European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 140 No 3
July, 2016

Additional Evidence on Shared and Private Benefits of Control
Amel Belanès and Raoudha Djebali
Based on both hypotheses of tunneling and free-cash flow, the purpose of this paper is to explain the mutual role of dividends and rent expropriation on each other in highly-concentrated firms. Using a sample of 110 French listed firms during 2006-2010, we apply the 3SLS analysis to investigate such interdependence. The paper addresses the critical causal relationship that might exist between shared dividends and private benefits which have seldom been considered. The main bulk of previous research focuses on the impact of ownership structure on either dividend or private benefits.
Empirical results reveal that higher benefits are associated with higher dividends while the latter negatively affects the former. On one hand, dividends play a significant role in reducing the rent expropriation scope; which is in line with the free cash flow hypothesis. On the other hand, an increase in private benefits contributes to increasing dividends, as aware investors concerned with expropriation require higher dividends and dominant investors would rather accept to signal their unwillingness to harm minority shareholders. Such a finding is consistent with rent protection hypothesis. The study reveals that blockholders prefer more cash through either shared dividends or private benefits whereas the presence of multiple dominant investors would curtail both kinds of benefits. Block holding is then a double-edged sword in civil law countries, such as France. Adjusting the ownership structure or enacting new rules for ownership control may be a key step for policy makers to attract more investors but above all to enhance the protection of their interests.
Keywords: Corporate governance; Ownership control; Dividend policy; Tunneling; Rent Protection.
JEL Classification: G32; G34; G35

The Effect of the Two Phase Flow (Water –Air) Over Triangle Ribs on Heat Transfer Coefficient in Vertical Rectangular Duct
Riyadh S. Al-Turaihi and Doaa Fadhil Kareem
The two phase flow has usually been used in industrial systems such as cooling, power generation units ,and heating systems (heat exchangers and manifolds). The characteristics of the mixture (water , air) have been scanned experimentally and numerically in a rectangular channel Placed vertically by using internal rib with different volume flow rates of water and air ,and constant heat power. The dimensions of the rectangular channel is (10 × 3 × 70 cm). A numerical investigation has been achieved by using computational fluid dynamics CFD software to examine the unstable turbulence two phase flow for several velocities of both water and air with smooth expansion . The aim of these experiments is to display the two-phase flow phenomenon with heated plate (rib) for different water and air discharges. Three different values of water flow rate (2 , 5.5 , 8 l/min),five different values of air flow rate (8.33, 10.83,12.5,14.167,16.67 l/m) and three different values of heat power (120,140, 160 watt) have been used. The temperature of the mixture has been measured at several locations along channel , and the behavior for the mixture inside the channel has been visualized by using video camera .A very good agreement has been found between the theoretical and experimental results , where the percentage of error between the experimental results and the theoretical is (1% -8% ). The results showed that when water flow rate increases with increasing air flow rate, flow becomes turbulent, vortices develops around the heated plate , the exit temperature decreases and local heat transfer coefficient increases due to the raise in heat transfer.
Keywords: two-phase flow, heated plate, rectangular channel, unsteady turbulent flow , CFD, Ansys Fluent

Removing of Noise from the Measurement of Non-Invasive Blood Pressure
M. El-Sayed Waheed, G. M. Behery and Ahmed M. Elshewey
The measurements of blood pressure techniques are based on measuring the pressure of the cuff and on sensing the variation of the amplitude of pulsatile. Patient movement is sensitively effected by these measurements. The movements that are slightest unexpected could offset the readings of the automatic blood pressure meter by a large amount or render the readings totally meaningless. In this paper, we applied windkessels models (two element windkessel model, and three element windkessel model) for healthy person whose blood pressure vary between 80mmHg/120mmHg and unhealthy person whose blood pressure don't vary between 80mmHg/120mmHg. We reduce the effect of noise from blood pressure measurements for unhealthy person whose blood pressure don't vary between 80mmHg/120mmHg by applying a technique. The blood pressure waveform is digitized and uses digital signal processing techniques to process the waveform that are noisy (for unhealthy person). The spectrum of noise is not very well defined, since it may contain different frequency components depending on the kind of movement. The blood pressure waveform is more or less a periodic waveform. That translates to periodicity in the frequency time domain. Hence, we designed a digital filter that could take advantage of the periodic nature of the blood pressure waveform for unhealthy person. The filter is shaped like a comb with periodic peaks around the waveform frequency components. The results demonstrated that mean error was about 2.2273 and the standard deviation error was 1.1384 after applying the comb filter on the noisy signal using two element windkessel model, also mean error was about 2.2201 and the standard deviation error was 1.2839 after applying the comb filter on the noisy signal using three element windkessel model.
Keywords: Non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP), Digital signal processing, Standard deviation (SD), Discrete fourier transform (DFT), Signal to noise ratio (SNR), Finite impulse response (FIR).

