European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 122 No 1
April, 2014

Measures for Evaluating the Decision Performance of A Decision Table with Variable Precision in Rough Set Theory
Abdel- Fatah. A. Azzami
Approximation accuracy and consistency degree were employed to evaluate the decision performance of a decision table. We noticed that these two measures cannot give elaborate depictions of the certainty and consistency of a decision table when their values are equal to zero. To overcome this shortcoming, one will use a variable precision rough set model to get a new approach for basic rough set concepts. Some examples are given and comparison between the result of new concepts and similar approximation are given.
Keywords: Rough set; variable precision; lower and upper approximations; decision rule.
AMS Subject Classification: 06B30

The Contexts of the Management towards Business Sustainability Creation
Boonma Imwised
The purposes of this research are 1) to study the opinion toward the contexts of the management and the business sustainability creation, and 2) to study the form of relationship between the contexts of management influencing the business sustainability creation. The results show that the contexts of the management with the highest mean is leader’s challenge, followed by branding, business connection, organization culture, human resources management, sale management, leader and leadership, marketing management, and organization innovation respectively. With regard to the business sustainability, the aspect with the highest mean is to intent to upgrade life quality of staff in every level and to create wealth to business, followed by to conduct business by creating the public prosperity with morality and ethics to the relevant of company, and to present goods and services with concern of environments respectively. The correlation analysis results found that the context of management and the business sustainability creation have the relationship with the statistical significance at the level of .01. The result of the form of relationship between the context of management influencing the business sustainability creation in total was at 55.00% (Adjust R2 = .550). This can be written in the equation of business sustainability creation that = .256 marketing management + .226 leader’s challenge + .222 organization culture + .144 branding + .143 human resources management.
Keywords: Context, Business Management, Sustainability, Relationship, Opinion, Prediction Equation, Creation.

Time Modeling in Educational Chat Room
Radwan Tahboub and Muna Hanini
This paper discussed a model for monitoring the student activity during the educational chat session with his colleagues about a particular topic assigned to discuss it during a particular session. Monitoring is done through time modeling by evaluating the effective use of time by the student and exploited to the largest possible period of time in the session activity. This method is used to improve the general idea of the educational Chat among students and make it formalized which will lead to make the students behave more seriously with a session chat. Experiments performed as well as previous studies have produced a mathematical equation based on the parameters calculated by recording the time periods carried out by the student activities. Equation model called time and equals to: Time Model = 46.813 + 0.574 * (Posts Count / Complete Session Time + TIDL) All these parameters are discussed in the following sections
Keywords: Time, Student, AVCM, Post, Activity.

Numerical Solution of Singularly Perturbed Two-Parameters DDE using Numerical Integration Method
Mohamed S. M. Bahgat and M. A. Hafiz
In this paper, we present numerical integration methods to solve singularly perturbed Two-Parameter delay differential equations (DDEs) of second-order in which the highest order derivative has multiplied by a small parameter ? and both the convection and reaction terms are with negative and positive shift. In this method, we approximate the terms containing negative and positive shifts using the Taylor series expansion. We employ the Taylor and Simpson numerical integration, which has solved easily by discrete invariant imbedding algorithm. Several test examples are considered by taking various values for the delay, advance and perturbation parameters.
Keywords: Singularly perturbed; boundary value problems; delay differential equations; Two-Parameters DDE

Pillow Lavas of Rabat (Northwestern Moroccan Meseta): Transitional Geochemical Signature of Magmas set up in an Early Ordovician Extending Platform
Hassan EL Hadi, Abdelfatah Tahiri, Fernando Simancas, Francisco Gonzalez Lodeiro, Antonio Azor and David Martinez Poyatos
The Ordovician pillow lavas of Rabat (northwestern Moroccan Meseta) were emplaced in an epicontinental platform undergoing extension, related to the Gondwana breakup at Early Palaeozoic. The geochemistry of this Ordovician volcanism suggests a real homogeneity in the composition of sub-continental mantle and attests the enriched character of the mantle in LILE and LREE compared to HSFE, probably due to crustal components added during previous events of subduction. A genetic link with an Ordovician subduction is discarded, based on the geological setting, a continental extensive faulting fragmentation (continental rifting). This allow us to ascribe the negative anomalies in Nb-Ta of these pillow lavas to the partial melting of a lithospheric mantle enriched during an older subduction event, likely of Proterozoic age.
Keywords: Pillow lavas; Geochemistry; Early Ordovician; northwestern Meseta; Rabat; Morocco.

A Hybrid Technique for Persian License Plate Recognition Based on GRNN
Elham Karimi and Kaveh Kangarloo
Today, License Plate Recognition is used in Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). Character recognition is the key step in license plate recognition. Mainly the Resolution of input images is low which impact on the performance of these systems. Many researches have been published in conjunction with license plate image enhancement but there is less work dealing with effective features to recognize characters in low resolution images. In this paper, a new hybrid technique for Persian license plate recognition based on Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN) is presented. In this method, the Local Binary Pattern (LBP) and wavelet features are extracted from high and low-resolution images. Then they are used to train the Generalized Regression Neural Network. This network is used to determine the relationship between the LBP and wavelet features of LR and HR images. LBP can present the local feature of image effectively and its computation is easy and quick. Wavelet coefficients are used to distinguish between images that have similar LBP histograms. The output of the Generalized Regression Neural Network is the features of high-resolution images. To improve the flexibility of the presented method; a similarity function is used. Performance of the presented method was evaluated using software. The experimental results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Keywords: License Plate Recognition; Generalized Regression Neural Network; Local Binary Pattern; Wavelet; feature.

