European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 132 No 3
May, 2015

Numerical Calculations of Triple Integrals with the Continuous Integrand by using Composite Simpson's Rule
Ali Hassan Mohammed
The main aim of this research is to derive numerical rule to find values of triple integrals its integrands its continuous in its region ofintegration by using composite Simpson's rule with the three dimensions xand y and z and to derive the correction error terms the and we will use Romberg accelerationto improve the results we will apply this rule integral particular when h1=h2=2h3.
Keywords: Triple integral; Simpson's rule; Romberg Acceleration
Academic Discipline and Sub-Disciplines: Applied Mathematics, Numerical Analysis

Molecular Detection of Virulence Factors Encoding Genes of Enterococcus Species Isolated from Clinical Samples
Mahdi Hussein AL-Ammar, Zahraa Hameed Oda AL-Quraishi and Ahmed Jasim Showallaa
Introduction: A total of (300) clinical specimens were collected during the period from September, 2013 to January, 2014.
Methodology: The identification of the Enterococcus spp. isolates were depended on colonial morphology, microscopic examination and biochemical tests as a primary identification. The final identification was performed with the automated VITEK-2 compact system, then confirm the virulence factors encoding genes such as efaA, esp, eep and enlA genes by PCR technique .
Result: According to the results obtained by the VITEK tests forty two clinical isolates of Enterococcus which distributed toE. faecalis is more isolated with 25(59.52%), followed by E. faecium with 10 (23.80%), E.avium with 5 (11.90 %), E. durans and E. raffinosus with 1(2.39% ) for each.. According to the results obtained by PCR the genes that encode efaA and esp was found in E. faecalis, E. faecium and E.avium isolates while the gene eep was found inE. faecalis and E. faecium isolates. Also,the results showed that the gene encode enlAwas found in E .faecalisonly.
Conclusion: The study investigated the virulence factors encoding genes of E. faecalis, E.faecium and E.avium, which play a major role in enterococcus pathogenicity .
Keyword: Enterococcus species, VITEK-2 compact system, virulence factors encoding genes.

A Novel GA-ACO based Computational Approach for Prediction of Protein Folding on Hydrophobic-Polar Lattice Model
Kailash Shaw and Debahuti Mishra
The protein folding structure prediction from its primary sequence has proven to be a very difficult computational problem. A protein can be represented by the connected vertices of tetrahedral lattice, where amino acid residues are assigned to lattice vertex. Various optimization methods such as Evolutionary Algorithms, Monte Carlo methods, Tabu Search and Hybrid approaches have been applied to forecast folding problem that are based on reduced models of protein structure. We propose a hybrid approach to address the non-deterministic polynomial-time hard (NP-hard) problem of predicting a 3-dimensional (3D) hydrophobic-polar (HP) model by integrating an ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm with genetic algorithm (GA). The approach for prediction process has been divided into three phases i) random population generation ii) Implementation of GA for reproduction and crossover, and iii) implementation of ACO for mutation. Owing to the very high degenerative nature of the sequence–structure relationship, proteins are generally folded into one of only a few structural classes such as all-α, all-β, α+β, and α/β proteins that are closely correlated with the amino-acid composition. Apart from predicting the structure our proposed method identifies the classes of protein. Furthermore, it has been tested in three bench mark dataset and empirical results indicate that combination of ACO with GA give better accuracy than other evolutionary algorithm.
Keyword: Classes of protein, Computational intelligence, evolutionary algorithm, HP lattice, probability, 3D hydrophobic-polar structure.