Optimization Method for Silicon Based Anti-Reflection Coatings Used on Solar Cells
Klodian Dhoska, Uljan Sinani, Altin Dorri and Dorjana Ferati
In this paper, a method to optimize the antireflection coating is presented. The antireflection coating has been composed from nanostructures with different shapes from conical, pillar like shape, to simple spikes. The coating layer was used to enhance not only the efficiency performance but as well the stability of a crystalline solar cell. The aim is to enhance the light absorption on crystalline solar cells in order to improve the conversion efficiency of incident light into electricity for use in Photovoltaic applications. The method used for potentially getting the best results in conjunction with the aim, were oriented into Nano structural profile optimization and control method for plasma machine.
Keywords: Anti-reflection coating, light absorption, spectral measurement, visible spectrum

Aspects épidémiologiques des suicides et des tentatives de suicide par intoxication au Maroc
Latifa AMIAR, Abdelmajid SOULAYMANI, Abdelrhani MOKHTARI, Ahmed AARAB, and Rachida SOULAYMANI
Le comportement suicidaire a augmenté de façon significative au Maroc ces dernières années et commence à poser de sérieux problèmes aussi bien au niveau de la santé publique qu’au niveau social et les dimensions de ce phénomène sont encore mal estimés.
Le présent travail vise à décrire les caractéristiques des patients intoxiqués volontairement en vue d’un suicide et déterminer les facteurs de risque qui peuvent influencer le pronostic vital des patients.
Pour ce, nous avons entamé une étude rétrospective descriptive à visée analytique de tous les cas de tentatives de suicide et de suicides répertoriés au Centre Antipoison et de Pharmacovigilance du Maroc entre janvier 1980 et Décembre 2013.
Durant la période d’étude, 24.335 cas d’intoxications suicidaires ont été colligés. L’âge moyen des victimes était de 24,39 ± 0,08 ans avec un sexe ratio de 2,41 en faveur des femmes. Le nombre de décès enregistrés varie d’une année à la suivante, d’une région à l’autre et d’un produit toxique à un autre. L’étude de la corrélation et des risques relatifs montre une forte liaison entre l’évolution du pronostic vital et la majorité des variables étudiées et nous a permis de détecter les principaux facteurs influençant le décès des patients intoxiquées.
D’autre part, l’incidence sur les 34 ans était de 81,47 pour 100.000 habitants, la mortalité était de 22,73 pour un million d’habitant et la létalité était de 2,79%. Ces indicateurs étaient très variables aussi bien dans le temps exprimé en année que dans l’espace. Ils varient également en fonction des diverses caractéristiques étudiées.
La grande taille de l’échantillon et la longue durée de l’étude nous a permis de décrire un profile proche de la réalité et détecter les principaux facteurs influençant le décès des patients.
Keywords: Intoxication; Suicide; Facteur de risque; Incidence; Létalité; Mortalité; Maroc.

The Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction between Leadership Behaviors and Employee Organizational Commitment - An Empirical Study of Tourism Sector in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Mai Ngoc Khuong and Nguyen Thuan An
Lacking information about what types of leadership behaviors affecting employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment caused troubles for managers to navigate the organization. Hence, the purpose of this study is to find out the underlying relationship between these factors. The study was conducted in Ho Chi Minh city and quantitative approach was applied with questionnaires conveniently and directly delivered to 748 employees working in tourism sector. The empirical results showed that leadership behaviors themselves do not directly affect but they do have an indirect impacts on organizational commitment through the vital role of employee job satisfaction.
Keywords: task-oriented leadership, change-oriented leadership, ethical leadership, participate leadership, autocratic leadership, organizational commitment, job satisfaction

