European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 136 No 1
November, 2015

Contents of Distance Learning for Adult Learners
Khalil Alsaadat
Distance education, or distance learning, is a field of education that focuses on the pedagogy and andragogy, technology, and instructional systems design that aim to deliver education to students who are not physically "on site". According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, “is a process to create and provide access to learning when the source of information and the learners are separated by time and distance, or both.” In other words, distance learning is the process of creating an educational experience of equal qualitative value for the learner to best suit their needs outside the classroom. Rather than attending courses in person, teachers and students may communicate at times of their own choosing by exchanging printed or electronic media, or through technology that allows them to communicate in real time and through other online ways. Distance education courses that require a physical on-site presence for any reason including the taking of examinations is considered to be a hybrid or blended course of study. This emerging technology is becoming widely used in universities and institutions around the globe. With the recent trend of technological advance, distance learning is becoming more recognized for its potential in providing individualized attention and communication with students internationally (Wikipedia).
The number of nontraditional students has grown more rapidly than the number of traditional students (U.S. Department of Education, 2001). The growth of nontraditional adult enrollment in higher education demands a different and more flexible delivery system to meet students’ needs (Chun & Hinton, 2001). Distance learning is designed to ensure compatibility with the characteristics and needs of the adult learner. By retaining their jobs while attending school, adult learners are able to continue to gain in work experience while pursuing educational goals (Nafukho, Thompson, & Brooks, 2004), (Lawrence,2007).This paper discusses the contents of distance education for adult learners by reviewing the literature and discussing the point of views to many distance education authors and scholars.
Keywords: content, distance learning, adult learner

Does Aluminum Really Enhance Alzheimer Disease? Medical Impact of aluminum on human health
Asmaa Saber, Fathia Mohammed, Isam Al Zubaidy and Ghada Bassioni
Food and possible contamination factors are of growing concern to the health of the community. Leaching of aluminum from aluminum utensilsand the aluminum intake per person in (mg/person) was measured using different types of water with and without addition of other ingredients. An overview of the results shows the significant contribution and impact of aluminum and aluminum foil on cooked food which in turn affects daily intake of aluminum. World Health Organization (WHO) limitations were considered and recommendations for excessive consumption of aluminum and possible health risk effects are discussed. The link of aluminum consumption to various diseases is discussed.
Keywords: Alzheimer; Aluminum; health risk

An Adaptive Contention Window Control for Improving DCF Throughput and Fairness
Ali Balador, Mahtab Ghasemivand, Ali Movaghar and Sam Jabbehdari
The IEEE 802.11 provides a MAC layer protocol for controlling competition among nodes to access the channel in wireless local area network. Recent works show that this standard has not suitable performances in mobile ad-hoc networks and especially in error prone channels. Many researchers proposed many algorithms to improve this standard like HBCWC (History Based Contention Window Control) scheme has significant performances but also has fairness problem. In this paper, we present a novel contention-based protocol to improve fairness and throughput together. We use an array to keep history of network collision and based on array information, we optimize the contention window. The main point is that we get higher priorities to nodes had unsuccessful transmissions unlike most of researches. This helps us to solve fairness problem. Simulation results show that compared to the IEEE 802.11 DCF and HBCWC scheme, our algorithm has better performances in term of throughput, fairness, and network overhead load.
Keywords: Mobile Ad-Hoc Network, IEEE 802.11 DCF, Backoff Algorithm, Fairness.

Interaction of LH, FSH, and TSH withChitosan-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles
Fatin Fadhel Mohammed Al-Kazaz, Hussain Kadhem Al-Hakeim and Habiba Khdair Abdalsada Alobaid
Background: Many nanoparticle (NP) types were used in vivo and in vitro in contact with the body fluids that contain different types of proteins. The proteins have the ability to adsorb on NPssurface. The activity of the adsorbed proteins are changed due to the modification of the secondary and tertiary structures. In the present study, the interaction between chitosan coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNP@Chitosan) and the hormones (LH, FSH, and TSH) are studied in details. The possible change in the secondary and tertiary structure of these parameters are discussed.
Methods: Different concentrations of the hormone solutions were incubated with a known amount of MNP@Chitosan and the quantity of the hormones adsorbed were calculated. The experiments were repeated at different temperatures to calculate the thermodynamic parameters. Secondary hormones structure were examined using circular dichroism. Tertiary protein structure were measured using fluoroscopy technique.
Results: MNP@Chitosan have the ability to adsorb significant amounts of the hormones. The adsorptionprocess obeyed Freundlich adsorption isotherm indicating heterogeneity of the MNP@Chitosansurface. Thermodynamic analysis indicated an exothermic and spontaneous adsorption process. The adsorption process is associated with a changing in the secondary and tertiary hormone structure after adsorption on MNP@Chitosan.
Conclusions: LH, FSH, and TSH hormones can be adsorbed on the surface of MNP@Chitosanspontaneously. This adsorption is associated with changes in the secondary and tertiary protein structure. The finding of the present study shed a light on the effect of the MNP@Chitosan on the protein structures and subsequently, protein activity when they used in contact with the body fluid.
Keywords: Magnetic nanoparticles, protein adsorption, LH, FSH, TSH and protein structure.

Improved RLS based Adaptive Filtering Technique to Enhance the Quality of ECG Signal
Gowri T. and Rajesh Kumar P.
When the signal length is larger, to achieve better and faster convergence rate of the, in this paper we proposed efficient Recursive Least Square (RLS) algorithms. These algorithms are used to enhance the quality of the corrupted ECG signal, during acquisition and transmitting the signal from ambulatory or remote patient location to emergency coordination expert station centre for further diagnosing of ECG signal. When the patient is far from specialist help, telecardiology is an effective tool for the diagnosis of cardiac abnormalities. The proposed RLS algorithms are improved RLS, Sign RLS. In this paper the objective of these filters is used to reduce the artifacts present in the ECG signal. In the simulation result we analysed that improved RLS algorithm gives somehow improved fast convergence than RLS algorithm.
Keywords: Adaptive algorithm, artifacts, telecardiology, misadjustment, SNR.