Eco-Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Moroccan Olive Fruits and Leaves and their Potential use as Antimicrobial Agents
Wafa Laaboudi, Jamal Ghanam, Mohammed Merzouki and Mohamed Benlemlih
In Morocco, the olive harvest generates regenerates a lot of waste such as leaves and olive fruits. Valuation by the extraction of polyphenols from this waste could be a promising source. In our work, we have prepared an olive tree extract from this waste, our extract contains 148 g/l of polyphenols, 8.4 g/l of flavonoids and 39.11 g/l of o-diphenols. Polyphenols, major natural antioxidants play a key role in hundreds biological reactions. The antioxidant activity test revealed great antioxidant potential of our extract with high ORAC value 3 848 100 µmol Te/kg. The present work has as objective to evaluate the antimicrobial activity. The olive tree extract showed broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli TG1, Escherichia coli DH5α, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus cereus MED5 and Streptococcus agalactiae. While pure phenolic compounds (caffeic acid, ascorbic acid and quercetin) showed more limited activity. The antifungal effect of the olive tree extract exceed the antibiotics at a concentration of 3 mg/disc (p>0.05). Industrial technology can therefore exploit this extract, rich in polyphenols, in order to use instead of a synthetic antioxidants and antibiotics that could be dangerous. This would lead Morocco to enhance the olive harvest waste as an important economic source.
Keywords: Olive leaves; Olive fruit; Polyphenols; Antioxidants; Antibacterial; Antifungal.

Unifying or Sharing of Power between the Architect and the Structural Engineer
After the industrial age, the world of construction had been divided into the professional fields of architecture and structural engineering in terms of the requirements of expertise. Since the priority for architecture is creativity and the priorities of engineering are the technical issues; the common interests between them got diverted in time A power struggle had been observed between the parties in the definition of the architectural form in line with the supremacy of art or technology. However architecture has to possess technical knowledge and the engineers should possess creativity. In today’s world, with the opportunities that have been presented to us through technology; the architectural form liberalised as it never had been before and it became possible for the engineers challenge the limits of larger spans and heights that were impossible then. Today, the benefits of these disciplines being involved in team work in order to make the design decisions, instead of working consecutively had already been proven. In this competitive environment where the geographical boundaries had been removed, the transfer of knowledge and abilities coming from the industry, material technology, informatics, sculpture, etc… turned out to be a necessity in order to be distinguishable.
Keywords: architecture, structural engineering, creativity, technology

Senior Teachers’ Perception on the Roles and Responsibilities of Middle Managers in Schools
Abdul Razaq Ahmad, Mohd Mahzan Awang and Tajuddin Mohd Yunus
The current study examined the perceptions of senior subject teachers on their capabilities in carrying out duties as middle managers in secondary schools. This study utilised a survey research design by using fixed-response questionnaires. Eight dimensional-tasks for middle managers in school that has been investigated: (1) Teaching management, (2) Curriculum management, (3) Teaching and Learning Observation, (4) Financial Management, (5) Administration, (6) Staff Development, (7) Curriculum Management and (8) Logistic Management. 220 senior subject teachers participated in this survey. Data gathered was analysed by focusing on descriptive statistic (mean scores) and inferential analysis (t-test and ANOVA). Overall results indicated that most senior subject teachers understood their roles as middle managers. The majority of senior subject teachers seemed to believe that they have carried out the task as middle managers effectively. They also pointed out that they have made careful planning and prepared lesson plans. It was found that some senior subject teachers faced a problem in managing stock book and assets disposal. This highlights the importance of professional training in financial management and school administration. Although results showed a significant difference regarding the role as managers between senior teachers from different schools, majority of them reported that they managed to carry out duties effectively. Irrespective of gender and teaching experience, all senior subject teachers had similar perceptions on the roles as middle managers. Better rewarding system, institutional recognition and continuous professional development programme for senior subject teachers are supposed to be improved.
Keywords: senior teachers, subject teachers, middle managers, roles and responsibilities, capabilities, competency

