European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 132 No 2
May, 2015

Up-scaling approach for a multi-series object based classification using CORINE typology
Abdelkrim Achbun, Mohammed Mastere, Bouchta El Fellah
The aim of this study was the application of the GEOBIA approach of classification. We have conducted an up-scaling method, on multi-dates images covering the Tahaddart wetland’s complex, situated in the Nord-West of Morocco. The use of the CORINE classification legend, as a hierarchical complex system of land cover description, allowed stopping at the limits of it application in wetland’s land cover categorization.
The sub-levels of some categories, like Artificial, Agricultural areas and wetlands, have not been identified separately in the classification of SPOT and TM images, this following two main factors; namely, the spectral resolution and season effect (contrast). The generalization process, dedicated to the study of change detection, depends largely to the spectral resolution (number of bands) of the input data. The mean value of the overall accuracies was equal to 72%.
The overall accuracy rates are successively for the images SPOT4, SPOT5, TM, ETM and MSS; 63%, 68%, 72%, 77%, and 78%. The global results, confirms that the hyper-spectral data, would be beneficial for the fulfillment of the research objectives in this research context.
Keywords: GEOBIA, CORINE, Land Cover, Up-scalling, Tahaddart, Morocco

Modeling The Hydrological Response of the Urbanized Watershed of the Okpara River in the city of Parakou (Republic of Benin)
Abdoul Ramane ABDOULAYE
The risks associated with runoff in the watershed of the Okpara in Parakou are among others: flooding at the level of the dam, erosion of the land upstream from the dam and pollution of water of the said dam. The present study objective is to model the hydrologic response of the urbanized part of the watershed of the Okpara in Parakou city through the use of the statistical model of intensity-duration-frequency curves and compare the results of the various statistical laws of Gumbel and GEV. The construction of IDF curves was then applied to the precipitation data of the synoptic station of Parakou located at 393 m between 2 ° 61’ West longitude and 9 ° 35’ North latitude under a humid tropical climate of Sudanian type. The main results obtained are among others: the predominance of the Gumbel distribution for the estimation of annual maximal intensities quintils of the town of Parakou; the simulation of hydrological responses estimated in relation with the IDF curves of the basin runoff; the maximum of currents determined in relation with the IDF curves, established according to the methodology commonly used, are under estimated.
Keyword: Parakou, modeling, precipitations, intensity-duration- frequency graphs,watershed

A New Method to Improve Localization Accuracy in an Indoor and Outdoor Environments for Wireless Sensor Network using Real Time Rssi Measurements
Vadivukkarasi.K and Kumar. R
Distance estimation is vital for localization and many other applications in wireless sensor networks. Research has revealed that the correlation between distance and RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication) values is the key of ranging and localization technologies in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Distance measurement based on RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication) is a low cost and low complexity of the distance measurement technique, and it is widely applied in the range-based localization of the WSN. In this paper, an Log Normal Shadowing Model(LNSM) that estimates the distance between sensor nodes in WSNs is presented. The performance of this model and proposed method is evaluated and analyzed in a real system deployment in an indoor and outdoor environment by performing an empirical measurement using Crossbow TelosB wireless sensor motes. Our result shows that proposed method can reduce distance error and path-loss better than LNSM. There is less error in distance estimation in an outdoor environment compared to indoor environment. The results of these evaluations would contribute towards obtaining accurate locations of wireless sensor nodes.
Keyword: Wireless sensor networks; distance estimation; localization; received signal strength indicator, Log Normal Shadowing Model(LNSM).

