European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 129 No 1
February, 2015

Design of High Speed Multiplier using Vedic Mathematics
Shoba Mohan and Nakkeeran Rangaswamy
This paper presents the use of vedic mathematics technique to compute the multiplication operation and implement the same in Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) using verilog Hardware Description Language (HDL) code. The vedic mathematics is an ancient system of Indian mathematics which has sixteen sutras and capable of solving difficult problems in an easier way. Nikhilam Navatascaramam Dasatah (NND) sutra is one of the vedic techniques which perform the multiplication by finding the complement of the given number from the base. The complement multiplication reduces the multiplication complexity provided that the given numbers are large operand. A few modifications on the basic NND algorithm are proposed in multiplier implementation. Urdhava Triyagbhyam (UT), another vedic sutra is incorporated while performing complement multiplication to improve its performance. The proposed multiplier is simulated and synthesized with different technologies such as 90 nm, 65 nm and 40 nm in Xilinx ISE tool. The performance of this multiplication technique is analyzed and compared with the existing multipliers. The designed multiplier shows better improvement in terms of delay and device count among other multipliers reported in the previous literature.
Keywords: Multiplier, vedic mathematics, delay, complement, digital design, verilog

Facile Root for Isolation of Rhamnocitrin Sulphate from Tetracera Alnifolia Willd
Victor N’Goka, Flore Victoire Foungui Otoungou and Cyril Antheaume
Rhamnocitrin 3-sulphate has been isolated with one percent yield, in a pure form, from Tetracera alnifolia, a non-cultivated medicinal plant from Congo. Rhamnocitrin 3-sulphate has been isolated after recrystallization of crude dried extract obtained from aqueous decoction of Tetracera leaves and stem. In this paper, Rhamnocitrin 3-sulphate has been easily isolated for the first time from Tetracera alnifolia and the corresponding tri-acetylated compound has been synthetized. Identification, characterisation and structure elucidation have been carried out using TLC, HPLC, UV, NMR and MS analyses in comparison with those described in the literature.
Keywords: Rhamnocitrin 3-sulphate, Rhamnocitrin, Tetracera alnifolia, Dilleniaceae, Flavonol

An Enhancement of Trust based Privacy Preservation Mechanism for DTN Environment
C. Ashok Baburaj and K. Alagarsamy
Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) has emerged as an attractive networking paradigm under environments where nodes are mobile. The transmission links among mobile nodes are dynamically established. The extensive usage of nodes’ local information, i.e., the routing metrics can cause severe security and privacy problems. Existing solutions of anonymous routing can introduce undesired overhead and fail to provide the confidentiality of the routing metric. In this paper an efficient approach is proposed for enhancing the DTN with privacy preservation. An advanced framework are discussed in this paper, which includes the confidentiality of the node, routing metric, and anonymous authentication. Routing measurement is done in order to identify the shortest path among the nodes to transfer a message. Trust of the nodes are computed based on the evidence or behavior of the node. The computed trusted value is compared with the threshold value and the decision is made, whether to consider or eliminate the node.The message transmission is carried out by starting the session. Timing request is send to the particular packet and the sender waits for the acknowledgement from the packet. Once the acknowledgement is received, within the timestamp then the messages are send to the destination or else the packets are dropped out. The data are sent to the destination by utilizing the anonymous technique, which hides the real identity of the data. The experimental results higher delivery ratio and lesser average delay with respect to the transmission radius than the existing Secure Routing Mechanism(SRM) technique.
Keywords: Anonymous routing, Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs), Evidence based trust, Privacy preservation, Session, and Transmission radius

