European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 139 No 4
June, 2016

Bunkering Supply Operation Time Prediction Using Multiple Linear Regression Method
Owing to the new challenging economic conditions, the bunkering sector has become a vital activity for the entire maritime supply chain players, that’s why actually, the successful ship owners, operators and charterers are in a continuous quest for the best bunker providers around the world, suppliers who are able to guarantee that theirs customer vessels will be supplied on arrival and during the defined port call time window without any delay in theirs operational schedule. On the other hand, the shipping companies and agents usually request for the estimated duration of the bunkering operation, so as to plan in advance the whole port call scenario of the vessel in subject. However, due to the stochastic nature of bunkering physical supply, no accurate answer is obtained from the bunker supplier side. In the scope of these concerns, this paper will be addressed to help the shipping companies, shipping agents, terminal operators, port authorities and all the related players to schedule theirs operations more efficiently and in a timely manner. In this regard, Basis on real data acquired from a bunker supplier at Tangier Med port in Morocco , a data preparation and analysis will be done firstly, so as to identify the main factors that impact the bunkering supply operation, followed by a multiple linear regression technique prediction model for the bunkering processing time quantification.
Keywords: Bunkering supply operation, bunkering processing time, fuel bunkers, multiple linear regression

Applying Information Mining Technique to Extract Hidden Knowledge in Students’ Feedback
Anwar M. A., Sayed Sayeed Ahmed and Edriss Ahmed Ali
Several statistical tools are available for students’ feedback and performance analysis for information extraction and knowledge discovery. This paper presents information mining approach applied to discover association rules in students’ feedback of course and faculty in an academic institution. The interesting association rules discovered from this analysis will be helpful for constructive suggestions to educational administrators and decision makers in the sector of academic institution for the improvement of overall teaching environment and methodologies to deliver the course curriculum effectively and efficiently.
Keywords: Association Rules, Educational Knowledge Mining, KDD

Soft Skills - a Supplement and a Complement to Hard Skills: A Review
K.Revathi and V.Anitha Devi
In the wake of Globalization, Liberalization and Privatization and with the trend of multinational offers of jobs at present, it has become an inevitable need for the graduates of engineering, science and humanities to complement their academic knowledge and hard skills with the soft skills, so that they stand the fairest chance to take up the challenging jobs. Awareness has already dawned upon the academicians, educationists and corporations to a considerable extent about the need for imparting education and training in soft skills to the graduates. Such trainings are conceived and conducted sparingly even on the job. Considering the direct relationship that the soft skills have with the success of the organizations and individual workers, lot of researches have been undertaken to identify soft skills relevant for general and specific purposes. Evaluation methods have also been designed and tried. This article on “Soft Skills - a Supplement and a Complement to Hard Skills: A Review.” aims to review some of the contributory works done on soft skills by the researchers and competent bodies.
Keywords: Soft Skills; Graduates; Professionals; Job Market.

Mitgation of Nine-Level Inverter Faults Using Redundant Cell for Induction Motor Drive
B. Madhu Kiran and B. V. Sanker Ram
This paper deals with the use of redundant cell for nine-level inverter. The study of faults in inverter is essential for the induction motor drive system fed from an inverter. During fault cases the redundant cell operates and thus the performance of the drive system will not be affected. Induction motor fed electrical vehicle should be operated continuously. To fulfill increasing demand for higher dependability in power semiconductor converters applicable in electrical vehicles, fault detection (FD) and mitigation is a very important. During this study, a model-based on open semiconductor switch fault and closed semiconductor switch fault designation methodology is conferred for a voltage-source electrical inverter (VSI) supply a Squirrel Induction motor drive. When the fault occurs, the redundant cell activates and thus the drive system operates. In this paper, the function for redundant cell was explained with the results of drive system simulated in Matlab/Simulink. The results have been compared with the five-level and seven-level results. Models and results were simulated using Matlab/Simulink software.
Keywords: Redundant cell, inverter fault, Fault detection and mitigation

