European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 138 No 1
February, 2016

Corruption - Insecurity Nexus and Its Costs on Development in Nigeria
Joseph Okwesili Nkwede and Emmanuel Ogbonna Abah
Corruption and insecurity indeed, have become the major centrifugal and centripetal forces driving Nigeria in the 21st century. This study examined corruption and security challenges with special attention to Nigeria and its growing effects on development. The principal objective is to juxtapose the interconnectivity between corruption and insecurity with a view to determining its implications on the Nigerian nation. While employing content analytical approach, data were collected from documentary sources and scholarly inputs on corruption and insecurity. Guided by the human needs theory, the study found among other things that corruption and insecurity undermines democracy, good governance and rule of law, subverts formal processes, lack of legitimacy, disappearance of core values, underdevelopment of the country and globally, battered the image of the country. The paper recommends that; government should pass and implement strong anti-corruption legislation, value reorientation and sensitization of the citizenry, robust implementation of access to information laws, engagement of the youths in governance and participatory democracy. The paper concludes that the high rate of corruption and insecurity is the major cause of instability in the governance system and need to be nipped in the bud to pave way for socio-economic emancipation.
Keywords: Corruption, Insecurity, Development, Democracy, Nigeria.

Application of Cluster Analysis and Association Analysis Model: Based Power System Fault Identification
Syahrel Emran Bin Siraj, Tan Yong Sing, Raman Raguraman, Pratap Nair Marimuthu and Dr. K. Nithiyananthan
The aim of this research work was to develop combine Cluster and Association Analysis based fault identification model for the power system. Cluster Analysis has been implemented to locate the bus at fault and association analysis implemented to detect the types of fault had occurred in power system. A test case of IEEE 9 Bus Power System and different types of fault are simulated using Power World software. The bus voltages at fault were gathered and import to the statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for determining bus at fault. In this paper, it will show the steps of the proposed model to detect Bus 8 at 3 phase faults. These faults are occurring mainly due to external environmental factors where geographic location of a power system plays an important role in causing of fault to which it is exposed. The proposed model has two sections the first section will determine the bus at fault using Cluster Analysis. A second section will determine the different types of fault due to various external environmental factors using strong rules generated by Association analysis. The innovative proposed model had successfully determined the bus 8 at 3 phase fault in IEEE 9 Bus Power System.
Keywords: Cluster Analysis, Association Analysis, Power system transmission line faults

Fault Diagnosis of the High-Voltage Circuit Breaker Based on Granular Reduction Approach
R. M. Rizk-Allah
This paper presents an effective and efficient approach named, granular reduction approach, to extract diagnosis rules from inconsistent and redundant data set of high voltage (HV) circuit breaker. The granular reduction approach aims to build the diagnostic knowledge base by considering granules of indiscernible objects as a fundamental basis via a general relation, where this relation involves a certain tolerance whose possible values may be assigned by the expert. In addition, the lower and upper approximations are established based on topological vision. Moreover, the proposed approach possesses the characteristics of tolerance among the knowledge, so it can overcome shortcomings of classic rough set which only be fit for discrete variables and sensitive to noise. Finally, the correctness and effectiveness of this approach are validated by the result of practical fault diagnosis example.
Keywords: Circuit-Breaker; Granular; Rough Set Theory; Topological Space.

Possibility of Monitoring the Structures and Bridges Performance under Environmental and Loading Conditions in Saudi Arabia
Alhammadi Shabbab
In civil engineering, structures and bridges should be monitored to communicate their performance under environmental and loading conditions, which means that engineer can check periodically for possible message of damage warning that could have a very high cost in human lives. This paper presents an overview of the application of fiber optic sensor technology with examples of their application in civil engineering structures and the possibility to transfer these technologies to Saudi Arabia. And the paper will focus on the fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) using to measure strain and temperature in concrete structures and fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) overwraps applied to concrete structures.
Keywords: civil engineering structure, Bragg gratings, Fiber optic sensors, Bridges.

A novel Power Factor Correction for A.C to D.C Buck-Boost Converter using Digital Signal Processor
D. Jayahar, R.Ranihemamalini and K. Rathnakannan
Conventional circuits for Power Factor Correction (PFC) in converters make use of the A.C input voltage signal as reference for the current controller. In this method any voltage distortion will affect the current control loop; therefore in this work the authors have used the DSP processor to generate the reference sine wave and control the buck-boost converter. A flexible compensator design using particle swarm optimization is presented. The projected control method was verified through MATLAB/Simulink simulations and a hardware prototype converter was developed using TMS320F2812 DSP processor; it was able to respond to the set output value with improved power factor. The lower order harmonics have been removed from the input current and power factor was found to be above 0.9.
Keywords: AC to DC converters, Improved Power Quality, Power Factor Correction, Switch-Mode Power Supplies, Buck-Boost Converter, DSP Control.