Effet de L’épandage des Eaux de Crues sur les Ressources en Eaux Souterraines dans les Zones Arides: Plaine de Sidi Bouzid (Tunisie Centrale)
Monji Hamdi, M’Nassri Soumaia, Dridi Lotfi, Majdoub Rajouene and Abida Habib
La région de Sidi Bouzid relevant du centre de la Tunisie ne dispose que de faibles ressources hydriques qui sont de plus en plus sollicitées. Cette sollicitation est causée principalement par les conditions hydroclimatiques et le développement économique. Pour faire face à cette situation, le gouvernorat a envisagé la construction d’ouvrages d’épandage des eaux de crues pour améliorer le bilan globale des nappes. Le présent travail vise à étudier l’impact de l’épandage des eaux de crues sur la piézométrie et la salinité de la nappe phréatique de Sidi Bouzid. Les chroniques piézométriques élaborées sur trois différentes zones, à savoir le long de l’oued, dans la zone de l’épandage et dans la zone hors épandage, ont dévoilé un rabattement de l’ordre de 0,4 ; 0,6 et 0,8 m, respectivement. Les faibles rabattements enregistrés uniquement dans la zone de l’oued sont expliquées par les affleurements perméables. En effet, une couche argilo-sableuse a été identifiée au niveau des coupes lithologiques et qui couvre la zone d’épandage et celle hors épandage. Les résultats du suivi de la salinité, portés sur 40 ans, ont montré que les concentrations excessives sont enregistrées au niveau de l’exutoire du bassin de Sidi Bouzid. De plus, le centre de la plaine devient de plus en plus minéralisé avec un taux de salinité qui a passé de 2, en 1973, à 5 g/l en 2013. Ceci est causé par la surexploitation des eaux souterraines qui a atteint 150% en 2012.
Keywords: Epandage, Eaux de crues, Piézométrie, Salinité, Plaine de Sidi Bouzid.

Personality Disorders and its Relationship with some Variables in a Sample of University Students
Ahmad Jibreel Matarneh
This study aimed at recognizing the most spread disorders of personality among the University students, and recognizing the relationship between rates of personality disorders spread and both gender and college. to accomplish these objectives the researcher applied the scale of Ghanim et al, which measures these disorders. the instrument was applied on a sample of (177) male and (294) female students selected randomly. the results showed that disorders were moderate, while there were no statistically significant differences in the level of these disorders attributed to the gender where T value = - 1.709 and college with T = 0.366. the results also indicated statistically significant differences among three types of personality disorders: Anti-Society, Personality, The Paranoiac Personality and Masochist Personality. The arithmetic means show that differences were to the favor of male students, besides no statistically significant differences in all personality disorders attributed to the college variable. The study suggested some recommendations.
Keywords: Personality Disorders

Variable Precision and Rough Set Approach to Incomplete Information Systems
Abdel- Fatah A. Azzam
This paper introducesa generalization of basic concepts of variable precision and a new approach for rough set in order to assessincomplete information systems. Reduction of knowledge that means eliminating superfluous information from the point of view of partition or decision making is introduced. This paperalso shows how to find decision rules directly from such an incomplete decision table. These decision rules are as little non-deterministic as possible and have minimal number of conditions.
Keywords: rough set; variable precision; lower and upper approximations; decision rule.
AMS Subject Classification: 06B30

Does Corporate Governance Influence Bank Performance? An Evidence from Pakistan Banking Sector
Anam Sajjad and Qaisar Ali Malik
The main purpose of the paper is to pinpoint the influence of corporate governance on bank performance. The dimensions (Board size, Duality, Board’s ownership, outside directors, Audit independence and Meeting attendance) of corporate governance have been taken from literature along with bank size, bank age and Earning per share as control variables to check their inspiration on bank performance. The panel data has been collected from 13 banks for 5 years. For statistical results, the regression analysis (Pooled regression) has been used to check the influence of independent variables on bank performance. The results are showing that bank age (FA), Bank size (FS), Duality (DA) and Board ownership (BO) have negative and insignificant but board size (BS) has negative and significant influence on bank performance. However, all other variables have positive and insignificant impact on the bank performance. Furthermore, the value of R2 is improved by incorporating the dimensions of corporate governance, which means corporate governance enhance the explanatory ability of the model. The study is helpful for the management to focus on these dimensions of the corporate governance for the better performance of the banking sector.
Keywords: Corporate governance, Bank performance, Bank size, Bank age, EPS

