European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 141 No 1
August, 2016

Comparative Analysis of Pathloss in Metropolitan Domain in Nigeria using Okumura-Hata Model
O. Shoewu, S. O. Olatinwo and D. D. Olatinwo
This paper presents the comparative analysis of signal path loss in the selected metropolitan areas in Nigeria using Okumura-Hata model. Often times, mobile telecommunication signals are confronted with degradation due to obstacles between the base stations (BTS) and the mobile stations (MS). This problem should be addressed in order to improve on the Quality of Service (QoS) provided by telecommunication providers. Thus, this study attempts to investigate a useful path loss model to predict the signal strength at different areas so as to achieve an appreciable signal quality. The base station data used in this study were obtained from a giant telecommunication company (MTN) in Nigeria. The base stations chosen for this study ranges from frequency 11000 MHz, 15000 MHz, 18000MHz and 23000 MHz. The data were analyzed and arranged based on the basic parameters needed to determine the path loss for the selected streets in the metropolitan areas. Also, Okumura-Hata’s model was adopted to estimate the pathloss at different distances from the BTS. In this study, the effects of different parameters, such as the distance from the base stations have been studied and it was observed that the path loss decreases as the distance increases due to a corresponding decrease in field strength. It was also observed that the Okumura-Hata model for urban region is the closest of all the outdoor propagation models considered to efficiently classify the environment in consideration. This study concludes that, the Okumura-Hata model gives a better agreement and closest to the measured path loss. The adopted model in this study was assumed to efficiently compute the variations between the distances from the base stations to determine the path loss for specific areas in the metropolis with appreciable results.
Keywords: QoS, telecommunication, path loss, propagation models, base station, mobile network

Towards an African Christian Theology of Conflict Resolution: A Re-reading of Matthew’s Gospel, Chapter 18: vv. 15-17
Chris U. Manus, Francis C. L. Rakotsoane and Nico Tebatso Makhalemele
The community to which the counsel enshrined in this text was addressed though it saw itself as an eschatological community, it could not keep on hold the demand “to settle matters of good and evil within its own group” till the day of judgment. As H.C. Kee correctly opines, “There must be some system of adjudicating disputes and some structure of authority” in that community. Matt 18: 15-17 is one such a narrative that the first evangelist had composed to outline the procedures the Jesus-group should adopt to handle issues of grievance against one another. It is not the case of turning the other cheek to one’s assailant but here, three concrete steps that can lead to conflict resolution are enunciated ; namely v.15 – confrontation; v.16 – negotiation and v. 17 – adjudication. We wish to adopt the Inter-cultural Hermeneutics in order to address the African situation as our context of interpretation to follow the three steps in our effort to re-read the text. To prosecute the intercultural hermeneutics, we wish to employ African social cultural resources and community life-experiences of conflict settlement and resolution to elucidate the meaning of the Matthean narrative . What exactly we intend to do is to explore the morphology of some African cultural narratives on conflict resolution and reconciliation and to compare them with the account in Matt 18: 15-17. The findings shall essentially be blended to respond to the social contexts of conflict situations in contemporary Africa.

Examining the Non-Ethical Principle of Scientific Investigations Against the Backdrop of Embryonic Stem Cell Controversy: A Philosophical, Psychological and Sociological Discourse
Chiedu Eseadi, Felix Okechukwu Ugwuozor, Chizoba L. Obikwelu, Eke Kalu Oyeoku, Dominic Ugwoke Ngwoke
Amidst the potential benefits of using human embryonic stem cells in the treatment of debilitating diseases and alleviating human suffering, their use has remained ethically controversial due to their derivation from early embryos that is necessarily destroyed for a successful culturing. However, the potential therapeutic benefits of human embryonic stem cells may provide strong justifications in favour of embryonic stem cell research. Yet, to show that researchers who use human embryonic stem cells participate in an immoral activity or not, one would further need to examine their involvement in the destruction of human embryos. The main thrust of this paper is therefore to examine the principle that scientific investigations should be non-ethical against the backdrop of the current controversy surrounding embryonic stem cell. The paper spans through conceptual clarifications, current ethical controversy surrounding embryonic stem cell research and the prospects of embryonic stem cell research. It was concluded, although still arguable, that since most investigators engaged in human embryonic stem cells research do not participate in the derivation of human embryonic stem cells but instead use cell lines that researchers who performed the derivation have made available, their investigations can hardly be pinned down to a specific ethical consideration.
Keywords: Stem cell; embryonic stem cell; ethical principles; scientific investigations; current controversy; non-ethical, philosophical discourse.

