European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 123 No 4
June, 2014

The Relation between Real Exchange Rate in Turkey and Foreign Trade: An Applied Analysis
Murat Korkmaz, Nur Dilbaz Alacahan, Ayhan Aytaç and Muzaffer Aksoy
In this study, the purpose is to analyze the relation between real exchange rate, export and import by using time series method with data belonging to Turkish economy for the period 2003:01-2013:04. According to the findings, the variables of import and exchange rate have been found significant in the model in which the export variable is the dependent variable. The import level is affected from the variables of export and exchange rate. In the model in which exchange rate is the dependent variable, only the export variable was found to be significant. The course of export has such an effect to increase exchange rate. Moreover, according to the results of Granger causality test, the variables of export and import are the causes of exchange rate, and the import is the Granger cause of export.
Keywords: Real Exchange Rate, Balance of Foreign Trade, Granger Causality Test.

Caractérisation Théorique des Sites D’interaction Par Liaison Hydrogène de 3-(4-Isopropylphenyl)-1- (2-Methylimidazopyridin-3-yl) Prop-2-en-1-One et de 3-(2-Methoxyphenyl)-1-(2-Methylimidazopyridin-3-yl)Prop-2-en-1-One
Thomas Sopi Affi, Nahossé Ziao, Mahama Ouattara, Drissa Sissouma and Kicho Yapo.
Les imidazopyridinyl-chalcones et leurs dérivés possèdent de très nombreuses propriétés biologiques notamment nématocides. Ce travail s’intéresse à deux de ces molécules : le 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1-(2-methylimidazopyridin-3-yl)prop-2-en-1-one et le 3-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-(2-methylimidazopyridin-3-yl)prop-2-en-1-one.En mettant en œuvre les méthodes de la chimie quantique, notamment au niveau nous avons déterminé les paramètres géométriques puis les énergies d’interactions intermoléculaires par liaison hydrogène (ou liaison H) pouvant s’établir sur chacun des hétéroatomes de ces molécules. Afin de donner un sens aussi bien qualitatif que quantitatif aux résultats obtenus, la détermination des paramètres énergétiques des liaisons H a été effectuée en prenant en compte l’erreur de superposition des bases ou BSSE. Les résultats nous permettent de désigner l’azote sp2 comme le site prioritaire de formation de liaison H dans les deux imidazopyridinyl-chalcones étudiés, avec un pourcentage d’environ 55%.
Motsclés: Imidazopyridinyl-chalcones, nématocide, liaison hydrogène, BSSE.

The Role of Classroom Interaction in Teaching English as a Foreign Language in Different Contexts
M. Yavuz Konca and Sina Nasiri
Creating meaningful classroom interaction is the major aim of language education in educational setting. Thus, teachers should engage students in communicative and interesting activities and tasks. With regard to the veracity of the significant role of interaction, the purpose of this study was to observe English classroom interaction in Iran and Turkey in a contrastive way. To this aim, 30 English learners from two EFL classes in Iran (Goldis Language Institute) and Turkey (Manchester Dil Okullari) were selected, 15 from each class. Not only the observation method was directly used to see the kinds of interactions in classes but also the Flanders’ (1970) Interaction Analysis Categories (FIAC) was utilized to describe the teaching and learning processes, considering Teacher Talking Time (TTT), Student Talking Time (STT) and Silence time. The observation showed that both classes used Teacher-Learner and Learner-learner interaction but none of them applied Learner-Teacher-Learner interaction. Analyzing the data by FIAC categories revealed that Iranian EFL class was dominated by communicative approach and therefore more interaction occurred in the classroom in comparison with Turkish class which was grammatically dominated and this caused less interaction among participants in the learning environment in Turkish class.
Keywords: Classroom Interaction, Teaching English, TTT, STT.

Contention-Based Partner Selection and Power Allotment in Cooperative Wireless Networks
Oluseye A. Adeleke and Mohd. F. M. Salleh
The performance of any cooperative communication system depends largely on proper allocation of resource like power. Another important factor to consider is the selection of appropriate partner by the source node to help it in forwarding information to the destination. In this paper, we look at the concepts of partner selection and power assignment for a distributed communication network. A new type of non-cooperative game referred to as Trade-Off game is employed so as to jointly consider the utilities of the source and relay nodes, where in this case, the source is the node that requires help with forwarding of its information while the partner is the node that is willing to help in forwarding the source node’s information, but at a price. The approach enables the source node to maximize its utility by selecting a partner node based on (i) the proximity of the partner node to the source and destination nodes, and (ii) the price the partner node will charge for the help being rendered. Our proposed scheme helps the source locate and select the relay nodes at ‘better’ locations and purchase power optimally from them. It also aids the contending relay nodes maximize their own utilities as well by asking proper prices. Our game scheme is seen to converge to the unique equilibrium.
Keywords: Cooperative communication, game theory, node, power allocation, trade-off, utility.

Influence of Perceived Injustice, Social Support and Gender on Depressive Symptoms among Orthopaedic Patients
Chuka Mike Ifeagwazi, Nneoma Gift Obi, Chidiebere Emmanuel Udensi and JohnBosco Chika Chukwuorji
Unlike researches on other clinical samples, a dearth of empirical literature exists on the role of core psychological factors in depression among orthopaedic patients, especially in Nigeria. We conducted a cross-sectional research to examine the influence of perceived injustice, social support and gender on depressive symptoms, using a sample of 300 patients drawn from National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu in Nigeria as participants. Approximately 53% of the participants (161) were males while 47% (139) were females and their ages ranged from 20-65 years. Data was collected using three questionnaires: Injustice Experience Questionnaire, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Results of a 3-way ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of perceived injustice on depression. Social support and gender did not have significant main effect on depression. Based on relevant theories and related empirical literature, it was argued that the findings may be relevant in planning and providing orthopaedic mental healthcare services.
Keywords: Attribution theory, Depressive symptoms, Gender, Orthopaedic patients. Perceived injustice, Social support.

