European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 133 No 2
June, 2015

Contribution des Methodes de Vulnerabilite Intrinseque Brgm et God a L’etude de la Pollution par les Nitrates dans la Region de Zagnanado et de Zogbodomey au Centre du Benin
Gilbert T. LALÈYÊ, Abdoukarim ALASSANE, Moussa BOUKARI, Christophe S. HOUSSOU and Patrick EDORH
La détermination de la vulnérabilité dans les régions affectées par la pollution de nature anthropique est un élément très important pour la gestion des ressources en eau. En effet, les cartes de vulnérabilité des aquifères sont des outils standards pour contribuer à la protection des ressources hydriques souterraines contre une éventuelle pollution. Elles sont précieuses pour toute décision future. Cette étude a pour objectif de déterminer la vulnérabilité de la nappe phréatique de la région de Zagnanado – Zogbodomey (centre du Bénin) en appliquant les méthodes BRGM et GOD couplée à un Système d'information géographique (SIG).La validité de ces deux méthodes d’application a été testée par un souterrain analyse de la pollution par les nitrates de l’eau, en comparant la distribution des nitrates à l'intérieur des eaux des nappes phréatiques et les classes de vulnérabilité. Les cartes obtenues mettent en évidence deux catégories de vulnérabilité (modéré et élevé) pour BRGM et (négligeable et faible) pour GOD. L'étude a montré que la méthode GOD sous-évalue la vulnérabilité des aquifères du cadre d’étude de deux classes d'indice par rapport à la méthode BRGM. Les effets de la pluie efficace, de la capacité d’infiltration de l’eau dans la zone non saturé, de la perméabilité desaquifères et de la prise en compte de la piérrosité dans le type de sol par la méthode BGRM expliqueraient cette variation de classe d'indice dans la région de Zogbodomey et de Zagnanado.
Keywords: la vulnérabilité, la pollution aux nitrates, BRGM, GOD, région de Zagnanado et de Zogbodomey.

Guidelines for Plant RNA Extraction and Quality Assessment used for RT-qPCR Technique
Alain Abi-Rizk, Afif Abdel-Nour and Marc El Beyrouthy
The Reverse Transcriptase quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) has become an essential technique for transcriptomic analysis. In the last decade, this technique has proven its superiority over the other methods available for evaluating gene expression any attempts have been done by the qPCR community (academics and biotech companies) to highlight the need to follow the MIQE guidelines in order to achieve a quality, easy-to-publish experiments. Recently two analysis papers showed that after 5 years of MIQE, researchers still omitting some of the minimum information needed for publication. Even more The absence of strict guidelines for the plants RNA extraction and quality assessment, has led plant researchers to perform experiments and analyze data based only on information gathered from unrelated sources, resulting in data of variable quality.
First, RNA extraction from plants faces many technical problems due to the presence of large quantities of polysaccharides,phenolics, high level of lipids, water and lignin. Even though plant varieties behave differently during the RNA extraction, only few methods have been publisheddepending on plant varieties, organs or tissues. Nowadays, few kits obtained from biotechnological companies are capable to perform the task on some plant tissues but do not guarantee there efficacy on new plants and tissues where RNA was not extracted before.
In another hand, extracted plant RNA used in RT-qPCR seems unsuitable. In fact, the RNA quality is defined as the combination of RNA purity and integrity. Even if RNA purity and integrity are unrelated measures and should be evaluated separately, they must both be controlled in order to insure RNA quality.The use of techniques highlighting only purity was acceptable for conventional and end-point PCR assays, but converting such assays directly into the qPCR format is impossible. When the samples are to be used for measurements of transcript quantity, another relevant factor must be considered: the RNA integrity (whether the mRNA molecules are fragmented, degraded or intact).
Thisreview will set keys in order to comply with the MIQE guidelinesfor the extraction and quality assessment of plants RNA.

Roles of Women in National Development: A Study of Late Professor Dora NkemAkunyili
AkinroleOlumuyiwa, Oludayo, Michael Chibuzor, Anyaegbunam, Obiajulu Anthony Ugochukwu, Nnedum, Bernard Chukwukelue, Chine, Dare Ojo,Omonijo and Folakemi, Ohunakin
This article explored the contributions of women tonational development in Nigeria with a focus on late Prof. Dora Akunyili. The study employed qualitative data collected from archival documents and internet to examine research on national development, the life history of late Prof. Dora Akunyili and her contributions to national development. The study concluded thatProfessor Dora Akunyili’s performance has proven that women should never be taken for granted when it comes to handling the mantle of leadership. Therefore, this study suggested that Nigerian women be strongly encouraged to develop their potentials for greater contributions to the development of Nigeria.
Keywords: Roles, women, nation-building, study, Dora Akunyili.

