European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 124 No 3
September, 2014

Seigniorage and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria
Alley, Ibrahim Saliu and Adeniran, Yinka A
Phenomenal fiscal deficits run by many governments of the world today indicate that hardly are fiscal revenues sufficient to defray desired government expenditures. One cause of the problem is the restriction on governments’ ability to raise tax due to opposition from the citizenry. A way of bridging the fiscal spending-revenue gap is seigniorage, revenues generated by printing currency. Seigniorage, like other sources of government finance, however has its costs and benefits. This study estimated the effects of seigniorage on Nigerian economic growth between 1981 and 2010 within the resource allocation framework wherein the budget constraint of the private sector interacts with the government fiscal and monetary activities through transfers and real money balances. It employed the General Methods of Moments (GMM) that controls for possible endogeneity. Seigniorage negatively affected economic growth in Nigeria, though not to a statistically significant degree, indicating that the inherent benefits overwhelmed the costs to the economy. This suggests that the government has room to supplement its other fiscal revenues with seigniorage without significant detriment to growth of the economy.
Keywords: Seigniorage, Inflation Tax, Economic Growth
JEL classification codes: E2, E5, E6

Preliminary Evidence of Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons Loss in the Ca1 Area Associated with Long-Term Heavy Cannabis use
Abdelhai Elgamri, Abdessamad El Azhari, Zineb Saif, Hicham Benyaich, Hicham Belghiti and Omar Battas
Background: Cannabis sativa is the most widely used illicit drug in the world. Despite this, there is a paucity of histological research studying its long-term effect on the human brain. The implications of the hippocampus in memory and learning processes are very well known and it is likely that the hippocampus would be among the first areas of the brain affected by the histopathogenic mechanisms associated with long-term heavy cannabis use. However, a debate surrounding legalization of cannabis becomes greater in Morocco who is declared by United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime as the first producer and exporter of cannabis resin.
Objective: To determine whether long-term heavy cannabis use is associated with histological abnormalities in hippocampus especially in CA1 area.
Subjects and methods: In our study, we focused on the quantification of the neuronal density in the pyramidal layer of CA1 areas of the hippocampus of four long-term heavy cannabis users.
Results: We found a significant reduction of neuronal density in the CA1 hippocampal area of cannabis users compared to one normal subject.
Conclusions: In the present study we managed to demonstrate a significant neuronal loss of hippocampus associated with long-term heavy cannabis use, as compared to normal hippocampus. This conclusion could have important implications in public-health decisions.
Keywords: cannabis – hippocampus - CA1 area - pyramidal neuron

Distribution des ions sulfate (SO42-) dans un Écosystème Tropical à forte Influence Continentale: Lagune Aby, Côte D’ivoire
Sylvie Assemian-Niango, Aka Marcel Kouassi, Karim Sory Traoré, Arjouma Dembélé and Jean Biemi
From September 2007 to July 2009, monthly measurements campaigns were undertaken in twenty (20) stations spread along Aby lagoon. Temperature, salinity, pH, conductivity and transparency fromthe Aby lagoon waters were measured in situ at the surface (0, 20 m). Dissolved oxygen and sulfate ions from lagoon waters were determined respectively by the Winkler method and the nephelometric method. The physical and chemical parameters and sulphate ions are characterized by seasonal variations. The values of the physical-chemical parameters are higher in long dry season while the sulfate ions ofAby lagoon’s waters are higher in long rains season. The software for the analysis of environmental data, however, shows a positive correlation between physical and chemical parameters and the levels of sulfate ions in waters from the Aby lagoon. All the parameters are in line with WHO standards.
Keywords: tropical lagoon, physical and chemical parameters, sulfate ions, rains season, dry season