In Rituals Dance of Tribal Tai Dam: Form of Dance, Roles and Existence in LuangNamtha Laos
Sarinthorn Khumkhet, Chalermsak Pikulsri and Theerarat Leelaloedsurakul
The purposes of this research were to study Sae Pang Ceremony of Tai Dam residing in LuoangNamtha, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, and the Sae Pang dancing pattern in Sae Pang Ceremony of Tai Dam in LuoangNamtha, Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Liang Pang or Sae Pang Ceremony was held by Tai Dam according to the belief on Phi Mod, Phi Mon, and the good fortune of the family. Apart from this, Liang Pang or Sae Pang Ceremony was held for paying homage to ghosts that help the Mo Mot Shaman teacher, the dancing style and dancing aspects in the ceremony featured the dance focusing on paying homage to ancestor ghosts and wishing for living. The dancing feature was the art that related to the belief provoking consciousness and giving meaning to cultural stereotypes in the form of symbols. The primitive dance was the dance to be involved by most people other than to be watched, and the dance posture in the ceremony divided into patterned style and un-patterned style. The posture involved the movement of body from the shoulders to the waist, the arms were moving in response to the music style and rhythm while dancing. Additionally, there was body shaking responding to the music rhythm which was the unique style of Tai Dam dance. There were 26 dance postures of Mo Mot Shaman which included the patterned and un-patterned postures, 4 out of 26 were the postures without names.
Keywords: Tai Dam, Sae Pang, Ceremony, Dance Pattern

Antihyperglycemic Potential and Biochemical Study of Iraqi Propolis Extract on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rabbits
Doaa Abd Alzahra Deli, Abdul-Hadi Abbas Hadi and Suhad Hameed Hasan Albushabaa
Propolis is a honeybee product that has gained popularity in alternative medicine, due to its biological properties and it has been intensely used in health foods. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of Iraqi propolis on some biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of alloxan (150 mg/kg, i.v.). Rabbits with glycemia were treated with propolis for 23 days. Significant increases (P<0.05) in blood sugar, AST, ALT, urea, creatinine and MDA were recorded in diabetic rabbits compared to control group. A significant decrease (P<0.05) in these parameters also observed in diabetic rabbits treated with ethanolic extract of propolis. The results suggest that propolis could potentially contribute for the amelioration and treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Keywords: Propolis, Diabetes mellitus, Biochemical parameters, Rabbits.

Some Studies on Aluminium – Fly Ash Composites Fabricated by Two Step Stir Casting Method
P. Shanmughasundaram, R. Subramanian and G. Prabhu
Development of lightweight materials has provided the automotive industry with numerous possibilities for vehicle weight reduction. Progress in this area depends on the development of materials, processing techniques, surface and heat treatments. Since fuel consumption relates directly to vehicle weight, reducing weight can improve the fuel usage and price-to-performance ratio. Aluminium matrix ceramic reinforcement composites have attracted increasing attention due to their combined properties such as high specific strength, high stiffness, low thermal expansion coefficient and superior dimensional stability at elevated temperatures as compared to the monolithic materials. Aluminium reinforced with conventional ceramic materials such as SiC / Al2O3 are gradually being implemented into the production of pistons, cylinders, engine blocks, brakes and power transmission system elements in automobile industry. Fly ash (SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 as major constituents and oxides of Mg, Ca, Na, K etc. as minor constituents) is one of the most inexpensive and low density material which is abundantly available as solid waste byproduct during combustion of coal in thermal power plants. The present investigation has been focused on the utilization of fly ash in useful manner by dispersing it into aluminium to produce composites by a two step stir casting method to overcome the cost barrier for wide spread applications in automotive systems. An attempt has also been made to investigate its microstructure, mechanical, wear and corrosion behavior of composites.
Keywords: Aluminium matrix composites, fly ash, wear behaviour and corrosion of MMCs
are gradually being