The Impact of the Team Heterogeneity on Helping Efforts
Chun-Chang Lee, Yu-ming Ho and Hsiang-Chi Chang
This study investigated the factors that cause agents to choose making (peer) helping efforts. Agents and branches have a nested structure relationship. Therefore, hierarchical generalized linear models (HGLMs) were used. The empirical results show that the mean levels of agents choosing to make helping efforts vary significantly from branch to branch. The team education level heterogeneity has a significant negative impact on helping efforts. As team work experience heterogeneity increases, agents will be more likely to engage in helping efforts. In contrast, as team individual compensation rate heterogeneity increases, agents will be more likely to exhibit no helping effort behaviors. The negative effect of individual compensation rates on helping efforts will be reinforced by team individual compensation rate heterogeneity, while the effect of individual compensation rates on helping efforts will be reduced by the availability of team bonuses.
Keywords: Real estate brokerage industry, Helping effort, Team heterogeneity, Team bonus, Hierarchical generalized linear models (HGLMs)

Evaluation des connaissances et des pratiques de l’antibioprophylaxie en chirurgie dans trois hôpitaux universitaires d’Abidjan
N’Guessan Y.F, Binlin D.R, Eloiflin B, Coulibaly K.T, Netro D, Mobio MP, Abhe C.M, Ouattara A, Soro N, Tetchi Y and Brouh Y
Introduction: Objective: To evaluate the knowledge of the practice of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis to define the priority axes of training to improve the quality of care. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional prospective study by anonymous questionnaire that took place throughout the month of January 2015. Thirteen anonymous questions were addressed to different practitioners surgeries services and anesthesia resuscitation of a university hospital in Abidjan. The elements sought were: A = the prescribing of the antibiotic, B = the goal of antibiotic prophylaxis; C = the indication of antibiotic prophylaxis, D = the target of the antibiotic; E = the choice of antibiotic prophylaxis; F = the period of antibiotic prophylaxis and G the particular case of caesarean section; H = the initial dose of antibiotic prophylaxis; I = the dose in obese; J = intraoperative reinfusion period; K = reinjection dose; L = the efficiency of the tissue concentration of the antibiotic; M = maximum duration of antibiotic prophylaxis.
For theevaluation of thepracticeTheywere askedif there was aprophylactic antibioticprotocolin theirservice;ifantibiotic prophylaxiswassystematicallyin their practice,the most widely usedantibioticandjustification of choice; the alternativein case of allergy; andsoif they have alreadyassessedtheirservicesinthe effectiveness ofantibiotic prophylaxisby monitoring theinfectionrateof surgical site.
Results: We were able to interview 173 practitioners.
Conclusion: This study shows that there are shortcomings on theoretical knowledge of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis in Abidjan. These shortcomings could be thus the basis of poor practice of this antibiotic.

Using GIS for Hospital Facilities Planning at Jeddah city
Abdul Kader A. Murad
Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have a special role in today's rapidly changing world. Professionals utilizing GIS to build the information systems and infrastructure needed to guide important activities and projects. Health geoinformatics is an emerging discipline that uses innovative scientific and geospatial technology to investigate health issues. The purpose of this paper is to define how Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can be used for planning the location of hospital facilities in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. The first part of the paper covers recent worldwide examples of GIS based studies and identifies the advantages of using GIS in health care planning field. The second part of the paper focuses on the application of GIS in planning hospitals at Jeddah city. A geadatabase was created for this application that includes location of hospitals, road network, health demand, and population districts. ArcGIS software is used to build this geodatabase that covers all of the collected data of this application. Several issues are covered in this application including defining the spatial distribution of hospital facilities, and modeling health catchment areas. In order to cover these issues, GIS analysis functions and tools such as feature classification, overlay analysis, and network analysis are used for producing the outputs of the presented application.
Keywords: GIS, Hospital planning, Network analysis, Overlay analysis, Jeddah City

