European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 128 No 1
January, 2015

Kohenon and Kohenon Self Organizing Mapping Algorithms for Clustering in Wireless Sensor Networks
Sa'ed Azzam, Reyadh Naoum and Qais Azzam
A great revolution occurred recently within communication field including WSNs. WSNs have been recently deployed within several practical and critical life applications and fields. However; the limited energy is considered one of the most common and significant challenges that occurred within WSNs. Applying clustering algorithms will enhance the energy consumption and increase the lifetime for the WSNs. The clustering process should be performed in an effective procedure in order to achieve the best performance in terms of network lifetime and consumed energy. Kohenon SOM is an effective clustering approach. This paper aims to introduce a clustering approach within WSNs including the selection of CH based on Kohenon SOM. This paper introduces and investigates the effect of using KSOM algorithm as a clustering technique within WSN. The performance for the network will be analyzed based on network life time and consumed energy criteria. The performance of this algorithm is compared to Kohenon technique. After simulating the program; the results confirmed the effectiveness of KSOM and it is improvement for both energy consumption and network lifetime in comparison with Kohenon technique.
Keywords: Kohenon Self Organizing Mapping (KSOM); Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs); Cluster Head (CH); Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), MATLAB

Cracks and Brush Strokes Classification in Old Digital Paintings using Clustering Methods
Shruti Garg and G. Sahoo
Now a days old art works are kept in museums in digital form. Because the digital form once restored it will never degraded. In order to maintain their originally the restoration process must be good enough, so the content of paintings remain will become as good as original. Most of the automatic restoration methods to fill the cracks are very efficient but they would not bother about brush strokes, thus to save these brush strokes in old art work there is a need of classification before filling. Restoration must done after classifying brush stroke pixels from crack pixels so that brush stroke pixels will be prevented from filling. Thus a good method for classification of cracks and brush stroke pixels is required. To achieve this goal four methods of classification for cracks and brush stroke pixels using clustering are proposed in this paper. And their efficiency is measured in terms of number of crack pixels remaining unfilled after applying filling on them.

Keywords: Cracks, Brush Strokes, Top-hat transform, K-nearest neighbourhood, K-means clustering, fuzzy c-means clustering, entropy based clustering.
The Relationship between Marketing Information System and Gaining Competitive Advantage in the Banking Sector in Jordan
Anas Y. Alhadid, Hasan Ali Al-Zu’bi and Samer Barakat
This study investigates the relationship between marketing information system and gaining competitive advantage in the banking sector in Jordan. It explores the usefulness of the use of information technology in achieving competitive advantage. It also aims to relate the components of marketing information systems with the competitive advantage in the banking sector. The researchers obtained secondary data from documented sources and primary data from the use of a questionnaire. The results of the analysis showed that there is a relationship between the Internal Records, Marketing Research, and Marketing Intelligence and achieving competitive advantage in the Jordan Baking Sector. The results also indicated that only two traits; age and educational Level, had a relationship with marketing information system. However there was no significant relationship between gender, Experience Years and of respondents and their perceptions of marketing information system.
Keywords: marketing intelligence, marketing research, internal records

Throughput and Queue Computations Based on Sensor Network Topology for Overseeing High-rise Building SH Data
Mohammud Ershadul Haque, Mohammud Fauzi Mohammud Zain and Mohammud Sanwar Hossain
Sensor technology offers new opportunities to advance health and maintenance monitoring for civil infrastructure such as large buildings by providing relevant information regarding the condition of high-rise building structure strength at a lower price and greater range compared with traditional monitoring tactics. Numerous domestic buildings, especially long-span buildings, have a lower-frequency response that is challenging to accurately measure with the application of sensors. To cover the whole service area, sensor network topology is one of the most important options. The objective of this article is to investigate the network throughput and queue and compare the computational results of different kinds of sensor network topology to find the optimum sensor network topology for assessing large building structural health information using Drop Tail (DT), Random Early Discard (RED) and Stochastic Fair Queuing (RED) buffer mechanisms. We applied a ZigBee basic sensor network topology to determine the optimum sensor network throughput and minimum queue based on the buffer mechanism using constant bit rate (CBR) as a traffic agent and showed both their network throughput and queue behavior
Keywords: Network topology design; DT; RED; SFQ; Throughput; Queue loss; Queue size; Structural health monitoring.