Analyzing the Impact of Requirement Changing on Software Design
Nedhal A. Al-Saiyd and Israa A. Zriqat
During product development and evolution, the set of elicited requirements may be changed; where modifications to existing requirements or additions of new requirements may affect existing requirements. Some requirements changes may impact the success of the product within established schedules. As software projects and systems increase in size and complexity, the need is raised to identify predict and control the potential effects of requirement volatility on the architecture software design. This paper describes the impact of changing the requirements on the architectural software design based on risks and the corresponding affected areas of the developed systems. It explores the impacts of new or changing system requirements on existing and future system goals and objectives, and identifies the factors that may influence the software architecture design. It is found that early defined and traced functional, data, quality attributes and other non-functional requirements are positively influence to software systems successes, as it is essential to evolve the requirements during all phases of the project development process. Refactoring is used to make the design more modular and structured.
Keywords: Requirements Changes, Requirement Evolution, Architecture Design, Design Modularity, Traceability, Refactoring.

An Application of Fuzzy Logic in the Artificial Neural Network
Dr.Ashit Kumar Dutta
Fuzzy logic is a modern technique for constructing human thinking and perception. It is clear that the efficiency of the human brain is not only depending upon the precise cognition, but also from fuzzy methods and fuzzy reasoning. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has an extremely parallel structure which is composed of many functioning elements associated to each other through some points. An ANN has a quick output and a reliable performance than those of a sequential digital computer in emulating the capabilities of the human brain. Both ANN and fuzzy systems have similar properties. They can be used for solving a problem if there does not exist any relation of the given problem. Wireless mobile ad hoc network (WMANET) is a newly developed network which is useful for the communication between the mobile systems like mobile phones, laptops and other devices. These kinds of networks are widely used in the areas where we don’t have fixed network architecture. Reliable and proper data transmissions are not up to the expectation in WMANET. To overcome the problems in WMANET, in this paper we describe the application of fuzzy ANN and proposed a novel method for the communication.
Keywords: Fuzzy logic, Artificial neural network, Routing, WMANET

Contribution A L’etude Hydrogeochimique des Eaux Souterraines du Bassin Versant de Kambo-Douala A Contribution to the Hydrochemical Study of Underground Water in the Kambo Watershed - Douala
Rel Dechangue TATOU, Véronique Kamgang Kabeyene Beyala, Guillaume Ewodo Mboudou and André Firmin Bon
Le problème d’accès à l’eau potable dans la périphérie de Douala a conduit les populations à se pencher vers les eaux souterraines pour leurs divers besoins. Cependant, les caractéristiques physico chimiques de ces eaux sont peu connues. L’étude hydrogéochimique entreprise lors du présent travail vise à expliquer l’origine de la minéralisation à partir des éléments chimiques présents dans l’eau souterraine et à évaluer la qualité de cette eau dans le bassin versant de Kambo. Pour atteindre cet objectif, la première campagne d’échantillonnage dont les résultats sont exploités dans ce travail a concerné 24 puits et 04 sources. Les paramètres physiques (température, pH, conductivité) et chimiques (Ca2+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, NO3-) ont été respectivement mesurés sur le terrain et analysés au laboratoire. Le diagramme de Piper montre que les eaux du bassin versant de Kambo sont chlorurées sodiques, chlorurées calciques, bicarbonatées sodiques et bicarbonatées calciques. L’ordre d’importance des ions est la suivante: Ca2+>Na+> K+>Mg2+et HCO3- > Cl->SO42-> NO3-. Les principaux processus responsables de la minéralisation sont: l’hydrolyse, la dissolution, l’indice d’’échange de base, l’action de l’homme. D’après l’OMS, 78% des eaux étudiées peuvent être considérées comme chimiquement appropriées pour la consommation. En ce qui concerne l’irrigation, la grande majorité des points d’eau (74%) peut être utilisée pour l’irrigation de tout type de sol sans aucun danger.
Keywords: Eaux souterraines, hydrogéochimie, qualité, irrigation, bassin versant, Kambo.

Group Acceptance Sampling Plans for Resubmitted Lots for Life Tests based on Type-II Generalized Log Logistic Distribution
K. Rosaiah G., Srinivasa Rao and S.V. Prasad
In this paper, a group acceptance sampling plan (GASP) for lot resubmitting is developed when the life time of a product follows Type-II generalized log-logistic distribution (TGLLD). The parameters of the proposed plan such as minimum group size and acceptance number are determined when the consumer’s risk, number of testers and the test termination time are pre-specified. Compared the proposed plan with ordinary GASP and the results are illustrated with live data example.
Keywords: Group acceptance sampling plan (GASP), Resubmitted lot, Producers risk, Consumer’s risk.

An Extension of Rouche's Theorem via a Korovkin Type Theorem
Malik Saad Al-Muhja, Mousa Makey Khrajan and Hussein J. Abdul Hussein
In this paper, we provide Rouche's theorem for a different way by using the concept of Lebesgue – Stieltjes integral, and Korovkin type theorem. We dealt with the result of the classical Korovkin approximation theorem by a sequence and B-statistical A-summability, for use in the expansion of the Egorov's theorem later.
Keywords: Rouche's theorem; Lebesgue – Stieltjes integral; Korovkin type theorem;Positive linear operator; Nonnegative regular matrix; B-statistical A-summability.
2010 Math. Sub. Classification: Prim. 41A10, 41A25, 41A36; Sec. 40A30