Some Thoughts on Capital Market Efficiency
Sambasivam Srinivasan
This paper discusses a methodology to quantify and rank the efficiency status of capital market in conventional sense. A new concept of efficiency (maturity level) is defined from information theoretic point of view on the lines of psychological measurement systems. Some possible Hypotheses are suggested for empirical testing connecting the two levels of efficiency. Section 1 gives an introduction and background for the motivation of this paper followed up by section 2 which deals with literature survey. Section 3 outlines a procedure for ranking semi strong efficiency level and section 4 defines a new concept of efficiency – maturity level and section 5 concludes after proposing some viable hypotheses for empirical testing Connecting the two types (conventional efficiency and maturity level) of efficiency measures. In the interconnected globalized capital markets, we need resilient markets both efficient and matured to fulfill its basic functions of optimal allocation of resources unperturbed by short term pressures.

Social Media, Arab Spring and its Implications for Pakistan
Aqeela Asif and Musab Yousufi
Social media and modern communication facilities has strong effect on the behavior of people and plays important role in the construction and destruction of any society. Therefore it also changes socio-political setup of the developing societies, such as political transformations taken place in Middle East and North Africa (MENA). The research discusses the role of social media for change in MENA and especially in Egypt or Arab Spring. This research study focuses on the sociopolitical changes, taken place in Egypt during the period June 2010 - June 2013 and its implications on Pakistan. A political move such as one similar to Egypt was initiated in Pakistan but could not succeed. An analysis in this research highlights the few similarities and several differences between the situations in MENA countries particularly Egypt. The research study is qualitative and contains analysis of existing literature and some practical issues occurred during the recent past era in Middle East.

An Algorithm for Globally Minimizing a Concave Function Over a Parallepiped
Se-Ho Oh and Hyonseung Dho
A branch-and-bound algorithm for the minimization of a concave function over a parallepiped was investigated. The algorithm uses simplices as partition elements for the branching and bounding procedure. The motivation is based on two properties. One is that the binary division of simplex partitions the feasible vertices solutions (or local minimum points) into subsets. And the other is that the linear convex envelope of the original concave function over the simplex can be uniquely obtained by solving the related linear equations. During the branching process, the simplex associated with the selected candidate problem is divided into two subsimplices by adding two hyperplanes. In the next bounding operation, the linear programming problems defined over subsimplices are minimized to calculate the lower bound and to update the incumbent value. Sequentially, the problems defined on vertices sets which do not contain the global minimum are excluded. From the computational efficiency point of view, the important advantage of the algorithm relies on the reduction of the problem size by partitioning of simplex.
Keywords: Parallelepiped, Concave Minimization, Convex Envelope, Simplex.

Indice Multimétrique des Macroinvertébrés Benthiques Yaoundéens (IMMY) Pour L’évaluation Biologique de la Qualité des Eaux de Cours D’eau de la Région du Centre Sud Forestier du Cameroun
Nyamsi Tchatcho N. L, Foto Menbohan S, Zébazé Togouet S. H, Onana Fils M, Adandedjan D, Tchakonté S, Yémélé Tsago C Koji E and Njiné T
Une étude visant la mise sur pied d’un indice d’intégrité biotique basé sur les Macroinvertébrés benthiques a été conduite dans la région du centre sud forestier du Cameroun. Les analyses spatiotemporelles de la richesse taxonomique, du nombre de taxons EPT (Ephéméroptères, Plécoptères, Trichoptères), du pourcentage de taxons EPT, du pourcentage de Chironomidés, de l’ équitabilité et de l’indice biotique Hilsenhoff ont permis la mise sur pied de l’Indice Multimétrique des Macroinvertébrés Yaoundéen (IMMY). Son application aux stations d’étude révèle d’une part le caractère évolutif de l’état de santé des sites de référence, qui dans la plus part du temps ont affiché le statut de qualité précaire. D’autre part, l’IMMY a permis de diagnostiquer efficacement l’ampleur de la déforestation liée aux aménagements effectués lors du passage de l’oléoduc du pipeline «Tchad-Cameroun» sur l’intégrité écologique du cours moyen du Nga. De même, il a permis d’apprécier l’ampleur des perturbations hydrauliques liées à la construction du barrage de retenue sur l’intégrité écologique de la Mefou en aval du barrage. La pertinence de cet indice multimétrique est d’avantage affirmé par la convergence de son diagnostic avec ceux des indicateurs usuels de la qualité de l’eau.
Motsclés: Indice multimétrique, Macroinvertébrés benthiques, sites de référence, qualité des eaux centre sud forestier du Cameroun.

Survey of Multi-Level Segmentation Techniques for Detection of Breast Cancer
Ojo John A, Adepoju Temilola. M, Omdiora Elisha O, Olabiyisi Olatunde S and Bello Temitope
Several algorithms have been developed for segmentation of abnormalities in breast in order to increase the efficiency and sensitivity of Computer Aided Detection of Breast cancer. In earlier surveys, merits and limitations of some of these techniques have been highlighted, but with less emphasis on multi-level segmentation methods, which has recorded higher performance. This paper presents a review of multi-level segmentation techniques highlighting the improvement in performances. In conclusion, since multi-stage segmentation methods have better performances, it is suggested that the focus of future researches be in this direction.
Keywords: Mammogram, Cancer, Segmentation, Detection.