Cytotoxic and Thrombolytic Activity of Methanolic Extract of Prottium Serratum Bark
Naymul Karim, Sadequar Rahman, Rana Dhar, Ahsan Ulllah, Md Hossan Sakib, Limon Kanti Shill and Saiful Islam
Objective: To research the cytotoxic and thrombolytic action of the methanol extract of Prottium serratum bark. Methods: In vivo brine shrimp lethality bioassay, in vitro clot lysis model was undertaken to investigate the thrombolytic action of the extract. Results: The extract showed potential cytotoxic activity with LC50 value of 30.90$mu;g/ml. Vincristin sulphate served as the positive control for this brine shrimp lethality assay and its LC50value was 10.51$mu;g/ml. The methanol extract of Prottium serratum bark is exerted 51.24% lysis of the blood clot in thrombolytic activity test while 76.58% and 3.45% lysis were obtained for positive control (streptokinase) and negative control respectively. Conclusion: Methanol extract of Prottium serratum bark might be triggering the premonition of novel drug discovery in future due to its moderate cytotoxic and thrombolytic activity.
Keywords: Prottium serratum; Cytotoxic; Vincristin sulphate; Thrombolytic; Streptokinase.

Coexistence of Anopheles Gambiae, Anopheles Funestus and Anopheles Nili and their Relation to Malaria Transmission in a Village of Western Ivory Coast
Akré Maurice ADJA and Fidèle Kouakou BASSA
Between November, 2001, and September, 2002, an entomological study was carried out in the village of Gouin-Houyé, in the western forest area of the Ivory Coast (the Zouan-Hounien Region). The aim of this study was to determine the temporal dynamics of the main malaria vectors and to evaluate their relative involvement in Plasmodium falciparum transmission to humans. Mosquitoes were sampled by landing catches on volunteers and pyrethrum spray collections. Out of 4,175 mosquitoes collected on humans, 2,692 (64.5%) were Anopheles. An. gambiae, An. funestus and An. nili represented 53.7%, 16.3% and 10.8% of anopheline fauna respectively. The three species were endophagic but only An. gambiae and An. funestus demonstrated endophilic resting behaviour. There was substantial variation in vector densities, depending on the season. The overall biting rates were 14.1 bites/human/night (b/h/n) for An. gambiae, 4.3 b/h/n for An. funestus and 2.8 b/h/n for An. nili. The proportion of anopheline mosquitoes infected with P. falciparum was measured by circumsporozoite protein ELISA. Annual sporozoite rates were 3.3%, 4.7% and 4.3% for An. gambiae, An. funestus and An. nili, respectively. Malaria transmission was perennial, with seasonal variations. Maximum transmission was successively due to An. funestus during the dry season, An. nili in the early part of the rainy season and An. gambiae during the other part of the rainy season. The mean annual entomological inoculation rate (EIR) was estimated at 288.3 infective bites per human per year. An. gambiae accounted for 59.5%, An. funestus for 25.3% and An. nili for 15.2% of transmission. The present study revealed the high implication of An. gambiae, An. funestus and An. nili in malaria transmission in the western forest area of the Ivory Coast.
Keywords: Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles funestus, Anopheles nili, Plasmodium falciparum, malaria transmission, Gouin-Houyé, Côte d’Ivoire

Review on Single Image Superresolution using Sparse K-SVD Model
Kathiravan S and Kanakaraj J
Super-resolution image reconstruction is the signal processing technique of fusing many similar low resolution images into a single higher resolution image. This paper establishes a robust sparse dictionary model for super-resolution based image reconstruction. This method combines the characteristic pieces of high-resolution and low-resolution images by means of sparse dictionary coding method. This technique constructs a sparse alliance amid the middle-frequency and high-frequency image components. It also comprehends at the same time with the match searching and optimization techniques. While comparing sparse dictionary with the sparse coding technique, it can be seen that sparse dictionary technique displays more compact and effective characteristics than sparse coding technique. Sparse K-SVD (Single value decomposition) algorithm is applied for optimization to increase the pace of the sparse coding method. On applying the proposed technique to certain standard images it can be noticed that the proposed technique is well ahead of the other learning-based super-resolution algorithms while considering the performance into account.
Keywords: Super-resolution, Sparse parameter model, Image Reconstruction

