European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 127 No 4
December, 2014

Rapid Modular Reduction Algorithm
Sattar J. Aboud and Mohammad Al-Fayoumi
In this paper, we introduced a new modular reduction algorithm which divides the binary string of the integer to be reduced into blocks in terms of its runs. Its computing cost relies on the number of runs in the binary string. We give the complete cost computing analysis of the algorithm. It claims that the new reduction method is about twice faster than the popular Barrett reduction method.

Hibiscus cannabinus Seed Oil as a Potential Feedstock for Biodiesel Production and its Performance in Compression Ignition Engine
Rashmi Gadwal and G.R. Naik
It goes without saying that petroleum is the most important commodity consumed in modern society, providing fuel for energy, heating, transportation, and industry. The concern about dwindling worldwide petroleum reserves and the increase of environmental problems like fast depletion of fossil fuels, rapid increase in prices of petroleum products and harmful exhaust emissions from engine jointly created renewed interest among researchers to find the suitable alternative fuels. The interest in using Hibiscus species- Hibiscus cannabinus as a feedstock for the production of bio-diesel is rapidly growing. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors and policy makers consider these two plants as substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The literature survey shows that two Hibiscus cannabinus is wildly growing hardy species in arid and semi-arid regions of country on degraded soils having low fertility and moisture. It is found that physical and chemical properties of the plant seed oil and biodiesel produced are very close to fossil diesel. In this study, oil has been converted to biodiesel by well-known transesterification process and used in CI engine for performance evaluation. The performance characteristics of blends were evaluated at variable loads at constant rate speed and results were finally compared with diesel. The authors hereby conclude that Hibiscus cannabinus biodiesel can be used as an alternative fuel in blending form.
Keywords: Transesterification process, Blended fuel, Diesel engine, Exhaust emissions, Hibiscus Cannabinus oil biodiesel

Sleep awake Scheduling Mechanism for Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Adaptive Gur Game
Eman M. Elshahed, Shahinaz M. Al-tabbakh and Rabie A. Ramadan
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consists of a large number of sensor nodes that are limited in energy, processing power and storage. The primary limiting factor for the lifetime of a sensor network is the energy supply. Clustering sensor nodes is an effective topology control approach which already contributes to overall system scalability, lifetime, and energy efficiency.The paper considers the limitation of the nodes in handling many messages at the same time especially the CH nodes and sink node. The Gur game algorithm used to control the number of messages that sent to the sink node by defining some nodes to send at certain time allows other nodes to go to sleep.Certainly, this QoS control enhances the operation of the network and positively affects the nodes’ consumed energy.Applying Gur game to a LEACH clustering increase the network lifetime and saves energy. However, it turns out that the Gur game convergence is taken too much time. Therefore, the AGur is proposed to solve such problem. Therefor, the authors proposed a distributed protocol to conserve energy and load balancing in hierarchicalWSN namely, Sleep Awake scheduling Mechanism for hierarchical Wireless sensor networks based on Adaptive Gur Game. This work aims to increase the life time of hierarchicalWSN , increase the quality of service ratio of this type of networks and satisfy the load balancing through decreasing the residual energy of the nodes.A set of experimentsare examined and the results are presented.

Isolation and Chemical Characterization of Two New Anthocyanin Pigments from Güiscoyol (Bactris guineensis) Fruit
Vanessa Bagnarello, Henry Borbón, Marco Calvo, Humberto Trimiño and Javier Alpízar-Cordero
Samples of B. guineensis were collected, peeled, freeze-dried, homogenized by blender and subjected to extraction with 0.1% HCl in methanol. Purification phase was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), using a binary linear gradient as mobile phase consisting of H2O-CH3COOH (97.5:2.5 v/v) and CH3OH with analytical reverse phase column Nucleosil C-18 Sigma-Aldrich, 250 x 4.6 mm, 5 μm. Two new anthocyanin pigments of B. guineensis fruit were purified and isolated, the structural information was obtained by spectroscopic methods: Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Visible), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1HNMR), Carbon-13 Magnetic Resonance (13C-NMR), one dimensional Total Correlation Spectroscopy (1D-TOCSY), Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation (HMBC) and two dimensional Nuclear Overhauser Effect Spectroscopy (2D-NOESY). The new anthocyanin pigments were identified as cyanidin 3-O-(6"-O-(α-D-rhamnopyranosyl))-β-D-glucopyranose and 3-O-(4"-O-(α-D-rhamnopyranosyl))-β-D-glucopyranose. On the basis of these results a more widespread cultivation of B. guineensis plants, a wild tropical species, can be recommended because this fruit is a valuable source of natural food colorants which can promote many positive health benefits.
Keyword: Güiscoyol, B. guineensis, Anthocyanin, Cyanidin, Arecaceae
JEL Code: N56

