-BIT database and applied our proposed method. We have compared our proposed method to some other existing methods. Finally we find that proposed method obtained better results.
Keywords: ECG, Wavelet Transform, Denoising

Characterizing the Major Morphological Traits and Chemical Compositions in Nine Species of Wild Thyme from Morocco
Saadia Belmalha, Ghizlane Echchgadda, Jamal Ibijbijen, Rachid Bouamri , Laila Nassiri, Souad Bachir, Fouad Rachidi, Rachid Zouhair, Ali Amechrouq, Mostafa El Idrissi
The objective of the study was to determine the morphological characterization of populations of some wild growing species of thyme originating from different locations in Morocco and to analyze the chemical composition of the essential oil isolated from those species for the classification of chemotypes. A statistical approach was adopted to clarify their phylogenetical relations as well as an attempt to identify their taxonomy. The morphological characters taken into consideration confirmed that the plants used in this study belong to Thymus riatarum Humbert & Maire, Thymus leptobotrys Murb, Thymus munbyanus Boiss. & Reuter subsp. ciliatus (Desf.) Greuter & Burdet, Thymus zygis L. subsp. gracilis (Boiss.) R. Morales Thymus satureioides Cosson, Thymus willdenowii Boiss, Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reuter, Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav., Thymus broussonnetii Boiss. The essential oils were isolated by hydro distillation, and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and the compounds were identified.
Keywords: Thymus species, Morphological characterization, chemical composition.

Reproductive Biology and Microscopic Aspects of the Ovaries of Parachanna obscura (Günther, 1861) (Perciformes, Channidae) from Ayame 2 Man-Made Lake and Agneby River (Côte d’Ivoire)
Gogbé Zeré Marius, Blahoua Kassi Georges, Berté Siaka and N’Douba Valentin
Many people were interested in breeding of the Channidae Parachanna obscura (Günther, 1861) these last years in West Africa. The present contribution aims to investigate some aspects of the reproductive biology of P. obscura in two different ecosystems: Ayame 2 man-made Lake and Agneby River. Fish were sampled with gill nets and hoop nets from September 2015 to August 2016. Spawning period has been determined studying the monthly variations of Gonado-Somatic-Index and ripe female frequency. Also, ovarian structure have been studied by macroscopic and microscopic observation of the different maturation stages of gonad. The size at first sexual maturity doesn’t differ significantly between the female population and the male population. P. obscura reproduces from January to August and from March to July in the Ayame 2 Lake and in the Agneby River respectively. The spawning was spread over a period from March to August in the Lake and from March to July in the Agneby River. P. obscura doesn’t realize fractional spawning with synchronous oocytes development. The mean number of the oocytes per unit of body weight is 35 oocytes.g-1 in hydroelectric Lake Ayame and 25 oocytes.g-1 in the Agneby River.
Keywords: Size At First Maturity, Oocyte, Fecundity, Spawning Period, Lake, River

The Quantized Atomic Masses of the Elements: Part-2; Z=21-40 (Sc-Zr)
Bahjat R. J. Muhyedeen
This paper is the second part of a series of nine. An innovative semi-empirical atomic mass formula has been derived to calculate quantized atomic masses more precisely than macro-micro formula and purely microscopic HF-self-consistent methods. It is based on the novel mass quantization and the variable neutron mass concepts of new nuclear theory NMT. It can calculate the atomic masses of non-existent isotopes based on the existing experimentally measured nuclides. The quantized atomic masses of 11000 nuclei ranging from Z=1 to Z=173 have been calculated, 1080 nuclides of them belong to Z=21-40 (Sc-Zr). The results are compared with those of other recent macroscopic–microscopic data. Sn, Sp, β-, β+ and α decay energies are also given.
Keywords: nuclear mass formula, neutron mass, atomic masses, new isotopes, super-heavy nuclei, alpha decay