Apport des sondages électriques verticaux à la localisation et la caractérisation des aquifères en zone volcanique au Cameroun: cas d’Ebone et ses environs
Adoua Kopa Njueya, Lucas Kengni, Mathias Fru Fonteh, Armand Kagou Dongmo, Roger Njila Ntankouo, David Guimolaire Nkouathio and Chymene Tazo
The satisfaction of drinking potable water needs of rural populations has become a major issue for developing countries such as Cameroon. To overcome these difficulties, people make use of groundwater through the construction of boreholes which in most cases, registered many failures due to ignorance of the aquifer system. Thus, the present study aims to provide a solution through a geological and geophysical study, coupled with monitoring the construction of eight boreholes. The results show a multilayer aquifer system, characterized by four types of geophysical anomalies (HK, K, Q and HKH) which are functions of the topographical position, lithological nature, and structure of the field. The main exploited aquifers are represented by pyroclastic (between 11 and 31m) and fractured basalts (from 15 to 53m) which is not always in the same eruptive phase. These aquifers have variable resistivity (between 15 and 300 &Ohm;.m) and high productivity (between 0.67 and 10m3 / h) for K-type curves.
Keywords: Vertical Electrical Probing, Aquifers, Volvanic Area, Geophysics, Boreholes, Productivity.

Determination of Physio-Chemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Borehole Water in Benin City, Nigeria
Dr. Julius. U. Iyasele and David .J.E. Idiata
Every day, lack of access to clean water and sanitation kills thousands, leaving others with reduced quality of life. The most affected are the populations in developing countries, living in extreme conditions of poverty, normally rural inhabitants. Among the main problems which are responsible for this situation are: lack of priority given to the sector, lack of financial resources, lack of sustainability of water supply and sanitation services, poor hygiene behaviours, and inadequate sanitation in public places. The Civil Society participation in the water sector also known as Private Sector Participation (PSP) has help a lot in meeting the water need of the population via boreholes development in Nigeria and especially Benin City. 30 samples of water was collected from 30 boreholes in different areas of Benin city and the analysis shows that pH, Magnesium and Iron on the average have values that exceed the limit for consumption and as such the water analysis of borehole water for Benin City area needs mild treatment to become fit for drinking.
Keywords: Borehole; Sample; Sanitation; Water; Analysis; Parameter.

Surface Morphology and Taguchi’s Analysis of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites
Sudeep Deshpande and T. Rangaswamy
The aim of the research article is to develop E-glass/jute fiber reinforced epoxy composites with an addition of 10 wt.% and 15 wt.% as a filler of granite particles by using hand layup technique and to characterize tribological properties. The wear experiments were designed according to Taguchi’s (L27) orthogonal array with three control variables such as sliding velocity, filler content and normal load. The results indicate that the normal load emerges as the significant factor affecting specific wear rate and filler content for coefficient of friction respectively of hybrid composites. An addition of granite particles into E-glass/jute fiber reinforced epoxy composites increased the wear resistance considerably. The highest wear resistance of these composites was achieved by an incorporation of 15 wt.% of granite particles. After the thorough analysis of factors, an optimal factor setting has been suggested for specific wear rate and coefficient of friction. Further, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images for worn surfaces of hybrid composites were studied. Finally, a confirmation test was carried out to validate the results.
Keywords: Hybrid Composites, Wear Rate, Taguchi’s Analysis, Surface Morphology.

b*-continuous functions In Topological Space
M. El Sayed and F.H.AL Mansour
The concept of b*-open sets can be applied in modifications of rough set approximations which is widely applied in many application elds. The aim of this paper is to introduce and investigate some new classes of topological mappings called b*-continuous mappings via b*-open sets. Also, b*-irresolute mappings and we study the relationships between these mappings are investigated. We shall introduce and study some of their properties.

A prototype Model Design on Automated Question Answering System Using Syntactic and Semantic Structure Representation
S.Jayalakshmi and Dr. AnanthiSheshasaayee
Question Answering (QA) systems receive considerable attention due to the increasing amount of web content and the high demand for digital information. Most of the Question-answering system reduces the answer processing to a syntactic pattern matching problem. The improper questions thatare not specified with the Question words starting with a letter ‘W’ and ‘H’(WH-operator) may mislead the question processing syntactically. It is essential to contemplate on the missing WH-operator questions while ensuring a correct answer to a given question and this leads to inaccurate answer process. Conceptually, it is crucial to measure how the questionable arguments are semantically close to the answer sentence. This paper introduces the Syntactic and semantic strUcture rePResentation basEd autoMated quEstion ANSwering system (SUPREME-ANS). It exploits both the syntactic and semantic model inan SUPREME-ANS system that contains three phases like question processing, document processing, and answer processing. The first method answering both the improper and the proper questions using training corpus and retrieves the relevant information from the Web in question processing phase. It adopts training corpus to predict the missing WH-operator in improper questions model. The main goal of document processing is to generate and rank the patterns for retrieving sentences based on the lexical, syntactic, and semantic features.Itretrieves the candidate answer sentences from the relevant documents in document processing phase. The most appropriate sentences to the answer are called a candidate answer sentence. Finally, the SUPREME-ANS approach identifies the precise answer from the candidate answer sentences using the named entity type and verb based re-ranking in answer processing.The experimental results show that the SUPREME-ANS approach improves the effectiveness of QA system than the existing QA system.
Keywords: Natural Language Processing, Question answering, Syntactic, Semantic relation, WH-covert questions.