Performance of Wireless Sensor Networks using Kohenon Self Organizing Mapping Algorithm with Conscience Function
Reyadh Naoum, Sa'ed Azzam and Sadeq AlHamouz
The current development within communication field lead to continuous and urgent needs for new data transfer techniques that can perform the communication process in a more reliable and secure manner. WSN emerged recently as a common and significant type of network which can be used within the environment that cannot be continuously managed by the human being. To enhance WSN performance in terms of several criteria, including; lifetime and energy, then several procedures can be employed, such as; clustering. KSOM was emerged as common technique for clustering in WSN. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the WSN performance in terms of average lifetime and consumed energy after adding conscience function of neural network. The system is simulated in MATLAB software environment. After running the code; the results demonstrated that KSOM outperforms the ordinary SOM algorithms in terms of selected performance criteria. Furthermore the conscience function of the NN will in turns enhance the performance of the WSN over KSOM algorithm, and hence over SOM algorithm. Enhancements of 9.1% and 3.03% were achieved due to applying conscience function in terms of average lifetime and average consumed energy respectively.
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs); Kohenon Self Organizing Mapping (KSOM); Cluster Head (CH); Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Conscience Function; MATLAB

Assessment of Heavy Metal Distribution and Contamination in Soils at Jala River Banks
Amira Cipurkovic, Jozo Tunjic, Vahida Selimbasic, Abdel Djozic and Ilvana Trumic
Industrialization of Tuzla Canton, region in Bosnia and Herzegovina, has affected the increasing number of sources of emissions of heavy metals and other pollutants, which is greatly contributed by TPS Tuzla, chemical and other industries. This paper investigates the concentration and distribution of some heavy metals (Cr, Co, Co, Pb, Hg, Ni and Zn) in soils on the banks of the river Jala, from its spring to the Spreča river estuary. In order to investigate the pollution of soils and possible sources of heavy metals, sampling was done at measuring points upstream and downstream of potential sources of pollution. Assessment of metal distribution and soil contamination in the soils was evaluated by calculating enrichment factor (EF), contamination factor (CF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and pollution load index (PLI). The results were statistically treated using SPSS 17 software, calculating correlation coefficients to determine relationships among different metals and soil pH-values. Based on contamination factor (CF), it has been indicated that the tested soil was a low to moderate contaminated with lead (0,61≤CF≤1,29), cadmium (0,00≤CF≤2,44), and zinc (1,00≤CF≤1,58), moderate contaminated of chromium (0,67≤CF≤2,58), moderate to considerable contaminated with cobalt (1,25≤CF≤3,40), considerable to very high contaminated with nickel (5,50-11,17) and considerable to very high contaminated with mercury (146,70≤CF≤273,50). High contamination of soils with Ni and Hg is in fields closer to the mouth of the river Jala into Spreča. Part of this polluted land on the banks of the river Jala closer to its estuary is extensively used for agricultural production. In order to preserve human health and the entire ecosystem, it is necessary to suspend agricultural production and to take measures for remediation of soil.
Keywords: soil pollution, river, heavy metal, enrichment factor, contamination factor, Igeo, PLI

Abstract Concept of Ethical Issues in Corporations: An Existentialist Perspective
Sadaf Ehsan, Samya Tahir, Abdus Sattar Abbasi and Jawaria Fatima
Business ethics tends to utilize abstract concepts like deontology and teleology to deal with ethical issues. Abstract theories; however, provides only a partial solution to various issues we come across in our daily lives, our work places and interactions with others. These abstract explanations and concepts around deontological and teleological theories need incorporation of existentialist concepts to deal abstract ethical issues. Therefore, present study is an effort towards establishing existentialism as an approach that can look into daily life choices, ethical issues and ethical decisions while describing abstract theories like teleology and deontology. Furthermore, this study continue to seek the application of existentialist theory in organizational structure with specific focus towards explaining four dimensions of existentialist approach i.e. Being and Nothingness, Freedom and Responsibility, Angst in Existentialism and being in the world.
Keywords: Business ethics, deontology, teleology, abstract ethical issues and existentialism.