Data Mining Privacy Level Enhancement through Multiple Group Unsystematic Rejoinder Technique
G. Kesavaraj and S. Sukumaran
Data mining has appeared as a means for recognizing patterns and trends from a large amount of data. To conduct data mining computations, need to accumulate data first. Without privacy concerns, data can be directly collected. However, because of privacy concerns, some people might choose to selectively expose information, or give false information, or simply refuse to disclose any information. Indexing Structure to Answer Top-K Queries handles DG maintenance efficiently by “Insertion” and “Deletion” algorithm but DG index is not applied in dominant relationship analysis. Top-K Queries is not effective in search efficiency. Efficient Index for Geographic Document Search enhances IR-tree index yet various access patterns is not enhanced. To overcome these issues, Multiple Group Unsystematic Rejoinder (MGUR) Technique developed to enhance the privacy level. MGUR consists of two phases, the initial phase is the creation of multi-group scheme used for partitioning of attributes and the second phase is the adapted ID3 algorithm for decision tree building, which is used for building a classifier from the partitioned attribute, based on multi-group scheme. MGUR technique partitions data into multiple groups and duplicate the attribute to more than one column for the dominant relationship analysis. MGUR build decision tree classifiers from the partition attribute based on the multi-group scheme for various pattern accessing. Finally MGUR accuracy of decision tree is compared with existing system for effective search. Computations are performed on factors such as classifier error rate, total response time, search accuracy rate, pattern retrieval efficacy, communication cost and processing time.
Keywords: Privacy Level, Pattern Retrieval Efficacy, Top-K Queries, Data Collection, Dominant Relationship Analysis, Decision Tree Classifier, Multi-group scheme, Adapted ID3 algorithm

Sensitizing Culture and Society through Language Lens a Linguistic Analysis of Multifarious Shifting Paradigms in Nursery Rhymes
Rabia Mahmood and Faiza Saleem
Language being “a social fact” (Halliday 1978) is deep-rooted in the society and culture. When a child learns language, s/he at the same time is learning other things as well and building up the picture of reality that is around or inside them. Basing its premise on this epistemology, this research analyses the multifarious paradigms of representations through language in nursery rhymes. “Language is not just a means of communication but stands for a way of life or a symbol of identity” says Rehman (2007). By focusing on the socio-cultural aspect of selected nursery rhymes, the researcher found that these rhymes have the ability to impart human values at the very initial stage of language learning. Apparently very musical and light, these songs of children’s literature help students in developing communication and study skills. But in reality these are ideologically loaded and are being used as a part of the scheme of political agenda. The Content Analysis (Berelson, 1954. Franzosi, 2002.) shows that male characters dominate the female characters. Naming, another key aspect of imparting human values through communication, is exploited by using Western names of the characters instead of Eastern names. The specified themes and naming practices in one’s foreign language are inculcating a complete English culture in the minds of the young learners. These communicative practices show that at a very critical age, the inculcation of western ideology and culture is really harming their mother tongue and it leads towards subtractive bilingualism. Feminist Critical Discourse Analyses (Lazar, 2005. Litosseliti, 2006) of language and semiotic images show that these are highly sexist and promote the gendered ideology. This research provides food for thought not only to teachers & parents to think and reflect upon these Nursery Rhymes in an untraditional way but also to the policy makers for identifying the motives behind and helping us determine the way forward.
Keywords: Multifarious, Shifting Paradigms, Nursery Rhymes, Ideology, Society and Culture

Path-Constrained Data Gathering Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks
Khaled Almi’ani, Mohammed A. Abuhelaleh, Ali Al_ghonmein, Moha’med Al-jaafereh and MalekAlksasbeh
Several studies in recent years have considered the use of mobile elements for data gathering in wireless sensor networks, so as to reduce the need for multi-hop forwarding among the sensor nodes and thereby prolong the network lifetime. Since, typically, practical constraints preclude a mobile element from visiting all nodes in the sensor network, the solution must involve a combination of a mobile element visiting a subset of the nodes (cache points), while other nodes communicate their data to the cache points wirelessly. This leads to the optimization problem of minimizing the communication distance of the sensor nodes, while keeping the tour length of the mobile element below a given constraint. In this paper, we investigate the problem of designing the mobile elements tours such that the length of each tour is below a per-determined length and the number of hops between the tours and the nodes not included in the tour is minimized. To address this problem, we present an algorithmic solution that consider the distribution of the nodes during the process of building the tours. We compare the resulting performance of our algorithm with the best known comparable schemes in the literature.

