European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 144 No 4
April, 2017

Fast Approach for Arabic Text Encryption using Genetic Algorithm
Riyadh Bassil Abduljabbar
As s widely use of exchanging private information in various communication applications, the issue to secure it became top urgent. In this research, a new approach to encrypt text message based on genetic algorithm operators has been proposed. The proposed approach follows a new algorithm of generating 8 bit chromosome to encrypt plain text after selecting randomly crossover point. The resulted child code is flipped by one bit using mutation operation. Two simulations are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach including execution time of encryption /decryption and throughput computations. Simulations results prove the robustness of the proposed approach to produce better performance for all evaluation metrics with respect to the conventional encryption techniques like RSA, DES, etc.
Keywords: Encryption, Decryption, Genetic Algorithm, Population, Crossover.

Effect of Fertigation on the Growth and Yield of Soilless Tomato (Lycopersicum Esculentum Mill) in Marcory, South Side of Abidjan
OUATTARA Amidou, AKASSIMADOU Edja Fulgence, OUATTARA Adama, HIEN Marie-Paule, Albert Yao-KOUAME
A major threat to urban tomato cultivation in Abidjan is soil pollution brought about by nearby factories and other artisanal activities. Actions are underway to persuade farmers of the study site to switch to soilless farming. A superior agronomic performance of soilless farming is the key for a massive adoption by the farmers. Hence, in this study the objective is to determine the effect of irrigation frequency and nitrogen on the growth and yield of two tomato varieties (Lindo and Jaguar) grown in a plastic bag container filled with composted sawdust and chicken manure. The experiment was conducted in a 12mx10m greenhouse with two blocks (tomato variety) in a randomized complete block design. Treatments consisted in a factorial arrangement of three nitrogen levels and three irrigation frequency levels. Crop heights at different growth stages and final fruit weight are recorded.
Results indicate that for a given tomato variety, neither irrigation frequency nor nitrogen level significantly affects crop height. Treatments corresponding to an optimum yield levels are given for each tomato variety.
Soilless tomato cultivation may seem costly at first hand but this initial investment can be offset by the higher crop yield.
Keywords: fertigation, tomato, soilless, yield, Cote d'Ivoire.

The Quantized Atomic Masses of the Elements: Part-1; Z=1-20
Bahjat R. J. Muhyedeen
This paper is the first part of a series of nine. An innovative semi-empirical atomic mass formula-excluding binding energy term- has been derived to calculate quantized atomic masses more precisely than macro-micro formula and purely microscopic HF-self-consistent methods. It is based on the novel mass quantization and the variable neutron mass concepts of new nuclear theory NMT. It can calculate the atomic masses of non-existent isotopes based on the existing experimentally measured nuclides. The quantized atomic masses of 11000 nuclei ranging from Z=1 to Z=177 have been calculated, 700 nuclides of them belong to Z=1-20 in additional to 3500 unquantized mass. The results are compared with those of other recent macroscopic–microscopic. Sn, Sp, β-, β+ and α decay energies are also given.
Keywords: nuclear mass formula, neutron mass, atomic masses, new isotopes, super-heavy nuclei, alpha decay

Evaluation of the Efficiency of Moringa oleifera Products as Natural Adsorbents of Heavy Metals in Contaminated Wastewater
F.O. Sika, N.A. Kgabi and D.A. Mashauri and H.M. Kwaambwa
The efficiency of acid-activated Moringa oleifera products (husks and pods) as natural adsorbents in contaminated wastewater from Ujams WWTP was investigated by adsorption process using the jar test apparatus. The wastewater was initially analysed for metal concentration, subjected to purification and reanalysed after purification. The effect of dosage and particle size in the removal of heavy metals was studied. The heavy metals concentrations were analysed using with Inductively-Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES).
Results revealed that the pH and turbidity of the wastewater was found to be 8.03 and 84 NTU respectively. Both husks and pods showed removal of the heavy metals with the former having better removal efficiency. The removal efficiencies of the various metal ions followed the trend Fe > Zn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Co. It was observed that increased dosage increased the removal of heavy metals. The effect of particle size was also evaluated. Smaller grain size powder achieved better removal efficiency than relatively bigger sizes.
It was concluded that natural products from Moringa oleifera plant have potential to be good adsorbents in removal of metal ions in contaminated wastewater. However the husks adsorbent seemed to have an edge over the pod adsorbent in the removal process which can be attributed to difference in metal ion affinity. In addition, activated charcoal with finer grain size was found to be more effective in removing heavy metals due to increased surface area.
Keywords: Adsorption, Adsorbent, Heavy Metals, Moringa oleifera, Ujams Wastewater Treatment Plant, Wastewater.