Determination by a natural approach the optimal time of passage in a high rate algal pond
Meriem Bamaarouf, Jamal Eddine Jellal, Jaouad Elghabi, Hichame Ihmaine1 and Ali Tarfas
The high rate algal pond (HRAP), photosynthetic reactor where live micro algae and bacteria, is characterized by a residence time between 2 and 6 days according to Oswald (oswald et gootas, 1957). The wastewater goes through a carousel where bacteria algae mixture is kept in suspension with a paddle wheel. This slow agitation allows intimate contact between algae and bacteria and nutrients (OSWALD, 1988) , which promotes the algo-bacterial symbiosis, it is a real engine for the treatment of wastewater.
The idea of our research is born of the similarity between the algal channel and the floculator. So starting from the formulation of the speed of rotation at the algal pond of Ouarzazate, we determined the residence time in this channel. To validate this approach, we compared this residence time that calculated by Oswald’s energy balance, optimal residence time calculated and real residence time at the algal pond of Ouarzazate.
The results were very satisfactory, indeed, the residence time calculated by the physical approach and the optimal residence time coincide, this finding confirms the validity of this physical approach to determine the residence times in the high rate algal pond.
Keywords: High Rate Algal Pond, Floculator, Residence time, Rotation speed,Paddle wheel.

Evaluation of the Cost and Effect of Industrial Accidents
T.A Yusuf, S.O Ismaila, S.I Kuye and O.D Samue
Accidents are typical phenomena in production industries. They distort the health of the factory workers and thus, the efficiency of these industries. This study was aimed to evaluate the causes and effect of industrial accidents. The data used were obtained from the accident reports from year 2002-2006 in the selected manufacturing industries in Nigeria together with the questionnaires administered to their factory workers. An average of twenty-four numbers of minor accidents and one major accident were discovered annually. Negligence of the workers was found a significant cause of accident (P< 0.001). It was also found significant that accidents were rarely (less frequent than yearly) investigated (P< 0.001). There was a significant relationship between causes of accidents and frequency of accident investigation (P< 0.001). About one hundred and twenty-five thousand naira (N125, 000.00) was expended on the treatment of injured employees while about one thousand, two hundred and forty-five (1,245) man-hours of production were lost. Annually, Accident Severity Rate (ASR) was 0.1 and Accident Frequent Rate (AFR) was 0.01, both per millions man-hours lost. Injury to personnel was the most common effect of accidents found with a Case Fatality Rate (CFR) of 58.3 percent.
Keywords: Industrial Accidents, manufacturing, Injury, Accident Severity Rate, Accident Fatality Rate.

A Novel Method to Minimized Logic Functions with a large number of variables: an FPGA-based prototype
In design flow of field programmable gate array (FPGA), the logic optimization is very important to achieve high quality digital circuits. Recently, high-density design is required more logic-devices. However, rapid runtime and energy consumption cause timing problems and wide hot spots in highly dense design.
This paper presents an efficient and automat method for logical optimization based on a sequential execution using finite state machine (FSM) and Boolean identities, to reduce any logic function at minimal form with decreasing number of logic gates to fewest possible without effects in its performance. This method is developed on MATLAB and Xilinx VHDL synthesizer. The experimental results, obtained using card Spartan3E Nesys2 of Digilent, show that the proposed method is very efficient to simplify the number of used logical devices up to 34%, than simple procedure of synthesize. This leads to overcome the aforementioned problems.
Index Terms:: Finite Stat Machine, Boolean algebraic, Truth Table, Logic Functions, Logic Optimization, FPGA

A New Butterworth Featured Filter, Window Function, Differentiator and Integrator for Signal and Image Processing
P.V. Muralidhar
The Butterworth filter achieve its flatness at the expense of a relatively wide transition region from pass band to stop band with average transient characteristics. This filter is completely defined mathematically by two parameters i.e., cut-off frequency and the number of poles. In this proposal an attempt is made to derive new mathematical transfer function of Butterworth and which will compared with existing function in terms of order and its filter characteristics. Using the features of this new Butterworth transfer function, it is extended to use as a window function for spectral characteristics , implementation of differentiator and integrators and finally apply 2-D form low pass ,high pass filters for image enhancement .
Index terms: Butterworth ,window function,Differentiator and Integrator.