Effet du 2,4-D seul ou Combiné Avec la BAP sur L’induction et la Croissance des Cals à Partir de Graines Immatureschez Ceratonia Siliqua
Laklai Fadoua, Ech-Cheddadi Sara, Mouhssine Fatine, Ouhaddach Moussa, Hmouni Driss, Zidane Lahcen, Saidi Najia and Rochdi Atmane
Les graines immatures de caroubier ont été cultivées sur le milieu MS (Murashige et Skoog., 1962) additionné d’acide 2,4-dichlorophénoxyacétiqueseul ou combiné avec la 6-benzylaminopurine.Nos résultats montrent qu’en absence d’hormones le pourcentage de callogenèse est nul et que seuls les milieux qui contiennent des phytohormones permettent l’induction des cals.Cette callogenèse nécessite la présence d’une auxine. L’adjonction d’une cytokinine renforce l’effetcallogène de l’auxine et a permis d’obtenir une prolifération rapide des cellules d’où des cals volumineux.Les meilleurs pourcentages de callogenèse sont obtenus sur le milieu contenantl’acide 2,4-dichlorophénoxyacétique (2mg/l) et de6-benzylaminopurine (1mg/) ainsi que sur le milieu qui contient 6,7 mg/l d’acide 2,4-dichlorophénoxyacétiqueavec des taux de callogenèse de 87.5% et 81.25% respectivement. Après 20 jours de culture la croissance des cals est importante et atteint 330 mg sur le milieu contenant 2 mg/l l’acide 2,4-dichlorophénoxyacétique et 1 mg/l de6-benzylaminopurine.
Keywords: Ceratonia siliqua L, caroubier, culture in vitro, callogenèse.

Calibrating the Nelson-Siegel Class models and their Estimation using Hybrid-Genetic Algorithm Approach: A Case Study of Indonesian Government Bond
Muslim, Dedi Rosadi, Gunardi and Abdurakman
In this paper, we consider the problem of modelling the yield curve using Nelson-Siegel class models. Nelson-Siegel class models discussed here are NS, BL, NSS, RF and our proposed NSSE models. NSSE model is a model which extends of NSS by adding combination of first and second hump into third factor of this model, so that this extended model has four factors, namely the flat, the slope, the combination of first and second hump, and the second hump. The purpose of adding the additional combination of humps into model is to improve the accuracyof the Indonesia Government Bond yield curve model, which contain the high variation in the medium and long terms part of the curve. To estimate the models, we consider the hybrid-genetic algorithm (GA) and compare it withthe Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) method. We provide an empirical study using Indonesian Government-Bond Yield Curve (IGYC) data and we found NSSE model outperforms the other models. We further obtain the hybrid-GA approach performs better than SQP estimation method.
Keywords: Yield curve, Nelson-Siegel model, hybrid method, genetic algorithm, nonlinear least square, and constrained optimization

Study on Approximate Cofibration
Alaa Hassan Noreldeen Mohamed
In this article we study an important concept in the theory of fibration and cofibration called approximate cofibration (A-cofibration), and we give some examples. Following the known problems concerning the concept of cofibration as; the composition, the product, the pullback, and the relation with retracts, we give some results concerning A-cofibration.
Keywords:cofibration, topology, homotopy
2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary 18G55, 55U35, 18G10, 18G30.

The Justice – OCB Relationship Revisited: Implications for Individualism-Collectivism
Linn Derg Young
Organizational theorists long have premised and proved that justice perception promotes organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). In the article presented here, however, we reconsidered the well-established proposition and evaluated whether the magnitude of justice effects on OCB varies according to individualism-collectivism held at the individual level within a collectivistic context, South Korea. As hypothesized, the positive relationship between justice and OCB was more salient for individualists than that of entire sample. Nonetheless, the relationship was not significant for collectivists, while they performed OCB more than individualists regardless of the level of perceived justice. These results indicate that individualists would demonstrate OCB in proportion to the perceived justice of their organizations, whereas collectivists may exhibit OCB not merely because their work environment is deemed fair. Theoretical implications for the justice and OCB literatures are discussed, as are practical implications and suggestions for future research.
Keywords: organizational justice; organizational citizenship behavior; individualism-collectivism