Typologie et Caractérisation des Systèmes D’élevage de Bovinslaitiersdans une Zone à Vocation Céréalière (Centre du Maroc)
Kharbouche Mohammed, Araba Abdelilah and Mesfioui Abdelhalim
The aim of the present study is to identify, through a typology and evaluate the dairy farming systems in a cereal vocation zone. To this end, surveys of 320 farmers were made through a direct structured questionnaire. They focused on the social and structural characteristics of breeders, dairy farms and on breeding practices. The statistic tools used are multivariate analyzes iterative (principal component analysis, hierarchical ascending classification) carried out on 21 indicators to identify the main types of dairy farms. The Identified types have been described and then compared using an analysis of variance with a single factor. Four types of farms come out from the different analysis. They differ by their superficies, production intensity and in terms of animal feeding, health practice, milk yield, origin or genetics of de cows and technical level of farmers.The first type (14.1%) consists of the most intensive farms with dairy farms specialized and are managed by young farmers with a high technical level. This type of farms is characterized by the large size (18 ha) and livestock productive breeds imported from Europe with milk yielding 5520 kg / cow / year. The second type (37.5%) is mixed intensive cattle farmscharacterized by the coexistence of crossbred cows and imported productive cows with milk yielding 2850 kg / cow / year. This type tends to progress to the first type. The third type (23.8%) includes small farms with herds dominated by crossbred cows with low milk production 1857 kg / cow / year. In contrast, the fourth type (24.7%) includes farms representing a rather traditional form with the local race breeding recognized by its very low milk productivity (922 kg / cow / year). These farmers have limited area (2.6 ha) thatdoes not allow them to mechanize.
Keywords: Typology, Dairy system, cereal vocation, multivariate analysis, Morocco.

A Study on the Implications of Insufficient and Excess Cash for the Future Performance of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Companies in Tehran Stock Exchange
Mehdi Rafizadeh and Roya Darabi
Transaction costs in financial markets is an important item of the cost, therefore these costs would convince corporate executives to attempt to maintain cash assets. On the other hand, information asymmetry between managers and investors (actual and potential) in the capital market causes some limitations; hence precautionary motives for the company’s liquidity demand can be a criterion for the action. So in this research we study the implications of insufficient and excess cash for the future performance of chemical and pharmaceutical companies in Tehran Stock Exchange. We started by estimating the optimal cash of chemical and pharmaceutical companiesand then investigating the effects of deviation from the estimated optimal cash on the future performance of these companies. In order to perform this study, we investigated a sample of 30 chemical and pharmaceutical companies which were listed in Tehran Stock Exchangein the period between2006 and 2012.There are a total of 210 cases observed from which 100 cases relate to the companies with excess cash and 110 cases relate to the companies with insufficient cash. Thestatistical method used in this research is the multipleregressions. Four hypotheses suggested in order reaching the research goals which all got confirmed and the result of the research hypothesis tests shows that thehigher cash balance than the estimated ideal level in chemical and pharmaceutical companies will result in a positive return on operational assets and abnormal return in the future. Meanwhile,a lower cash balance than the estimated ideal level in chemical and pharmaceutical companies will result in a negative return on operational assets and abnormal return in the future.
Keywords: Insufficient Cash - Excess Cash -Future Performance of the Company

Indiscriminate Uses of Antibiotics as a Threat to Public Health Demand Implementation of Effective Drug Practices and Enhancement of Public Awareness in Bangladesh
Mohammed Mehadi Hassan Chowdhury, Khadizatul Kubra, Md. Tazul Islam Md. Mijanur Rahman and Md. Elias Mehedy
Rashness use of antibiotics have gained due importance across the globe, mainly because of an increase in antibiotic usage, prevalence of infections and drug resistances. This cross-sectional health survey based research is aimed to represent a real picture of antibiotic use in Bangladesh by evaluating the physicians prescribing pattern of antibiotics for patients and it was carried out with a self designed standard questionnaire by directly interviewing with the 1500 patients.
From this study we have seen that 61.13% are prescribed for antibiotics and Children are frequently (76%) prescribed for antibiotic use. The rate of antibiotic use of male patients is 18% higher than female. Cephalosporin is the predominant (29.88%) for prescription along with macrolides (25.95%) and Quilonoes (16.03%).27% patients are unconscious about the completion of antibiotic course, effect and use of antibiotics and female patients (36.17%) are more unconscious than male (20.51%). About 33.80% patients are prescribed by unauthorized doctors. It’s clear that physicians and patients are not enough conscious about the use of antibiotics in all cases. It happens due to lack of proper practicing on drug policy to use drugs and awareness. This irrational use leads the spread of bacterial resistance to antibiotics and related health problems.
Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, course, public health, drug policy, awareness.