Effects of Cadmium-Zinc Interactions on Biology and Histology of Testis in Wistar Rats
Abdelkrim BERROUKCHE, Khaled KAHLOULA, Abdelkrim KFIFA and Kadda HACHEM
Cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) are heavy metals with antagonistic effects on human health and the environment. Cd is known for its toxicity and Zn for its protective role. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of Cd-Zn interactions on biology and histology of testis Wistar rats. For this purpose, 40 adult rats were divided into four groups: control rats received tap water, experienced rats received orally CdSO4 (0.15 mg/ kg body weight) for 30 days, others rats were exposed to Zn (0.15 mg/kg) and in the fourth group, animals received a Cd-Zn mixture in the same conditions. Cd exposure caused a decrease in body weight and a significant increased plasma testosterone concentration (6.81±2.41 ng/ml). With Zn or Cd-Zn mixture administration, it was observed a significant decrease in plasma testosterone level. Histological study, in Cd-induced rats, showed a loss of Leydig cells, germ cells and absence of spermatogenesis. While rats, were administered Zn or Cd-Zn mixture, have preserved the integrity of cellular organization. These data suggest that Zn enhances the protection against Cd-induced testicular pathophysiology by preventing Cd accumulation.
Keywords: Cadmium, Zinc, Antagonist effects, Environment, Toxicity, Testosterone.

Invasive Weeds Algorithm Based Tuning PID Controller for Marine Diesel Engine's Speed
Ali Shaban Hasooni
This paper will be proposed on the application of the invasive weeds algorithm (IWO) into one of the popular problem setups in the engineering application area of control systems as controller for Marine Diesel Engine's Speed. This algorithm is a new approach which allows the weeds to be more diverse by making better exploration of the local search space instead of global search space investigated by previous researchers such as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO).
The paper deals with optimal tuning of a Proportional-Integral- Derivative (PID) controller used in a high performance of Marine Diesel Engine's Speed system for controlling the output obtained and hence to minimize the Integral Square Error (ISE). The proposed algorithm holds on the properties of simple structure, fast convergence, and at the same time enhances the variety of the population, and extends the search space. It is applied to self-tuning of proportional-integral-derivative-(PID) controlled in the speed control system which represents a system of complex industrial processes. Weeds algorithm is best algorithm, faster in convergence and the obtained results are proved to have higher fitness than other algorithms. Hence the results establishes that tuning the PID controller using IWO technique gives less overshoot, system is less sluggish and reduces the ISE.
Keywords: invasive weeds algorithm (IWO), particle swarm optimization (PSO), PID Control, engine's speed System, and ISE criterion.

Varietal and Solar-Drying Effects on the Yield and Quality of Flours Produced from Sweetpotato
Eunice A. Bonsi, Wisdom A. Plahar, Elizabeth C. Chibuzo and Conrad K. Bonsi
A solar drying process was used in the production of flours from four sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] varieties (Tuskegee Orange, Tuskegee Purple, Cinkase Naabug and Cinkase Abija.) and assessed for their effects on product yield and quality. The Tuskegee Purple variety produced the highest flour yield of 26.7% which is double the yield obtained with any of the other three varieties. The Tuskegee Purple flour showed a high degree of redness while the Tuskegee Orange flour sample recorded a very high positive b*-value of 18.6, indicating a high degree of yellowness. The solar drying process used was effective in producing flours with average moisture content of 8.6%, within the acceptable range for a commercial flour to ensure good shelf-life. The Tuskegee Purple variety had the highest crude protein content of 6.6%, with the three other varieties having values of about 4.0%, and had the highest anthocyanin indicative of antioxidant ability. The local varieties, Cinkase Naabug and Cinkase Abija, recorded significantly higher (p≤0.05) ash and fiber contents and a higher pH than the two Tuskegee varieties. Aflatoxin was not detected in the flour samples and the solar drying procedure seems to be effective in preventing mold and yeast development.
Keywords: sweetpotato flour, solar drying, antioxidant, beta-carotene, vitamin A, micronutrient