The Biological Nitrogen Fixing Symbiosis in Legumes: Recent Advances in Sustainable Agriculture
Youmna Hajjam and Souad Cherkaoui
Agriculture and soil management are nowadays threatened by serious environmental factors and by excessive use of fertilizers based chemicals. Microorganisms and especially rhizobium genera are well exploited in sustainable agriculture to reduce pollution caused by chemical fertilizers and to enhance soil fertility, crop productivity and microorganisms biodiversity in soils. Thus, the use of microorganisms as bio-fertilizers could also be affected by several issues such as environmental constraints which trigger the down regulation of the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) process. Genomic and genes cloning strategies contribute greatly to a better understanding of BNF process and lead to an advanced use of performant rhizobium strains in bioinoculation. Throughout this review, we emphasized the double importance of nitrogen as a chemical element in agriculture and food security accordingly. The recent investigations scrutinized from previous literature will help to give new insights in sustainable agriculture based BNF and to understand the need of promoting biofertilizers and reducing land degradation.
Keywords: Sustainable agriculture, rhizobium, biofertilzers, BNF, environmental constrains

The Nexus Between Capital Structure and Profitability of Commercial Banks in Nigeria
Babatunde Afolabi, Ayodele Ademola and Alawiye-Adams Adewale
This paper investigated the Impact of Capital Structure on Profitability of Commercial Banks in Nigeria, between 2005 and 2014. The study carried out Static Analysis of the Nexus between Capital Structure and Profitability of Commercial Banks in Nigeria, with focus on 10 selected Commercial Banks in Nigeria. The techniques of Pooled OLS Estimation, Fixed Effect Estimation (FEE) and Random Effect Estimation (REE) were employed in an attempt to arrive at the most consistent and efficient static estimation of the Panel Mode. The proxies of Debt Finance (DF), Equity Finance (EF) and Debt Equity Ratio (DER) for Capital Structure while Profit after Tax (PAT) is used as a measure of Bank Profitability. The result of the study showed that Debt Finance exert positive but insignificant influence on Commercial Bank’s Profitability, while the ratio of Debt-Equity influence on Commercial Banks’ Profitability was found to be negative for the period investigated. The study therefore recommend that Commercial Banks should be more levered as this significantly influence the level of Profitability, however they should adopt the right finance mix that is not extremely lopsided to obtain the right balance between Business and Financial Risk.
Keywords: Capital Structure, Profitability, Debt-Equity Ratio, Debt Finance, Equity Finance.

Application of Visual Promethee in Choosing Landfill Hospital Waste in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
Kasuku W., C.Bouland, CH. De Brouwer and B. Mareschal
Visual Promethee is a storage technology and / or choice that is an extension of Promethee and GAIA Method. This technique was developed by Professor B. Mareschal at ULB. Its objective is to evaluate several possible decisions about conflicts between several criteria. It identifies the right decision and visualizes it to assess the problem and understand the difficulties to develop a good decision. Visual Promethee uses an enhanced representation. Indeed, the relative position of the shares in Diamond Promethee (easy to visualize the proximity between positive and negative flows) are used instead of drawing nodes at arbitrary locations. Preferences are indicated by arrows so we can enjoy the proximity of action and therefore the degrees of incomparability in partial classification. The GAIA Plan identifies the actions that have similar behavior and evaluate the discriminating power of a criterion. It is a method with descriptive analysis as useful to identify conflicting criteria. The plan complements the Promethee storage. In this plan which is built on principal component analysis-based, there is a parameter that measures the amount of information preserved by projecting the cloud of points on the plane. The axis allows the decision maker to have more degrees of freedom to control his decision for the best actions of his ranking. Using this technique we classified the landfill from best to worst is known adviser to the Congolese decision makers. We started an investigation by questions on how hospitals in Kinshasa (four) conduct in the management of hospital waste. Because of several malfunctions noted, we conducted a cross and descriptive study to choose a site four sites (D1, D2, D3, D4) for the burial of hospital waste. The technique applied Visual Promethee put the D4 website well placed than other sites on several criteria (environmental, social, technical, economic). Our study summarizes a theoretical aspect of Promethee-GAIA method then it will apply Visual Promethee to choose between Tshangu, Lukunga, MontAmba and Funa sites.
Keywords: Visual Promethee, burial, Hospital waste, Kinshasa, DRC, Districts