Residues of Antibiotics in Cow's Milk: Evaluating Production Loss Milk by Withdrawal Contaminated Milk in Intensive Dairy Cattle Farms in the Region of Tadla-Azilal (Morocco)
A.EL Abbadi, J. NAJDI, E. Azeroual, B. Benazzouz, M. A Hammach and A. Mesfioui
Residues of antibiotics in milk are a public health problem which has important consequences either on the consumers’ health or on the technological, economic and social development. So to ensure milk quality and reduce risks and losses caused by this scourge, measures must be taken at all levels. The present work aims to assess the losses in milk production related to the removal of milk contaminated with residues of antibiotics concerning the producers of cow's milk in the region of Tadla Azilal ( Morocco ) . The study sample consists of 10 farms with a total of 760 dairy cows. In addition, a survey was designed to collect information about the nature of the pathologies, the percentage of sick cows , the amount of milk caused by the decrease of production due to the pathology , the type of the antibiotics used , the route of administration, the waiting time, the amount and destination of milk contaminated by residues of antibiotics. The gained results showed that average herd size per farm is 76 heads with a minimum of 20 and a maximum of 260 heads. The percentage of cows treated by antibiotics was estimated at 13 %. The total quantity of milk due to production decrease further to the pathology was evaluated at 5,426 liters (36.6 % of the normal production of cows that got sick during the treatment period). Whereas the total amount of contaminated milk was 20,556 liters (1% of the total marketed production).
Keywords: residue - antibiotic – raw milk - dairy cows – loss-Morocco.

Feature Extraction of ECG Signal using Cubic Spline Technique
Ehab Abdul Razzaq Hussein, Hayder M. Abdulridha and Ashwaq N. Hassan
Features extraction method of ECG signals with good performance is very helpful for detecting the characteristics of the ECG signals then diagnosis of heart disease and accurately. This paper introduces the description of the knot extraction from the ECG signals database and then how to determine the optimal location of the knot is discussed, as well as discussing the features extraction by Cubic Spline (CS), which is based on the optimum location of the knot. The effectiveness of the proposed work verified through the simulation. The results showed highest degree of precision to distinguish between three classes that were used in this work.
Keywords: ECG Signals, Cubic Spline, knot, features extraction.

Identification and Prioritization of Effective Factors in the Success of Electronic Government (Case Study: Water & Wastewater of Tehran Province)
Mina Jamshidi Abanaki and Faezeh Taghvania
Whereas the executive process of structural reformation plans in the national administrative system is specifically slow and since without passing through this stage it is basically impossible for the government to accurately manage economic development plans, it is therefore required that structural reformation plans for the national administrative system is followed with a higher speed through identifying the elements for successful establishment of e-government in the country and its accelerated implementation. Modern communication and information technologies have provided the grounds for reengineering of government architecture and have made that more accessible, more efficient and more accountable. Use of such innovations in the process for administration of community affairs has lead to emergence of a reality called Electronic Government (E-government). In this regard, governments should redefine their roles and functions in order to offer services to the social stakeholders. In parallel with implementation of e-government and considering extensive urban services; in this research we seek for success elements of e-government in the water and wastewater company of Tehran Province. In the present research which is an applied research with respect to objective, a descriptive and analytic method of surveying type has been used. Statistical community includes all experts and engineers of Water and Wastewater Company of Tehran Province consisting of 334 people. Sample volume is approximately 180 people according to Cochran formula. Research hypotheses were tested by normality and nominal tests. There is a significant relationship among the elements of the variable of effective factors involved in successful e-government in term of effectiveness
Any of the indices of the variable with their rating averages are been given in the following table. As it is shown, the index of “service provision” in the most significant index” and that of social awareness” is the least significant index respectively.
Keywords: E-government, Social Awareness, Quality of Services