Implications of High b-value Diffusion Weighted MR Imaging in Brain Tumors using 1.5T: Image Contrast and Correlation of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient with Tumor Grade
Shazia Bano, Mustansar Mahmood Waraich, Muhammad Afzal Aalia Nazir, Saeed Ahmad Buzdar and Shahid Manzur
Purpose of this study was to assess the outcome of high b-value (b=2000 s/mm2) Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DW-MRI) of brain tumors using 1.5 T, by comparing the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and normalized apparent diffusion coefficient (NADC). Seventy eight patients with brain tumors underwent imaging before surgery. DW images were obtained and ADC maps were generated at b=1000 s/mm2 and b=2000 s/mm2. Mean SIs of low grade glioma were found significantly lower (P<.05) than the high grade glioma at b=2000 s/mm2. Mean ADC of high grade gliomas was found significantly lower (P < .05) than that of low grade (0.99 ± 0.16 vs 1.78 ± 0.30 at b =1000 s/mm2 and 0.61 ± 0.04 vs 1.51 ± 0.34 at b=2000 s/mm2). The mean NADC for high grade gliomas was also significantly lower ( P<.05) than the mean NADC of low grade (1.26 ± 0.19 vs 2.24 ± 0.47at b=1000 s/mm2 and 0.93 ± 0.11 vs 2.07 ± 0.41 at b=2000 s/mm2). Decrease in SIs, ADC values and NADC at b=2000 s/mm2 may suggest dedifferentiation to higher tumor grade. DW images at b=2000 s/mm2 were more sensitive and conspicuous on visually and quantitatively, in terms of predicting tumor grade at 1.5 T.
Keywords: Glioma, Image Contrast, Meningioma, NADC, Tumor Grade.

The Impact of Application of Business Process Reengineering on Improvement the Institutional Performance Effectiveness A Field Study on the Jordanian Pharmaceutical Companies
Hasan Yasien Tuama and Laith Abdullah Alqhiwi
This study aimed to identify the applying degree of Business Process Reengineering (BPR) in the Jordanian pharmaceutical companies and the impact of this application on improvement the institutional performance effectiveness in these companies. The study population consists of all managers (high management & middle management) distribution on (38) company and factory from the mentioned companies with (240) manager. To achieve the study objectives, a questionnaire has been prepared with (30) item. The validity of the tool has been examined by being presented to a set of referees. The reliability of the tool has been examined by using Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient, the overall reliability coefficient of the tool has been (0.93). The study findings a number of results, including: 1. The applying degree of (BPR) and it's dimensions in the Jordanian pharmaceutical companies ranged between (high & middle) from the respondents’ perspective. 2. The level of (institutional performance effectiveness) and the effectiveness standards which used in the Jordanian pharmaceutical companies ranged between (high & middle) from the respondents’ perspective. 3. There exist a statistically significant impact at the significance level (a = 0.05), in general for the (BPR) dimensions (process redesign, innovation and renovation, and offering of new products) on improvement the institutional performance effectiveness in the Jordanian pharmaceutical companies. 4. There exist a statistically significant impact at the significance level (a = 0.05), for the (BPR) dimensions (process redesign, innovation and renovation, and offering of new products) on the standard (mission and objectives) in the Jordanian pharmaceutical companies. 5. There exist a statistically significant impact at the significance level (a = 0.05), for the (BPR) dimensions (process redesign, innovation and renovation, and offering of new products) on the standard (institutional domain) in the Jordanian pharmaceutical companies. 6. There exist a statistically significant impact at the significance level (a = 0.05), for the (BPR) dimensions (process redesign, innovation and renovation, and offering of new products) on the standard (institutional resources) in the Jordanian pharmaceutical companies. Upon the foregoing results, the study reached to a number of recommendations and suggestions.
Keywords: Business process reengineering (BPR),Innovation and excellence, Institutional performance, Pharmaceutical industry.

A Novel Digital Filter for Enhancing Dark Gray Images
Haitham Alasha'ary, Abdullah Al-Hasanat Khaled Matrouk, Ziad Al-Qadi and Hasan Al-Shalabi
Enhancing gray image contrast is the first step of image preprocessing. A novel filter is proposed, implemented and tested using various dark and unclear images. It is seen that the proposed filter enhanced the image contrast by normalizing the image histogram and moving the average pixels value to the middle of the maximum gray level without affecting the clear images.
Keywords: Gray Image, Histogram, Gray Level, Brightness, Image Enhancement.

Testing Contagion with Propensity Matching Estimators: A Three Country Empirical Example
Edgardo Cayón-Fallon and Julio Sarmiento-Sabogal
We analyse the effect of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) on portfolios of USD-denominated sovereign bonds. We use propensity matching estimators in order to measure the average difference in the volatility of sovereign spreads between the non-crisis and crisis period. We use a parsimonious factor model of local and global variables to create a set of common observable characteristics. This setup allows us to test the hypothesis of change in prices for three countries between non-crisis and different crisis periods of the GFC via counterfactuals.