European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 141 No 3
August, 2016

Specifying of Systolic Pressure and Diastolic Pressure Using Artificial Neural Network Training Algorithm
Ahmed M. Elshewey
The measurements of blood pressure techniques are based on measuring the pressure of the cuff and on sensing the variation of the amplitude of pulsatile. Patient movement is sensitively effected by these measurements. The movements that are slightest unexpected could offset the readings of the automatic blood pressure meter by a large amount or render the readings totally meaningless. In this paper, windkessel models (two element windkessel model, and three element windkessel model) were applied to generate blood pressure measurement. Blood pressure measurement for healthy person varies in the range 80mmHg/120mmHg. Artificial neural network classification is one of the artificial intelligence techniques used for the statistical analysis and classification. Artificial neural network (ANN) is tools for pattern classification computational that have been the matter of research that is renewed. ANN uses several learning algorithms and formats are being used in medical applications, industrial, and academic research artificial neural network were also used in previous studies to estimate blood pressure. In this paper, artificial neural network designs have been used for determining systolic pressure and diastolic pressure, where the input values in the neural network are the values estimated from windkessel models (two element windkessel model, and three element windkessel model). Gradient descent and an algorithm of adaptive learning rate back propagation were used for the training. The result showed that the artificial neural network was more accurate method. However a huge database is required for this method. Both under training and over training will affect the measurement accuracy.
Keywords: Blood pressure (BP), Artificial neural network (ANN), Systolic pressure (SP), Diastolic pressure (DP), Standard deviation (SD).

State-owned enterprises governance in Morocco: Measuring efficiency by Sugeno integral
Noureddine ERRAMLI, Mohammed KHALFAOUI
In this article, we are interested in studying the problem of multi-criteria aggregation in the field of governance in Morocco. We propose a new approach based on the integral of Sugeno for aggregation of multidimensional relevance. The main originality of this operator, in addition to its ability to model the interactions between different dimensions of relevance, is its ability to generalize many classic aggregation functions. The results show the effectiveness of our proposal.
Keywords: Gouvernance, efficiency, efficacity, multidimensional pertinence agregation, fuzzy measure, Sugeno integral.

Influence of Family Structure on Children’s Motivation to Learn and Academic Achievement in the Nigerian School Environment
Gloria Chikasiemobi Ugwu, Kathryn Bright Nwakaibie, Patience E. Obiweluozo, Clara O. Ifelunni, Onwurah Chimezie, Adaora Onuorah
The study investigated the influence of family structure on children’s motivation to learn and academic achievement in Minna Metropolis, Niger State of Nigeria. To guide the study, four research questions and four hypotheses were formulated. The study adopted the ex-post facto or casual comparative research design. The population of the study comprised all the 9995 primary five pupils in Minna Metropolis. The sample was made up of 452 primary five pupils in public schools .The academic achievement scores of the pupils for a session were collected using the pupils’ results for three terms. A questionnaire titled “Influence of Family Structure on Children’s Motivation to Learn Questionnaire” was also used to collect data. Mean and Standard Deviation were used to answer the research questions while Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test the hypotheses. Findings of the study revealed that pupils from monogamous family structure had the highest mean motivation to learn followed by pupils from multiple transitional family structure while the pupils from polygamous family structure had the lowest mean motivation to learn. Further analysis showed that family structure significantly influences pupils’ motivation to learn. However, it was further revealed that family structure has no significant influence on the pupils’ academic achievement. Also, gender has no significant influence on the pupils’ motivation to learn and academic achievement. Based on the findings, it was recommended, among others, that parents should be fully involved in the education of their children and wards by assisting them with their homework and providing other relevant and necessary materials for them.
Keywords: Family Structure, Children, Motivation to Learn, Academic Achievement