Effect of Problem Solving Instructional Strategy on Students academic achievement in Senior Secondary School Economics
Nwaubani Okechukwu O., Utor-Ofong Anthonia N., Ogbueghu, Sylvester N., Ezeocha Ihechi G. and Eze Daniel M.
The study sought to determine the effect of problem solving instructional strategy on senior secondary school two (SS2) students’ achievement in economics. It adopted a quasi experimental pre-test, post-test non-randomized design. Sample of the study consisted of one hundred and sixty four (164) Senior Secondary school two (SS 2) students purposively selected from 30 public schools in Nsukka education zone, Enugu state, Nigeria. Date was collected with Economics Achievement Test (ECAT) constructed by the researchers. It was validated by experts and tested for reliability (which yielded a value of 0.83). Two study research questions and three null hypotheses (tested at 0.05 level of significance) guided the study. Data analysis was done with mean and standard deviations for answering research questions while the null hypotheses were tested using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and z-test statistics respectively. Findings of the study showed among other things that a significant difference existed between the mean achievement scores of students taught economics with problem solving instructional strategy Thus, students exposed to problem-solving instructional method achieved better than those exposed to the traditional lecture method. It was also revealed that there is no significant difference between the academic achievement scores of male and female students who were exposed to problem solving instructional strategy. This shows that gender did not significantly influence students’ achievement in economics. Based on these findings, the researchers recommended among other things that economics teachers should be adequately exposed to innovative instructional strategies such as problem solving instructional strategy during training. Similarly, teachers should be flexible enough to adopt instructional strategies that could promote both male and female students’ academic achievement in economics especially at the senior secondary school level in Nigeria.
Keywords: Academic Achievement, Problem Solving, Economics, Senior Secondary School Economics.

Effect of Think-Pair Share (TPS) Instructional Strategy on Senior Secondary School Students’ Achievement and Interest in Economics
Nwaubani Okechukwu O., Utor-Ofong Anthonia N., Ogbueghu, Sylvester N., Eze Daniel M., Ezema Luke C. and Adeniyi Kayode D.
This study sought to determine the effect of Think-Pair Share (TPS) Instructional Strategy on senior secondary school students’ achievement and interest in Economics as well as their gender differences. It adopted the non-equivalent pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design. The sample for the study consisted of two hundred and twenty-four (224) senior secondary school economics students selected through purposive and random sampling techniques. Instruments for data collection consisted of Economics Achievement Test (EAT) and Economics Interest Scale (EIS) developed by the researchers for the purpose of the study. Both instruments were appropriately validated by experts and trial-tested for reliability which yielded 0.960 for EAT and 0.873 for EIS respectively. These findings were comprehensively discussed with some far reaching educational implications. The research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation while the hypothesis was tested using Mann-Whitney test. Findings revealed high mean achievement scores and significant differences in the mean interest scores of both male and female students with the female students performing significantly better. It was concluded that Think-Pair Share is effective for the teaching and learning of senior secondary school economics. Based on this position, it was recommended among other things that the use of TPS should be encouraged during pre-service and in-service teacher training programmes in Economics in Nigeria teacher training institutions.
Keywords: Think-Pair Share (TPS), Cooperative Learning, Instruction Strategy, Achievement, Interest and Economics.

