European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 137 No 3
January, 2016

Use of remote sensing for monitoring the dynamics of the classified forest of Soumié, South-East of Cote d'Ivoire.
COULIBALY Naga, GONE Droh Laciné, COULIBALY Talnan Jean Honoré, ATTEY Avi Guy Roland, SAVANE Issaika
Classified Forest of Soumié (FCS) is located in the Aboisso region, in the southeast of Côte d'Ivoire, rainforest area. This forest, like all the classified forests of Côte d’Ivoire is under strong anthropogenic pressure. This study aims to determine the impact of human actions on the transformation of the natural tree cover between 1986 and 2010 at the classified forest of Soumié. For that, we used the supervised classification method with the maximum likelihood algorithm to achieve the vegetation maps from two Landsat images (TM 1986) and ETM + (2010) Landsat. Thus, we observed that the vegetation cover had regression of its area between 1986 and 2010. This decline is greater in the peripheral areas of the villages of Ayébo and Adaou in the eastern party of the FCS. These results would have been more alarming if the reforestation had not been done to reduce the negatives impacts of anthropic actions.
Keywords: Forest Reserve, Deforestation, Remote Sensing, Land Cover, Côte d’Ivoire.

A Transmission Scheme for Communications Systems Using Wavelet Transform and Comparison with Fourier Transform
Abdullah S. Almuttiri
Over the last three decades the demand for wireless communications has increased dramatically. Consequently, the need for adapting such a demand has also increased putting pressure on scientist and researchers to develop more advanced techniques that are capable of handle such a demand. However, the bandwidth limitation increased the pressure on developers as it is the focus point and band limited of any communication system. During the 1970s scientists came up with Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM) technology with the use of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) which was remarkable discovery at that time as it saves up to 50% of bandwidth. Since then OFDM is the adapted technology in most of communication standards including DVB-Ts, LAN, MAN, Wi-Fi, WiMAX and VANET. Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) was developed due to the need for analyzing the signal in time-frequency domain in order to visualize the features of any signal. However, due to the fact that this technique is time limited and localized due to the usage of fixed time sliding window. The discovery of Wavelet transform is a result of the need for further development from the limitation of Fourier Transform (FT) and STFT. It is being used now in several applications across signal and image processing, i.e. image and video compression, watermarking and medical applications. This paper suggests the use of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) to modulate signals for transmission. Orthogonal Wavelet Division Multiplex (OWDM) is proposed and DVB-T standard is used for baseline comparison with OFDM system. It is shown that OWDM modulation technique could save up to 25% of the bandwidth over conventional OFDM system. Investigating this brand new technology could open a new window for new modulation technique with lower complexity, bandwidth conservation, flexibility and cost effectiveness.
Keywords: OFDM, Discrete Wavelet Transform, Short-time Fourier Transform, STFT, OWDM, Wavelets, DWT, Orthogonal Wavelet Division Multiplex.

Physical activity in overweight and obese adults in Al-kharj, Saudi Arabia
Waleed Salah El-din Mahmoud, Ahmed S. Ahmed and Ragab Kamal Elnnagar
Background and Purpose: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is rising rapidly worldwide and in most Asian Countries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate physical activity and its association with selected socio-demographic parameters in overweight and obese adults in Al-kharj city, Saudi Arabia. Methods: Two hundred and twelve overweight and obese Saudi male and female adults, aged 18-65 years, were recruited in this study. Physical activity was assessed by using the translated Arabic short-version self-administered format of IPAQ. Socio-demographic variables such as age, gender, body mass index, marital and socioeconomic status were assessed. Physical activity levels were categorized as "low", "moderate" and "high". Results: The prevalence of physical inactivity in the present study sample was 78%.Our data revealed significant association of physical inactivity with gender, age, BMI, SES and marital status. Conclusion: The prevalence of physical inactivity in both overweight and obese subjects is high in Al-kharj city, Saudi Arabia. Public health efforts are essential to promote physical activity among overweight and obese population.
Keywords: Physical activity, Obesity, Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia.

Impact of the Movable Word (Word-of-Mouth) On the Decision to Purchase of the Youth for the Smart Phones
Dr. Humood Muhammad Al- Sanad
The study aimed to identify the impact of impact of the movable word (word-of-mouth) on the decision to purchase of the youth for the smart phones. The study population consisted of all youth's of Zarqa City in Jordan, were chosen as appropriate sample consisting of (366) young, and was distributed the study questionnaire on them. The study found a number of results most notable was:
a. The results showed that the evaluation of the youth for the (WOM) dimensions which are the (family members, friends, work colleagues, and celebrities), were in degree (high) for all dimensions.
b. The results indicated that there exist a statistically significant impact at a significant level (α = 0.05), for the movable word (WOM) dimensions (family members, friends, work colleagues, and celebrities) on the decision to purchase of the youth for the smart phones.
The study concluded that a number of the recommendations and conclusions.
Keywords: Movable word, Word-of-Mouth, Decision to Purchase, Smart Phones, Zarqa City in Jordan.