Influence of Socio-Economic Factors on Parental Expenditure on Children’s Education At the Nursery School Level in Delta State, Nigeria
Gloria Chikasiemobi Ugwu, Clara O. Ifelunni, Chiedu Eseadi, Celestine Eze, Adaora Onuorah
The current study examined the influence of socio-economic factors on parental expenditure on children’s education at the nursery school level in Delta State, Nigeria. The study covered parents/guardians with children in the nursery school level in both private and public schools in Oshimili North and South Local Government Areas of Delta State, Nigeria. Six(6) research questions and four(4) hypotheses guided the study. The design of this study is ex-post-facto research design. The population of the study was 20,394 parents whose children are in both public and private nursery schools in the study area. The sample for the study comprised 408 parents out of a total population of 20,394 parents sampled by means of stratified random sampling technique. The instrument for data collection was a 4-point rating scale questionnaire titled: Parental Expenditure on Children’s Education Questionnaire developed by the researchers with much insight drawn from literature materials reviewed. The instrument was face validated and the reliability coefficient was 0.79alpha. The researchers analysed the collected data using frequencies, percentages and chi-square statistics. Based on the analysis of data collected, the following are the major findings of the study: Parental expenditure on the education of their children are in the areas of textbooks (97.9%), Cardigan (76.47%), Transportation (62.74%), exercise books (100%), school fees and uniforms (100%), Play materials (48.77%) while only 24.75% engage extra lessons for their children. Over 92. 89% of parents spend between 0-20percent of their income on the education of their children in the nursery school and 29 parents representing 7.11% spend within the 21-40% of income proportion. In the income proportion bracket of 41% and above, no parents representing 0% spend on their children’s education. Results further show that there is a significant difference in the response of parents based on their educational qualification with regards to the parental expenditure on children’s education at the nursery school level; there is no significant difference in the income level of parents and their expenditure on their children’s education; parental occupation significantly influence their expenditure on their children’s education at the nursery school level; and there is a significant difference in the responses of urban and rural parents on their expenditure on children’s education. On account of these findings, conclusions, recommendations and suggestion for further studies were made.
Keywords: Children’s education, Delta State, Nursery school level, Parental expenditure, Socio-economic factors

Teachers’ Use of Innovative Practices for Effective Teaching of English Language for Quality Assurance In Nigerian Secondary Schools
Uchenna Lebechi Igbokwe and Cajetan Ikechukwu Egbe
The level of student’s proficiency in English language at all levels of education in Nigeria remains a source of constant concern. Educationists as well as linguists in their various ways have tried to find solutions to this malaise. To ensure quality assurances in language teaching, methodological reviews have taken place in language teaching and learning in Nigeria and innovative practices and processes inherent in the communicate language teaching (CLT) have been recommended. This shift away from the traditional teaching method has produced positive results in many countries, but in Nigeria the performance of students does not justify methodological reviews and recommendations. This paper sets out to find out the extent of teachers’ awareness of the innovative practices inherent in CLT as well as the extent to which these practices are used. Two research questions guided the study. Descriptive survey design was used and data was obtained using both qualitative (interview) and quantitative (questionnaire) methods. Results showed that though an appreciable number of teachers have a head knowledge of CLT, they did not quite understand the practices inherent in the method and therefore minimally used them.
Keywords: Communicative language teaching, teacher, quality assurance

Motivational Patterns, Students Interest in Learning and Academic Achievement
Oboegbulem A.I., IGBO J.N., Ogboji B.A and SHAIBU A. A
The general purpose of this study was to determine the influence of motivational patterns on students’ interest in learning and academic achievement. The study was guided by two research question and two null hypotheses. The study adopted ex-post facto research design. It was carried out in Agatu Education Zone of Benue state in Nigeria. The population of the study comprised of 10, 692 junior secondary one ( J.SS1) students in 22 secondary schools in Agatu Education Zone. The sample for the study was made up of 535 respondents comprising 260 male students and 275 female students. The instruments adopted for data collection were Inventory on school Motivation (ISM) by Mclnerney and Sinclair (1991), Mathematics Achievement Test Result (MATR), and Instrument on Interest in Learning. To determine the face validity of the instruments, copies of the instruments were given to three experts. The reliability coefficient of 0.78 for cluster one, 0.87 for cluster two and 0.69 for cluster three, and 0.80 for cluster four were obtained. The overall reliability co-efficient of the instrument is 0.79. This result showed that the instrument was reliable. The questionnaire was administered and collected by the researcher with the help of two research assistants. Mean and standard deviation were used in answering the two research questions. The null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using t-test statistics. The result of the study among others showed that motivational patterns significantly influenced students’ interest and academic achievement.
Keywords: motivation, interest, ego-success, mastery pattern, helpless motivational pattern, academic achievement.