Sustainable Development Strategy in the Management of Hospital Waste At Ndjili General Hospital(HGRN) in the DRC
W. Kasuku, M. Malumba and C.Mulaji
This study is an action research study. It is descriptive and to the sustainable development strategy in order to develop, recycle waste Product in a Health institution. The Hospital with the objective to restore Health and not through the waste contribute to its degradation is the objective of this study.
This study is cross and takes place from March 2006 at January 2007 in Kinshasa, DRC. The participatory approach allowed to see different types of waste are found in the general hospital Ndjili reference. We have visited during our investigations services and departments of the hospital. We found that hospital waste is made up of waste similar to household waste (DAOM) including food scraps, glass, paper, cardboard, infectious waste (medical waste) such as urine, killed, glass, blood vials, anatomical parts, chemical and radioactive waste at risk.
It concluded that In a hospital, first do no harm but it is more better then treat patients. Therefore care waste management is part of an environmental and regulatory framework. Sustainable development is a concept that seeks to reconcile economic and social progress with environmental conservation in order to meet our current needs without limiting the ability of future generations to meet theirs.
Within the framework of action research, we set up a team of people who should during our study collected, sorted and separated waste collected and weighed before sending it to the landfill or landfill instead of internal. We obtained an average of 95kg / day, 70% of infectious waste. Because of waste recovery, the worker separates infectious waste and waste similar to household waste. In all visited departments or services, transportation and handling is done in 64.4% of cases. The agents are not trained for the pre-treatment of hospital waste in 98% of cases. The waste is thrown anywhere in the hospital compound is 39% or next to the incinerator. Yards of waste should be made at the place of production by paramedics. In 79% (n = 102) of cases, sorting is not done, increasing the risks to the poorly trained personnel. The non-sharp waste sorting 79% of cases, the fact of throwing needles in the garbage for 85% of cases and the use of bins without cover for 53% of cases are usually observed risky behavior.
The general conclusion of this study is, the management of hospital waste is a problem and a danger to the general hospital of Ndjili. This question is linke to health and environmental problems and public health. To prevent infections in the hospital setting, we recommend a change in behavior of all-awareness and training on sustainable management of hospital waste.

Effect of Diet On the Quantity and Quality of Venom Produced By Apis Cerana
Mohammed Abusabbah, Wei Hong Lau, Mohammed E. E.Mahmoud, Ashraf M. Salih and Dzolkhifli Omar
The bee venom samples from honey bee (Apis cerana) foraged on seven plants dominating seven sites in Malaysia were collected. The protein content of the pollen loads of these test plants were tested according to the method of Kjeldahl (AOAC 1990). The samples were analysed to determine the effects of diet type on the quantity and quality of its constituents – melittin, phospholipase A2 and apamin using HPLC.
The highest melittin (677.86μg/ml), phospholipase (477.96 μg/ml) and apamin (136.10 μg/ml) content were recorded in venom collected from honey bee colonies foraged on Durian plant which has protein content (31.7%) of its pollen loads. A positive correlation was recorded between the protein content with melittin (R2= 0.9372), phospholipase A2 (R2= 0.7208) and apamin (R2=0.4128), while a negative correlation was observed between the protein content and the weight of the venom mount produced (R2= -0.7549). A direct relationship was observed between the quality of the venom and the protein content of pollen loads, while the quantity of the venom was not in accordance with the venom quality.

Keywords: Apis cerana; Bee venom, Bee diet; HPLC.

Future of Social Entrepreneurship: Empirical Evidence from the Universities of Pakistan
Ghazala Khan and Avinash Advani
This research work highlights new guidelines for the future of social entrepreneurship in Pakistan. It will systematically enhance and help to understand the new techniques of social entrepreneurship which are going to change the face of traditional entrepreneurship. This paper presents various perceptions of social entrepreneurship to differentiate it from other social plans and business. Its essential concern is to address the various stages of analysis, utilized approaches and evaluation of results. This study is based on descriptive, quantitative as well as qualitative method. Primary and secondary data was used for analysis in this study. A questionnaire was distributed among 150 students of different universities of Pakistan. Likert scale has been used to measure the output which is five point rating, 5 for SA and 1 for SD. SPSS 20 Software was utilized to obtain the result and test the hypothesis. The results of this study strongly suggest that there is a need to develop the managerial skills in youth by providing them relevant education as well as technical training regarding social entrepreneurship. This investigation will provide important implications for researchers, policy makers and entrepreneurship educators. Pakistan is facing demographic youth abundance along with a total population of 200 million. It is a strong labor force oriented country with an annual increase of 6% educated youth force. This strength can be better utilized by adopting social entrepreneurship in health, education, industry & other related fields. It can bring a positive change in the social status of the participants & improve the living standards of the masses collectively.
Keywords: Social entrepreneurship, Sustainable Development, Career Development, social network approach, University Students, entrepreneurship in Pakistan.