Comparative Study on Occupants’s Satisfaction on Urban Design Fea-tures for Creating Resilient Downtown in case of Seoul
Jeasun Lee and Minseon Kim
The purpose of this paper is to identify the urban design features taking into consideration for urban revitalization projects to make downtowns more resilient. To this end, the association between urban design features and occupant’s level of satisfaction in Downtown Seoul were analyzed. An exten-sive survey questionnaire was conducted to occupants in four downtown revitalization sites. The finding is that occupants can appreciate how specific urban design features add or subtract to their satisfaction with the urban environment. Through Multiple Comparison Analysis, this paper highlights the urban de-sign features found to be statistically significant.
Keywords: Downtown Revitalization, Urban Design Features, Occupant's Satisfaction, Resilient Downtowns

Seasonal Variation of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Using Landsat-8 Satellite Images: a Case Study in Yanbu coastal city, (Northwest KSA)
Amal yahya Alshaikh
Sea surface temperature (SST) is a primary tracer of physical coastal dynamics and closely tied to near-shore ecosystem functions (Bertram et al., 2001). It is one of the important oceanic environmental factors in determining the change of marine environments and ecological activities (Ki-mook et al., 2014). This study was carried out to monitor (SST) Variation in '' Yanbu City'' (Northwest KSA), using 4 Landsat-8 (OLI) thermal infrared band data, Date Acquired (2104/ 2015). As a result, the mean SST was 22.5°C in spring, 29.5°C in summer, 26.5°C in autumn and 22°C in winter. Results of the study also demonstrated that Satellite Remote Sensing Data Analysis offers very useful information in monitoring (SST).
Keywords: Seasonal Variation, Sea surface temperature, Landsat-8, Yanbu City.

Distinguishing Between Weed Seeds and Wheat Grains Using Image Analysis
Maged Hussien Wafy and Enas Mohamed Kamel
Separation of weed seeds from crop seeds plays a central role in the enhancement of the quantity and quality of grain. Therefore, the identification of weed seeds in grain has been studied on the basis of seed color, texture, and morphology. Those studies have focused on the identification of an individual seed separately within an image. Although various morphological features have been used in the identification of seeds, the minimal number of required morphological features has not been determined yet. In this study, we determine the minimal number of morphological features; additionally, our proposed method can identify a mixed sample of weed seeds and wheat seeds in the same image. We show that quadratic discriminant analysis performs significantly better regarding identification accuracy and running time than the k-nearest neighbors algorithm and naive Bayes classifier.
Keywords: image analysis; classification techniques; morphological features

An Intelligent Parallel System for Segmenting abdominal CT images using atlas based allocation from Spine
Sanjay Saxena, Dr. Shiru Sharma, Dr. Neeraj Sharma, Dr. S.K.Singh and Dr. Ashish Verma
Embedding of parallelism in medical imaging is one of the most important and computationally challenging tasks as it deals with the structure of human anatomy. Recent headway in distinctive parallel computing devices and methods, for example, GPU (Graphics Processing Unit), PCT (Parallel Computing Toolbox) of MATLAB, Open CV, Open CL, CUDA (Computed Unified Device Architecture) and numerous more, gives the speedy and proficient approach to process medical imaging. In the prospective of quick processing and examination of abdominal CT slices as it comprises of various soft tissues, for example, liver, kidneys, aorta, spine, spleen, and pancreas, effective utilization of these techniques produces substantial results. This paper proposes a keen and incite procedure with full use of accessible computational resources like physical, logical core and light wright threads of CPU (Central Processing Unit) for the numerous abdominal tissue segmentation. In this paper segmentation of abdominal CT images is achieved based on the fact that spine is frequently included in abdominal CT image data set and all the organs or soft tissues can be quantitatively positioned relative to the spine. For implementing parallel system, MATLAB’s parallel computing toolbox with extensively invoked java threads are fully employed to create multiple light weight parallel threads as a substitute of heavy weight processes of MATLAB. Apart from this an automated visualization system with well-organized GUI (Graphical User Interface) is also developed using MATLAB to provide the easy handling for radiologists and researchers. As a result, significant correlation coefficient and dice similarity coefficient found between automatic and expert’s manual segmentation of 186 abdominal CT images. The experiment results also show the parallel approach running up to multiple times faster than the sequential approach with significant correlation of extracted organs.
Keywords: Image Processing, Parallel Computing, Abdominal CT image, Image Segmentation, Medical Imaging.

Complete BCK-ideal
Habeeb Kareem Abdullah and Zinah Ahmed hasan
In this paper ,we study a new type of ideals its called complete BCK-ideal , and also we defined terms closed complete BCK-ideal , closed with respect to BCK-ideal , implicative with respect to BCK-ideal , and also some of theorems , we make clear its relationships with ideal in BCK-algebra.
Keywords: BCK-algebra , complete BCK- ideal , ideal in BCK-algebra , implicative ideal in BCK-algebra , commutative ideal in BCK-algebra

Need for content-specialist teachers for tertiary English education
Sonia Sharmin
The issue of specificity in English education has recently been considered for the case of Physics university students in non-English speaking countries, where students' English language proficiency is low and most courses are taught in the native language. Consequently, to enable the students to fully integrate themselves and their research in the wider world, Technical English (TE) programs have been introduced in different universities. However, these are encountering issues where instructors, who have either a higher academic degree in English or Education, suffer from the disadvantage of having limited knowledge of physics. On the other hand, physicists in non-English speaking countries sometimes suffer from poor general English skills and thus are reluctant to take TE classes. In this study, research has been carried out on how an English teacher and a subject specialist evaluate and correct the mistakes in the writing of a physics major student. Although there are generic skills and language forms/functions that are useful across different fields, the view here proposed is that English learning for physics tertiary students is more effective if it is based on the specific conventions and skills used in the discipline of physics. It is certainly valuable for students to know about common rhetorical moves; however, instructors need to have some subject-general knowledge to effectively teach English to Physics students.
Keywords: Technical English, tertiary physics education, subject specialist