Qualité de l’huile d’olive et adhésion des oléiculteurs aux bonnes pratiques d’hygiène: Cas de Meknès, Maroc
La qualité des huiles d'olive est une problématique qui reste encore très controversée au Maroc. Cet article cherche à mettre la lumière sur ce volet et ce à travers le questionnement des bonnes pratiques d’hygiène (BPH) des oléiculteurs et son effet sur la qualité des huiles d’olive. L’objectif est de trouver les possibilités pour que les producteurs respectent volontairement les BPH afin d’obtenir une huile d’olive saine et de meilleure qualité tout en améliorant leurs revenus. Pour ce faire, nous avons commencé par analyser le niveau de conformité aux BPH dans la province de Meknès (Maroc) en recourant à une enquête réalisée auprès de 53 huileries pour les campagnes oléicoles 2010/11et 2011/12. Ce travail nous a aussi renseignés sur la qualité de l’huile d’olive produite dans la Province de Meknès grâce à l’utilisation des données relevées auprès de l’Office chargé du contrôle des produits alimentaires . Les statistiques descriptives nous ont permis de confirmer que le niveau de conformité aux BPH et la qualité de l’huile d’olive s'améliorent en passant aux technologies d'extraction développées. Par la suite, nous avons essayé d’identifier les interactions possibles entre les facteurs socio-professionnels et économiques d'une part et le degré de respect des BPH d'autre part. Les résultats ont montré que dans toute politique visant à améliorer les conditions de sécurité sanitaire, des objectifs et des stratégies devraient être élaborés séparément pour chacune des catégories d’huilerie. Aussi, le niveau d’étude, la richesse des oléiculteurs et la durée de création de l’huilerie seraient à prendre en compte vu leur lien avec la conformité des oléiculteurs aux composantes des BPH. A cet effet, en amont de la transformation, les oléiculteurs devraient bénéficier globalement de formations pour mieux maitriser les BPH et s’informer sur les modes de financement afin d’améliorer la qualité de l’huile d’olive et les conditions de sécurité sanitaire. L'ampleur des interrelations entre les résultats économiques des huileries et le respect des BPH est testée en utilisant l’ACP (Analyse en Composante Principales) pour chaque catégorie d'huileries enquêtées. Les résultats ont révélé qu’en aval, le respect des BPH a un effet positif sur le chiffre d'affaires de l'activité destinée directement aux consommateurs, sans transiter par des intermédiaires, pour toutes les catégories d’huileries. En effet, ce type de consommateurs perçoit par lui-même l’intérêt alloué par l’oléiculteur aux signes de la qualité et de la sécurité sanitaire à travers les indicateurs des BPH. Pour conclure, la coordination d’actions visant à améliorer la qualité et la sécurité sanitaire de l'huile d'olive par les BPH peut être fondée sur l'intérêt des oléiculteurs à améliorer leurs revenus en ciblant les facteurs socio-professionnels et économiques favorables à leur adhésion aux BPH.
Keywords: huile d’olive, BPH, qualité, Maroc, industrie alimentaire

Effect of Total Physical Response Method on Students’ Achievement in English Vocabulary in Junior Secondary Schools in Akoka South Education Zone, Ondo State, Nigeria
Josephine Uzoamaka Akabogu and Johnson Ajiwoju
This study examined the effect of total physical response method on students’ achievement in English vocabulary in junior secondary schools in Akoko South Education Zone, Ondo State. One research question was posed and one null hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. The design of the study was non-equivalent pretest, post-test control group quasi-experimental research design. Purposive random sampling was used to select two schools for the study. The two intact classes randomly selected were assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group comprised 83 students and the control group 77 students. The experimental group was taught using total physical response method while the control group was taught using grammar-translation method. The instrument used for data collection was English Vocabulary Achievement Test (EVAT). The instrument was face validated by experts from university of Nigeria, Nsukka,. The data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The result of the study should that: Total physical response method had a significant effect on students’ achievement in English vocabulary. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the study provided empirical evidence of the effectiveness of TPR method to improve students’ achievement in English language vocabulary. It was therefore, recommended amongst others that teachers should adopt and practice TPR method in their various schools.
Keywords: language, English language, vocabulary, achievement and method