Effet de l’acide gibbérellique et de porte greffe sur la qualité de mandarinier “Nadorcott” au Maroc
Nabil RACHDI, Ranya ERRACHID, Kawtar SEMAOUI, Bouchra ET-TAKAOUY, Abdelhadi AIT HOUSSA, Zerhoune MESSAOUDI, Mohamed BENBELLA, Mohamed IBRIZ
L’intérêt immédiat du mandarinier Nadorcott réside dans sa commercialisation décalée des périodes pléthores, après la clémentine de saison. Cela est particulièrement vrai avec l’emploi des portes greffes réputés pour leur productivité (Volkameriana), même si que la qualité du fruit reste faible. Par ailleurs, sur des portes greffes adéquats tels que le Bigaradier, les Citranges et les Citrumelos, la maturité de la variété Nadorcott est atteinte en janvier et la cueillette peut durer jusqu’à mi-février. Les fruits restent assez fermes, avec une qualité interne satisfaisante et une bonne tenue sur l’arbre. À la lumière de ces données nous avons entrepris cette présente étude avec comme objectif de contribuer à la recherche de méthodes permettant l’amélioration de la qualité des fruits, d’une part, et l’étalement des périodes de cueillette et commercialisation des mandarines Nadorcott, d’autre part, en utilisant l’acide gibbérellique (AG3) et en différenciant les portes greffes.
Les mesures et les observations ont porté tant sur les paramètres externes tel que le poids, la largeur, la longueur, le volume du fuit, la fermeté, l’épaisseur de l’écorce et la rodondité du fruit que sur ceux internes notamment la densité de jus, l’acidité, le pH et le Brix du jus des fruits.
Le premier volet de notre étude traite l’évolution de la qualité des fruits de la variété Nadorcott, sur trois portes greffes : Citrange Carrizo, Citrange Troyer et le Bigaradier, dans la région de Marrakech. Il ressort de cette expérimentation que pour la plupart des paramètres physico-chimiques, sur les trois portes greffes les fruits donnent des résultats analogues. Portant, il s’avère que le C.Carrizo et le Bigaradier ont des valeurs plus intéressantes du rapport E/A. Cependant, La fermeté est plus importante chez les fruits récoltés sur C. Troyer, suivis de Bigaradier, ensuite par C. Carrizo.
Le deuxième volet de ce travail a pour objectif l’étude des effets de porte greffe, de l’AG3 et leurs interactions, sur l’évolution des paramètres physico-chimiques des fruits de la Nadorcott dans la région de Larache. L’AG3 appliqué à deux concentrations 15 et 30 ppm au stade virage de la couleur des fruits. Les applications ont été réalisées au champ sur quatre portes greffes : Volkameriana, C. Carrizo, Sacaton et le Bigaradier. Les résultats dévoilent que l’AG3 augmente le taux de jus et améliore l’épaisseur de la peau. En revanche, l’AG3 retarde la coloration des fruits par rapport au témoin. Quant au porte greffe, le Bigaradier confirent des fruits relativement similaires au C. Carrizo et au Sacaton qui sont plus juteux, plus sucrés et moins acides que les fruits récoltés sur Volkameriana qui présente une déclinaison marquante des paramètres de qualité en avançant dans les stades de maturité.
Le troisième volet de ce travail a pour objectif l’étude des effets de porte greffe, de la localité et leurs interactions, sur l’évolution des paramètres physico-chimiques des fruits de la Nadorcott. Il en résulte que le C. Carrizo confère une coloration plus intense aux fruits sur Marrakech par rapport à ceux sur Larache. Toutefois, la fermeté des fruits à Marrakech diminue progressivement. Tandis que les fruits à Larache ont une fermeté plus au moins stable avec le temps. Cependant, le taux de jus des fruits est plus important à Larache en comparaison de Marrakech. Tandis que l’indice de maturité E/A et le pH de jus des fruits est supérieur à Marrakech qu’à Larache.
Keywords: Nadorcott, porte greffe, acide gibbérellique, localité, qualité physico-chimique, virage de coloration du fruit.

Diversité floristique d’une forêt privée à Dianra au Nord de Côte d’Ivoire
N’Guessan Anny Estelle and Justin KASSI N’Dja
In order to develop conservation guidelines for the ecosystems, it is necessary to have enough information on is biodiversity. The overall objective of this study is to contribute to the characterization of the biodiversity of the site Ouahieré (Ivory Coast). 6 differents vegetations have been inventoried in this site. 260 species have been recorded in privated forest (Ivory Coast) during field investigations, distributed among 206 genera and 67 families. Among those species, 7 are endemic from West Africa, among which only two are endemics from Ivory Coast. The study of site shows that 19 are rares and endemics specicies. Somes of the species are a semi-deciduous tropical forest or tropical forest. The most common families were Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Moraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, Poaceae and the Cyperaceae.
Keywords: Floristic diversity, RNV, Ouahieré (Ivory Coast).

A New Effective Orange Inhibitor to Protect Heat Exchanger Tubes aganist Corrosion and Corrosion\Erosion
Abdalwahid K. Ragih and Asia M. Salim
This work represents an attempt to use an available, effective, non-toxic and almost cost-free orange inhibitor to protect low cost brass against corrosion and corrosion/erosion to be used safely as a heat-exchanger tubes.
Samples were prepared by die-casting. Several alloying elements were individually for the cast, such as, Al, Sn andY2O. Many relevant tests were conducted. They include simple immersion, Tafel, corrosion/erosion (with and without inhibitor, hardness, XRD and metallography.
Great improvement was introduced by the inhibitor. The corrosion current obtained by Tafel extrapolation was only (0.1) with respect to the base metal. In simple immersion, it was (zero) within the test period. The weight loss in corrosion/erosion test dropped to (zero) as well. This value was observed even at (50-55) C.
Keywords: corrosion, corrosion/Erosion, Heat-exchangers, Organic inhibitors

Types of Innovation in Service at Small and Medium-Sales Enterprises at the Valledupar’s Textile Sector, Colombia
Vanessa Paola Pertuz Peralta, Adith Bismarck Pérez Orozco and Neida Coromoto Boscan Romero
In this paper the authors examine the types of innovation in service at small and medium textile sales enterprises at Valledupar Colombia. The research uses a descriptive, no experimental and transactional methodology. We use a Likert type questionnaire to acquire the data. We interview a population of fifteen managers of small and medium sales business. We found that the implementation of new service concepts is present with high frequencies. The enterprise innovates with the implementations of additional services. The studied enterprises have the physical infrastructure and the marketing (such as, price, distribution and communication with the client) are in medium level of presence. In these societies the new interfaces with the costumer are in low participation level. There are no innovations in the production processes. The paper focus on empirical evidence of the innovation’s characteristics in small businesses.
Keywords: innovation in services, types of innovation in services, trade, textile sector.
JEL Classification: O30, O31, L81