Flow-Based Heuristic for Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Collector
Khaled A. Almi’ani, Mohammad H. Jarrar, Nizar S. Al-shamassen, Shahed B. Al-mobydeen and Eynas A. Al-salameen
In this paper, we present an algorithm for energy efficient data gathering in wireless sensor networks using a mobile element. Our method allows for strict data gathering deadlines and combines mobile element path planning algorithms along with multi-hop forwarding. The results of our experiments indicate that our scheme significantly outperforms the best comparable scheme in the literature.

Investigation of Grain Size, Surface Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Equal Channel Angular Pressed Commercially Pure Titanium
B. Praveen, V. Balusamy, J. Krishnamoorthi and P.C. Angelo
Refinement of bulk grains to ultrafine grains of commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) was carried out by Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) using hot pressing in a die having channel intersection angle, φ of 90º and angle of curvature, ψ of 35º in route Bc at 723 K. The grain size and micro strain of ECA pressed Cp-Ti were studied by X-ray diffraction method. The surface morphology of ECA pressed Cp-Ti was investigated by optical microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Also, the mechanical properties such as hardness, strength and ductility of ECA pressed Cp-Ti were measured. The experimental results confirm grain size reduction with no secondary phase formation. The mechanical properties of ECA pressed Cp-Ti increase with increasing number of passes due to the formation of twins in the grains and grain boundaries of ECA pressed Cp-Ti.
Keywords: Warm Equal Channel Angular Pressing, Commercially Pure Titanium, Grain Refinement, Transmission Electron Microscope

Tsunami Generation and Propagation by a Curvilinear Stochastic Source Fault Model in Linearized Shallow-Water Wave Theory
Khaled T. Ramadan
Tsunami generation and propagation caused by a curvilinear stochastic seismic fault driven by two Gaussian white noise processes in the x– and y–direction are investigated. This model is used to study the tsunami build up and propagation during and after a realistic curvilinear source model represented by a random spreading slip-fault model. This model is used to study the tsunami amplitude amplification under the effect of the noise intensities and rise times of the three dimensional curvilinear stochastic source model. The amplification of tsunami amplitudes builds up progressively as time increases during the generation process while the maximum wave amplitude decreases with time during the propagation. The increase of the normalized noise intensities on the random bottom leads to an increase in oscillations and amplitude in the free surface elevation. We analyzed the normalized peak amplitude as a function of the stochastic propagated uplift length, width, noise intensities of the source model and the average depth of the ocean.
Keywords: Tsunami modeling, Shallow water theory, Bottom topography, Laplace and Fourier transforms, Stochastic process, Gaussian white noise, Itô integral

On Differential Subordination of Classes of Univalent Functions
Waggas Galib Atshan and Faiz Jawad Abdulkhadim
In this paper, we study the Subordination of Classes univalent functions, and we obtain some subordination results for a family of analytic univalent functions in the open unit disk.
Keywords: Univalent function, subordination, starlike function, convex function.

Morphométrie Quantitative des Echantillons du Gisement de Gounioubé
J. Y. Y. Andji, L. P. M.-S. Kouakou, A. Abba Touré, G. Kra and J. Yvon
Ce présent article a pour objet de déterminer l’hétérogénéité superficielle des argiles du gisement de Gounioubé par la quantification de leurs surfaces basales et latérales, l’estimation de leur lamellarité et la définition du caractère polaire ou non de leur surface. En effet, l’utilisation concurrente de l’adsorption basse pression de l’azote et de l’argon et de la modélisation des isothermes dérivées par la méthode DIS, a permis de montrer que les échantillons G5; G9 et G13; caractéristiques de l’ensemble du Gisement, ont des surfaces spécifiques très élevées, avec une quasi absence de microporosité et une faible mesoporosité.
Les propriétés énergétiques des surfaces basales sont indépendantes des caractéristiques cristallochimiques des échantillons et dépendent des conditions de gisement. En outre, les indices de lamellarité sont élevés et les surfaces développées apolaires.
Keywords: minéraux argileux, hétérogénéité superficielle, adsorption, azote, argon, surface spécifiques.