Strategies for Effective Implementation of the Nigerian National Language Policy in Nsukka Education Zone
Josephine Uzoamaka Akabogu
This study sought to find out strategies for effective implementation of the National Language policy in Nsukka Education Zone of Enugu State Nigeria three research questions were formulated to guide the study. The study also adopted a descriptive research survey A sample of sixty teachers were drawn randomly using simple random sampling technique from a population of two hundred and fifteen teachers (215) in Nsukka education Zone. A four point scale involving strongly. Agree (SA) 4 points, Agree (A) 3 points, Disagree (D) 2points and Disagree (SD) I point was used to determine acceptance or rejection of statements by the respondents. Any weighted mean response up to 2.50 is considered as accepted by the respondents other wise rejected the data collected were analyzed using frequency and mean ratings. Results of the study amongst others revealed that there is a dearth of trained indigenous language teachers for the effective implementation of the language policy in primary schools in Nsukka education zone. Based on the findings of the study, recommendations were proffered which included that government should ensure the training and retraining of teachers of Nigerian languages through scholarships, workshops, seminars, conferences and in-service programmes.
Keywords: Strategies, Implementation, National Language Policy.

Re-publishing - EJSR 32(4), 541-544
In vitro cytotoxic properties of ethanolic extracts of various parts of Swietenia mahagoni

Mohammad Ahsanul Akbar, Rubina Ahamed, Khondoker Dedarul Alam and Mohammad Shawkat Ali
The aim of this study was to investigate cytotoxic properties of the crude ethanolic extracts of seed, bark and leaf of Swietenia mahagoni (Family-Maliaceae) and their various fractions by using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The seed extract and its dichloromethane and pet-ether fractions exhibited the most significant cytotoxic properties with the LC50 values of 4.68, 4.79 and 6.61 µg/ml, correspondingly. The moderate cytotoxic activities were showed by bark extract, methanol fraction of bark extract, leaf extract and pet-ether fraction of bark extract (LC50 values of 9.54, 10.00, 13.18 and 15.13 µg/ml, respectively) in this experiment. The results in this study are highly promising. Vincristine sulphate (LC50 value of 0.501) was used as positive control in this investigation.
Keywords: Brine shrimp lethality bioassay, Swietenia mahagoni, Artemia salina.

Re-publishing - EJSR 39(2), 199-206
In vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Four Medicinally Important Plants in Bangladesh

Mohammad Rashedul Islam, Rubina Ahamed, Md. Obaidur Rahman, Mohammad Ahsanul Akbar, Muhammad Al-Amin, Khondoker Dedarul Alam and Farhana Lyzu
In this study, methanolic crude extracts and their different fractions i.e. petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and aqueous soluble fractions of the Allamanda cathartica (Family: Apocynaceae), Stereospermum personatum (Family: Bignoniaceae), Curcuma zedoaria (Family: Zingiberaceae), and Callistemon citrinus (Family: Myrtaceae) were subjected for antimicrobial activity. All the fractions were tested against different gram positive and gram negative bacteria and fungi to find out their antimicrobial activity using disc diffusion technique for bacteria and food poison method for fungi. Leaves’ extract of Allamanda cathartica and Rhizome extract of Curcuma zedoaria showed mild to moderate antimicrobial activity where highest activity was observed by chloroform soluble fraction of Allamanda cathartica against Shigella dysenteriae (13 mm) and same activity of rhizome methanolic extract of Curcuma zedoaria was against Bacillus cereus (12 mm) and Vibrio parahemolyticus (12 mm). Chloroform solvent extract of Stereospermum personatum showed marked antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria of Sarcina lutea (13 mm) and gram negative bacteria of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13 mm). Leaves’ carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction of Callistemon citrinus showed significant antimicrobial activity ranging from 11-16 mm zone of inhibition in diameter and its antimicrobial activity was highly significant especially against Vibrio parahemolyticus (16 mm), Vibrio mimicus (15 mm) and Sacharomyces cerevaceae (14 mm). Kanamycin at a concentration of 30 μg/ disc was used as positive control in this study.
Keywords: Allamanda cathartica, Stereospermum personatum, Curcuma zedoaria, Callistemon citrinus, Disc diffusion technique, food poisoning method, and antimicrobial activity.