European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 144 No 3
March, 2017

Ontology Based Association Rule Mining Algorithms for Intelligent Decision Making
RM. Vidhyavathy, E.Ramaraj and N. Venkatesan
Learning, like intelligence, covers such a broad range of processes that it is difficult to define precisely. With respect to machines, it can be broadly said that a machine learns whenever it changes its structure, program, or data (based on its inputs or in response to external information) in such a manner that it is expected future performance improves. The objective of this work is to build an association rules in healthcare framework that is discovered by converging the semantic web and apriori based techniques. This healthcare framework would empower the patient and physician both for taking better decision for managing health. Healthcare institutions need to target the patients with proper portfolios of services. There is a wealth of data available within the healthcare systems but they lack effective analysis tools to discover hidden relationships and trends in data. By applying web mining techniques on ontology based structure of web, useful patterns and knowledge can be discovered for making intelligent decisions for the care of individuals. This paper proposes a novel ontology and association rules based algorithm. The algorithm firstly introduces the domain ontology and hash technology to improve the operation of emerging frequent item sets and generating association rules, then uses a hash table to store the domain ontology, and the algorithm transforms the operation of the database into memory tree base. The results show the advantages of the rule mining algorithms.
Keywords: Ontology, Data Mining, Association Rule, Semantic web, Web mining, Healthcare.

Optimal Carrier Phase Factor Selection in Hybrid SLM-PTS Technique for PAPR Reduction of OFDM Signals
Kampa Kanthi Kumar, Adimulam Yesu Babu, and Battula Tirumala Krishna
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is one of the major emerging techniques in wireless communication system as it is efficient in transferring spectral information. The main problem frequently arises in OFDM signals is the high range of peak to average power ratio (PAPR), which cause serious distortion and variation in the flow of OFDM signals. Selective mapping (SLM) is a popular technique employed by the developers to maintain the PAPR problems. In this paper, SLM technique in combination with the Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is used in the dropping the PAPR level. It provides a hybrid optimal carrier phase selection method for the process of controlling the fluctuation in the signal waves. The comparison of the earlier and proposed SLM-PTS are described along with the BER calculation and at last, the PAPR values are also identified for Rician channel of fixed 1024 FFT lengths are done. The experimental verification and results shows that the proposed Hybrid SLM-PTS technique performs well in managing the PAPR values than the earlier methods.
Keywords: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS), Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR), Radio Frequency (FR), Selective Mapping (SLM).

Dual Metal Gate-Graded Channel-Dual Oxide Thickness of Surrounding Gate MOSFET: Analytical models of the threshold voltage and DIBL
H. Jaafar, A. Aouaj and A. Bouziane
We proposed analytical models of threshold voltage shift and DIBL characteristics for Dual Metal Gate-Graded Channel-Dual Oxide thickness of metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) Surrounding Gate SG MOSFET. Models were derived by solving 2-D Poisson’s equation using parabolic approximation technique to investigate short-channel effects (SCEs). The results show that the use of two oxide thickness with high dielectric constant could significantly reduce the threshold voltage shift and DIBL. It is also revealed that a small gate oxide thickness with high dielectric constant is needed to improve device characteristic. The models were verified by comparing with Numerical simulations results.
Keywords: Dual Oxide Thickness (DOT); Threshold voltage; Drain Induced Barrier Lowring; Short channel effects; parabolic approximation method

Assessment of the Geographic Distribution of Public Parks in the City of Amman
Ayman N. Tomah, Amal Abed and Bassam Saleh
Public parks can contribute greatly to improving a city's vitality, livability, and charm; they have a positive effect on an environmental, physical, social, and psychological level. However, urban growth can be challenging, to say the least, and the city of Amman is not exceptional in this regard. The planning and distribution of many of Amman’s parks can, perhaps, be most accurately described as raw and unsophisticated, appearing as if they were a second-thought to other more urgent planning factors. In this research, we would like to take a closer look at the distribution of public parks in Amman and gauge their efficiency in serving the community. A mixed-method approach was utilized to assess the planning system of public parks in Amman. This research tested the service area ratio and service population ratio according to the standards set forth by the National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA) in Jordan. Additionally, it set out to evaluate the strategic distribution of public parks in Amman by using the Geographic Information System (GIS).
In brief, our research findings indicate that urban public parks in the city of Amman are inadequately situated in relation to area and population. The geographic distribution of these parks shows a deficiency in their number and placement throughout Amman’s many districts, with a severe shortage in the outer lying areas of the city. Amman’s park problems are a result of the low priority given to their creation and placement within the municipality’s wider strategic growth plan over the last few decades, reflecting in an absence of regulations for the setting aside of open and green spaces in new city neighborhoods. Therefore, there is a crucial need for more communication and collaboration between the government, city planners, economists, activists, and citizens to improve the beauty and livability of the city.
Keywords: Public Park, Park Area Ratio, Park Area per Capita, GIS.

Original Cramer-Rao Bounds of Independent and Different Gaussian Observations
Hussam Kassem, Hossein Nassar and Hamad Saber
This article deals with an efficient method to find the Cramer-Rao Bound (CRB) of independent Gaussian observations that are not distributed according to the same law. CRB is determined and applied to the calculation of the Mean Square Error (MSE) of different models of the channel. Simulations show the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) is consistent and efficient.
Keywords: Maximum Likelihood Estimator, Consistency, Efficiency, Gaussian Observations, Cramer-Rao Bound, Mean Square Error.