Emotional Intelligence As a Predictor of Senior Secondary Students’ Academic Achievement in Ebonyi State of Nigeria
Ibiam Egwu Ukeni, Dominic Ugwoke Ngwoke and Chizoba L. Obikwelu
The purpose of the study was to investigate the extent emotional intelligence predicts academic achievement of senior secondary school students in Ebonyi state, Nigeria. The population for the study was 21,000 senior secondary school students of the state. Through stratified random sampling three schools were selected from each of three education zones in the state. Using systematic random sampling, 1,200 students were sampled from the schools comprising 630 females and 570 males. Correlation Survey Design was used in the study. Three research questions and three null hypotheses were tested. Instrument for data collection was Students’ Emotional Intelligence Rating Scale (SEIRS) which internal consistency estimate was .87. A hand-delivery technique was used in administering the instrument on the students directly by the researchers. The data collected were analyzed using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation to provide answers to the research questions, while Multiple Regression Analysis was used to test the hypotheses at .05 probability level. The results of the study revealed that emotional intelligence had low influence on the academic achievement of senior secondary school students, but one of the five components of emotional competences, mood regulation, showed significant correlation with the academic achievement of senior secondary students in Ebonyi state. It was also found that males held relatively higher emotional competency than the female counterpart. The result showed that the correlation coefficients obtained for males and females were .49 and .48 respectively. Students in schools located in the rural areas were found to hold higher emotional competency than students in the urban areas. The correlation coefficients obtained for urban and rural students were .47 and .51 respectively. It was concluded that because of the poor development and application of the emotional competencies in the academic field in Ebonyi state, the relation with academic achievement is very low. Among other educational implications of the study is that, basing students education on the training of the cognitive domain alone is not comprehensive enough for the total development of students’ intelligence. It was therefore recommended that the study of emotional intelligence and the use of emotional intelligence skills be introduced in the school system.
Keywords: Emotion, Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence, Achievement, Academic Achievement, Gender.

Momentum Transfer through Longitudinal Wave to Generate Underwater Shock Wave Induced by Pulsed-Laser
Rokhsan Ara Hemel, H. Hirahara and K. Takahashi
The present research investigates the underwater shock wave that is related with the photo-acoustic wave propagating in a very thin metal, which was induced by a pulsed-laser irradiation. The laser irradiation induces a rapid thermal process instantaneously. The phenomenon is interesting from the view point of micro technology with thermo-elasticity. The development of this process requires an analysis of temperature and displacement by using laser heat energy source. For the mechanics of laser energy transfer between laser and metal, a general solution of thermo-elastic wave is obtained by using Laplace transformation for the wave equation. The solution gives a very important understanding about the longitudinal wave property, and the phenomena of underwater shock wave that is induced by the traveling longitudinal wave through a thin metal, which was induced by laser irradiation. The longitudinal wave propagation has been calculated for different metals and very fast responded metal, Titanium, is used in the experiment. We had carried out the experiment on this phenomenon and observed the resultant shock wave with optical system. On heating the metal thin plate by pulsed laser, laser energy is absorbed, then it is found that the results in an increase in temperature. Under the experimental condition, it was found that a sharp spike of acceleration of order 107 [m/s2] was propagated within 20 ps after laser irradiation through the metal film. After this high spike, acceleration wave rapidly decreased to -1×106 [m/s2] within 3 ns, and then wave increases again. From this phenomenon it can be understand that the acceleration wave dominates the longitudinal wave which transfers momentum to generate underwater shock wave.
Keywords: Underwater shock wave, Thermo-elastic wave, Opto-acoustic wave

Certain Subclass of Univalent Functions Involving the Generalized Hurwits-Lerch Zeta Function
Ahmed Mohsin Mahdi
The purpose of the present paper is to differential subordination and Superordination involving Hadamard product for certain normalized analytic functions with generalized Hurwits-lerch Zeta function in the open unit disk. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 30C45, 30C80.
Keywords: Analytic functions, Differential subordination, Differential Superordination, Hadamard product, Dominant, Subordinant, Zeta function.