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Resonance Mode and Wave Developmentfor Acoustic Compressor
Hiroyuki Hirahara and Bing Han
A resonant acoustic compressor driven by a resonant-type linear motor, has been developed both experimentally and numerically in our study. The acoustic compressor isequipped with an exponential duct whose contraction ratio is 100 and axial length 500mm. In the experiment, the piston disc in the driver is accelerated in the range of 10G to 80G, during which, theproper resonant frequency of this coupled systemis found as 417 Hz andthe maximum pressure amplitude achieves 87kPa at the closed when the piston is accelerating at80G, the corresponding compression ratio reachesup to 2.75. On the other hand, computational results show a good agreement with experiment at 50G acceleration, however, it tends to underestimate maximum pressure and compression ratio as the acceleration increases from 50G. Even though the computational results reveal phase deviation of the resonant wave in the boundary layer above the duct surface and a phase shift of the standing wave, it is considered that the compressor system performed in the presentexperimentis capable of providing shockless wave with large pressure amplitude and high compression ratio.
Keywords: Acoustic Compressor, Standing Wave, Finite Amplitude wave, Resonance, Shockless.

Internal Model Control IMC of a Variable Reluctance Motor
Walid AMRI, Imen DIMASSI, Walid EL FEZZANI and Abdessattar BEN AMOR
The synthesis of the control laws of the electric machines presents many difficulties related to the objects expected by applying the law of the developed control. In the context of this paper we are interested in the Internal Model Control (IMC) to reduce oscillations that occur in the end of a step in a variable reluctance stepper linear motor.
In a first step we have performed the parametric identification of the responses obtained by experimental tests. In a second step we have estimated the model by the technique of recursive least square of MATLAB.
The simulation results, without load, of the adopted IMC model application for the parameters of the testing motor, has helped to save the same position and has eliminating oscillations in the end of a realised step.
Keywords: Variable Reluctance machine, Identification, internal Model Control, recursive least square.

The Paradigm Shifts in Organizational Management in 21st Century: Scope, Significance and Challenges from a Pakistan Perspective
Muhammad Asim, Qanita Imtiaz Nafees and Yasir Jamal Pasha
Organizations have now become a basic building block of corporate world and have brought dramatic and revolutionized changes in culture, design and environment of a society. These aspects have overemphasized the importance of management studies all around the world and especially in under developing countries. Pakistan’s contribution in creating and understanding the dynamics of organizational management is minuscule in the global arena and in comparison to other developing countries with the same colonial history. The current era is witnessing the importance of understanding the dynamism of the different facets of management by the corporate managers that is imperative for the vital success of a corporation. This paper attempts to view the different scenarios in a Pakistan’s environment and also since the field of management is continuously nurtured, enriched and subjected to high degree of variation, new concepts and theories is continuously proposed to offset the emerging resultant challenges. Consequently the corporate managers are faced with new challenges day by day, such as managing the information technology, devising strategies for sustaining and maintaining a competitive edge, managing diverse workforce, developing organizations globally etc. In summary, the success and effectiveness of today’s manager is judged in their ability to objectively analyze and assess the vulnerability and impact of the externalities prevailing in the environment.
Keywords: Management, Environment, Globalization, Developing Countries

Design of CMOS Buffer Chain Circuit by using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm
Hadia Sarman K and Bhatt Kiritkumar R
In this paper we investigate the implementation and performance of artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm for automatic design of analog CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) buffer chain circuit. Because of development in technology the physical CMOS model used in advanced technology become more complex. Manually circuit design of this advanced technology is very complex and challenging task. Some optimization techniques are needed to design circuit automatically. This paper shows the application of ABC algorithm optimization for automatic design of CMOS buffer chain circuit. In this paper authors have measured power consumption, rise time and fall time parameters to analyze the design of this analog circuit. We have extracted design variables like length and width of MOS transistors used in the circuit for analysis. The ABC algorithm presents optimized values of circuit elements variable to estimate error among replicated measures and ideal measures. Simulations results show that he error function minimized rapidly for above parameters. This paper demonstrates that the ABC algorithm is successfully implemented for automatic circuit design.
Keywords: CMOS circuit, ABC algorithm, advanced technology, circuit design.