Constructivist Theatre Instruction (CTI) – An Innovative Approach for Science Teaching
Ngozi Joannes Anyaegbunam, Theresa Ofoegbu, Ebere Ibe, Loretts Nworgu, Esther, O. Ajala and Chukwuma Mgboji
Constructivist Theatre Instruction (CTI) is a technique of using theatre in line with constructivist underpinning. Research and development design was used to develop ten procedures for CTI for any science content. Quasi-experimental design was employed to determine students’ knowledge of HIV and AIDS. Three research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed to get 955 SSII students from 24 intact classes from the six educational zones Pretest was administered on all. Students in the control group were taught with the traditional lecture method. The experimental group students were exposed to the CTI procedures. Students’ Knowledge of HIV and AIDS Assessment Test (SKHAAT) was used for data collection. Mean and Standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while analysis of covariance and T-test were used for the hypotheses. Findings revealed that students treated with the CTI approach performed considerably better; active participants in CTI had higher gain scores than spectators. Recommendations include that CTI approach should be adopted in teaching students science generally and HIV and AIDS in particular; students should be encouraged to script and act; teacher preparation programs should equip teachers to use the method.
Keywords: Constructivist Theatre Instruction, Innovative approach, Science teaching.

Low Adjacent Channel Interference Filter for Mobile Receiver Using MAC Structure
Majid S. Naghmas, Mustafa Samih and Oday Kamil Hamid
A novel design of mobile receiver filter with low adjacent channel interference by mean of software defined radio (SDR) technology is present in this paper. The Multiply-Accumulate (MAC) structure filter from Xilinx product provides less multiplication process to decrease the time and area in filter realization. Hence, the power consumption could be optimizing in the mobile receiver. In the current design of the down sampling filter, the finite impulse response (FIR) with three stages is used which keep the spent power in high level. The strategy of multi stages filter in modern communication system could achieve to follow the fast growth and provide user demand. In the proposed structure, the cascaded of two FIR filter and cascaded integrated comb (CIC) decimator provide important power reduction and the adjacent channel has improved to decrease the interference in mobile co-channel systems. Therefore, the suggested filter is promising to support the traditional 4G design as well as accelerate the moving period toward 5G of mobile system.
Keywords: Mobile Receiver, Channel Interference, Adjacent Band Rejection, MAC.

Surface Water Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by New Damietta Harbor, Nile Delta, Egypt
Rasha El Gohary and Müfit Bahadir
The Damietta Harbor is situated near the eastern branch of the River Nile estuary, 250 km east of Alexandria. Marine eutrophication is mainly an inshore problem that affects lagoons, harbors, estuaries and coastal areas adjacent to river mouths. Although the main body of the Mediterranean Sea as a whole is not yet seriously threatened by eutrophication, areas of pronounced eutrophication are expanding in the Mediterranean.
The main objective of the study is to characterize water, soil and sediment that will be dredged to determine their suitability for placement in either upland, an offshore disposal site, or at an existing beach for re-nourishment, and to observe the effect of the harbor on surface water pollution of the Mediterranean Sea. The dredging operations in Damietta Port sediment, soil and water investigations were conducted to understand the possible disposal or re-use considerations. The following samples were investigated:
• Offshore stations representing existing, proposed and reference stations,
• Sediment cores within the port and approach channel,
• Sediment grabs within the port and approach channel, and
• Soil borings from terminal basin.
Also, the water quality of different basins inside the harbor and in the marine waters at the mouth of the harbor was investigated. Water samples were analyzed for parameters indicating the chemical and biological quality of the harbor environment.
In general, the water, soil, and sediment quality in the study area were within the permissible levels for physical-chemical parameters of marine water, although some metals were considerably higher than the background levels. In total, the off shore qualities were within the limits in all locations that are not hazardous to the Mediterranean Sea environment.
Keywords: Mediterranean Sea Pollution, Water Quality, Environmental Analysis, Dredging Damietta Harbor.

Cost Analysis for Comparisons between Wind Farms and Diesel Generators (Medium Power)
Hamza D. Salman
Research includes calculations of product cost and benefit for electrical generators, which work by wind power and diesel generators and comparisons between them. Product cost calculation and the cost of produced Kilowatt-hour (Kw.h) for both wind and diesel generators had been done for power generators (100-1500) Kilowatts. From product cost comparisons it is clear, that the product cost of wind generators is more less than of diesel generators.

Study of the interactions between Lime saturation LS of the raw meal and the properties of ordinary Portland cement OPC
R. Elmrabet, M.S. Elyoubi, N. Mtarfi, A.Elharfi
Due to the great variety of factors involved, it is difficult to describe precisely the relationship between the raw meal components and the cement properties. So the only way to understand the influence of the mineral components and the chemical admixtures of the raw meal on the cement properties is to control its lime saturation (LS), silica ratio (SR) and alumina ratio (AR) and fineness parameters. A series of laboratory experiments were investigated in two cement manufacturers in Morocco: LafargeHolcim Oujda and Asment Temara which the control of chemical parameters of the raw meals and its resulting clinker is automatically and continuously. In this study we have chosen samplers with variable levels of LS in order to evaluate possible interactions between LS of the raw meal and the performance of the cement. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the chemical composition of these raw meals and its clinkers. Physical and mechanical properties of these clinker cements were determined. The results showed that the increase of LS of raw meal improved the grinding of the clinker. More over with increasing lime saturation of raw meal the C3S content increased and enhanced both the early and late strength potential of the cement, but high LS values caused an undesired expansion of these cements, which would result in the creation of the fissuring in low stress.
Keywords: raw meal, lime saturation, cement, clinker, heat of hydration, strength potential, expansion.