Les logiques sociales du jeu d’inclusion-exclusion des migrantes dans le processus de production de l’attiéké chez les Ebrie deSantai (Côte d’Ivoire)
Roseline N’da GBOCHO and Prisca Justine EHUI
This article analyzes the construction of the interethnic reports (relationships) in the production of the attiéké to Ebrié of the village of Santai. It is particularly interested in the double game of inclusion and exclusion from the migrants in the stages of this economic activity. The data stemming from semi-structured conversations and from an observation grid were collected (harvested) with the native (autochthonous) and migrant women working in this sector and usual (customary) authorities selected by means of the techniques of on-the-spot samplings and reasoned choice. The results show that the copresence of the natives (autochthons) and the migrants in the production of the attiéké rhyme with inclusion and exclusion, two social practices which translate, on one hand, the limitation and the extension of the margin of action (share) of the migrants; and on the other hand, the conservation of a local know-how and an identity complaint of the natives (autochthons).
Keywords: natives (autochthons), migrants, reports (relationships) of production, including-excluding, Ivory Coast

Quality standards and typicity of attiéké of the lagoon people of Côte d'Ivoire
Kouadio Benal KOUASSI, Charlemagne NINDJIN, Kouakou Nestor KOUASSI, Aubin Jacob MOBIO, Nogbou Andétchi Aubin AMANZOU, Daouda DAO, Bassirou BONFOH and N‘Guessan Georges AMANI
The knowledge of quality standards and specific characteristics of attiéké of the lagoon people of Côte d’Ivoire is fundamental to any identification of the origin link quality. Surveys conducted in 424 households of attiéké producers of Grand-Lahou, Dabou, Jacqueville and Abidjan randomly selected. Sensory analysis was carried out on samples of attiéké from these localities. Results showed that traditional varieties of cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) were less used in attiéké production compared to the new introduced ones. Also, processes of attiéké production were specific to each department. The taste, size of grain, color, absence of fibres and foreign elements and the shelf life were identified by the local populations as quality standards of attiéké. Sensory analysis showed that attiéké of Grand-Lahou and Dabou had best characteristics according to the quality standards of the population. This study showed that attiéké production is an ancestral know-how of the lagoon people of Côte d'Ivoire. This know-how expressed differently by each ethnic group leads to products of specific quality. Nevertheless, result showed that attiéké of Grand-Lahou and Dabou had best characteristics according to the quality standards defined by local producers. Thus, the geographical indication could undoubtedly be allotted to these two departments after in-depth studies on the physico-chemical and microbiological parameters.
Keywords: Attiéké of lagoon people, quality standards, specific characteristics, Côte d’Ivoire

Understanding Emotional Intelligence in the Context of Adolescence Development
Anthony U Okere, Kay Chinonyelum Nwamaka Onyechi, Chiedu Eseadi, Chizoba L. Obikwelu, Moses O. Ede, Ngozi Hope Chinweuba and Ngozi Juliet Ugorji
Emotional intelligence is a term that describes the interconnectedness between intelligence and emotion, by demonstrating the role intelligence play in emotional development and adjustment of humans in different settings like school, home and workplace. There seems to be an agreement between authors and researchers that emotional intelligence can be improved and is a factor in personal, academic, family and professional success. Thus, this review paper explored the historical underpinning of emotional intelligence and offers a conceptual framework for its understanding and further explored emotional characteristics of the adolescents in that regard. The researchers conclude among others that adolescents need to master emotional skills. Moreover, guidance counsellors and educational psychologists can help adolescents develop emotional intelligence by providing them with resources that will help them succeed in both their personal social, vocational and educational pursuits.
Keywords: Emotion, Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence, Adolescence, Theoretical Model

Family Stability and Spiritual Lukewarmness: Implication for Counselling
Anthony U Okere, Kay Chinonyelum Nwamaka Onyechi, Moses O. Ede, Chiedu Eseadi, Ngozi Hope Chinweuba, Ngozi Juliet Ugorji
This is a review paper which aimed at exploring the probable link between family stability and spiritual lukewarmness. From the previous literature reviewed, there is evidence that the influence of spirituality on family stability cuts across religiously homogamous and heterogamous families. In other words, couples’ spiritual affiliation which could be described either as homogamy or heterogamy impacts on the family’s stability. As previous studies revealed, high level of spirituality and spiritual homogamy enhances family stability, whereas spiritual lukewarmness observed among spiritually heterogamous couples impedes family stability. Thus, it is concluded that the different forms of family spirituality has implication for family stability and consequently the counselling of the families in different parts of the world.
Keywords: Counselling, Family Stability, Stability, Spiritually homogamous, Spiritually heterogamous, Spiritual Lukewarmness