Effect of Recount Game on Pupils’ Achievements and Interest in Number and Numeration in Primary Schools in Kogi State
Dr. J.O. Ezeugwu, Dr. Kay C. Onyechi, Dr. G.C. Nji, Dr. Ngozi J. Anyaegbunam, Blessing Ajuma Abbah
The aim of the study is to examine the effect of recount game on pupils’ achievement and interest in number and numeration in primary schools in Kogi state. Five research questions and five hypotheses guided the study. An experimental research design was adopted for the study. The population for the study was 3,171 pupils from 231 primary schools. The sample constituted 95 numbers of pupils randomly selected from 3 primary schools in Dekina Local Government Area. For data collection, two instruments were used namely: Number and Numeration Achievement Test (NNAT) and Number and Numeration Interest Scale (NNIS). To determine the reliability of the instrument, Cronbach Alpha was used to determine the internal consistency of both instruments. The internal consistency reliability for the interest scale questionnaire was 0.863. The internal consistency reliability of the achievement test for the pupils was analyzed using Kuder-Richardson 20 (K-R20¬¬¬) formular and the internal consistency reliability established was 0.960. The data collected was analyzed using mean, standard deviation, t-test and ANCOVA. The study discovered that recount game have significant effect in pupils achievement and gender. The study also found that both the male and female pupils have interest in number and numeration and finally, recommendations that primary school teachers should incorporate recount games in teaching and learning of number and numeration and in other topics in mathematics.
Keywords: Recount Games, Pupils’ Achievement, Interest, Number, Numeration, Primary Schools.

Assessment of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Competencies Possesses By Mathematics Teachers in the Public Senior Secondary Schools in Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria
Dr. J. J. O. Ezeugwu, Dr. Ngozi J. Anyaegbunam, Victoria Nworgu, Ekwutosi Ezeike, Dr. Chinwe Enyi
This study assessed the ICT competencies possessed by mathematics teachers in public Senior Secondary Schools in Abuja, capital tertiary of Nigeria. The emphases are on the general, pedagogical, subject oriented and personal competencies possessed in the use of ICT tools in schools, during instruction, especially in Mathematics. Descriptive survey and correlational survey designs were used in the study. Proportionate, stratified random sampling was used to sample 120 (one hundred and twenty) mathematics teachers that made up the sample. The study was guided by five research questions and four hypotheses. Two instruments, namely; teachers, ICT competency test and a general self –efficacy scale, were used to collect relevant data for the study. The research questions were answered using frequencies and percentages, while the hypotheses were tested using chi-square and Spearman’s Correlation Coefficient. Results obtained showed that most mathematics teachers in the public senior secondary need to have self-efficacy. Training, amongst some others, were recommended as a panacea for the improvement of mathematics teachers’ ICT competencies.
Keywords: Assessment, Competency, Teacher, Mathematics, Secondary Schools ICT.

Evaluation of Science and Technology Post-Basic Education (Step-B) Project in Federal Unity Colleges, South-South, Nigeria
Gertrude-Theresa Uzoamaka Chiaha, Francis Madueke Onu, Chinwe Enyi, Maryrose Chinwe Mbanefo, Valerie U. Eberendu
The study evaluated STEP-B project in federal unity colleges (FUCs) in South-south of Nigeria. The project aimed at improving Science and Technological (S&T) education in Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to find out the extent STEP-B project was successful in terms of its sustainability; improvement in S&T students’ academic performance and enrolment in S&T subjects. Descriptive survey design was employed. The study population was 409 comprising 17 principals, 102 project team members and 290 S&T teachers in the 17 FUCs as well as 12,055 students whose results were verified. Three instruments were used for data collected and data collected were analysed using mean scores, standard deviations, percentages and bar charts. The findings indicate that STEP-B was being sustained to a large extent; students’ academic performance increased slightly and enrolment increased to a high extent. There were no significant differences among the mean ratings of the three categories of FUCs on the extent of student’s academic performance and enrolment. It was recommended that FME should continue to fund the project substantially to ensure continued sustenance of STEP-B activities.
Keywords: Evaluation; STEP-B Project; Federal Unity Colleges (FUCs); Science and Technological (S&T); Academic Performance.

School-Based Management Committee And Effective Primary School Administration in Nigeria
Gertrude-Theresa Uzoamaka Chiaha, Francis Madueke Onu, Vera Ogakwu, Ann O. Nkemakolam, Margret A. Aganga, Blessing Ekemezie
The main purpose of this study is to find the extent to which School-Based Management Committee (SBMC) participated in effective primary school administration in Imo state, Nigeria. Using a sample of 207, selected through multistage sampling technique, one research question and one hypothesis that guided the study, three instruments, a structured Questionnaire, Interview and Records for data collection and a Quantitative, non parametric statistics means and ANOVA for data analysis, it was found that SBMC contributed to effective primary school administration in Imo state, to a small extent. There was no significant difference in the opinions of the respondents. It was recommended among others that the school authorities should cooperate with the SBMC and should not be afraid of losing their jobs to the SBMC. Also more studies should be carried out to identify the challenges facing the SBMC in effective administration of primary schools in Imo state and how to tackle them.
Keywords: School-Based Management Committee; Primary School Administration; Participation.