European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 121 No 3
April, 2014

Image Steganography using Three Layers DCT and Artificial Neural Network
Reyadh Naoum, Sadeq AlHamouz, Ahmed Shihab and Marwan Shaker
This paper presents a new novel method to hide a three layer image using Discrete Cosine Transforms (DCT). Artificial Neural Network (Resilient Back Propagation) RBP are used as classifier to speed up the hiding process via the DCT features and DCT are used to decrease information of image redundancy. Moreover, DCT embed the secrete message in the least significant bits of RGB image. When data is hidden in cover image, the program hiding the data and performs the DCT. Discrete Cosine Transforms works by changing each bit of the images in the cover image, only to the extent that is not seen by the eyes of human. The proposed method is implemented and the results show significant improvements. In addition, the performance is calculated based on the parameters MSE, PSNR, NC, processing time, capacity, and robustness.`
Keywords: Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Steganography, MSE, PSNR, NC, RBP, LSB, ANN, RGB.

Congestion Characteristics and Traffic Management
Amin Golzadfar, Seyed Mohammad Hossein Moosavi, Shahin Ali Akbar Tehrani and Raheleh Mehrabannejad
The traffic congestion is one of the major problems making the experts involved with it in transportation engineering incessantly.This problem have accumulated for almost a quarter of a century due to no clear urban transport policy and direction. This study attempts to consider the factors and characteristics of this phenomena and how to countermeasure it by reviewing recent scientist works and papers. The congestion and its measurement, impacts of congestion on traffic flow and how to manage the traffic congestion are identified, accordingly. Moreover, congestion charging is introduced as one of the effective measures to alleviate the urban traffic congestion and implemented practice of charging in Singapore and London mentioned as a successful examples.
Keywords: Congestion Characteristics, congestion measurement, Traffic Management, Congestion Charging.

Electronic Communication Skills and Social Life
Cem Sefa Sutcu and And Algul
The purpose of this study is to set forth how and in what way, electronic communication skills occur in present conditions among Turkish university students. In this context, the purpose of the study is to determine the electronic communication tendencies of users in their social lives. While discussing the postmodern situation of the Internet, Turkle explains that because of this situation, the online identities of users lead to the creation of new lives in a parallel dimension. The basic forms that constitute Internet communication are similar to older as communication theories which focused on non-virtual forms, because multimedia communication provides all the needs of daily life; hypertextuality, being in sync and interaction with others, and face-to-face communication. A survey was carried out, with 384 respondents, in order to understand the social media and electronic communication skills of university students. Once the factor analysis was carried out, the following four factors were determined: “social effects of electronic communication”, “positive ways of electronic communication”, “interaction/sharing/feedback” dimension and “privacy and efficiency of electronic communication”. There is a positive correlation between the “privacy and efficiency of the electronic communication” and frequency of Internet use. There is a positive correlation between monthly spending, frequency of Internet use, educational status, monthly income level of the family, and the ages of respondents. There is a positive correlation between frequency of Internet use and the respondents’ ages. As a result of the study, the importance of research on electronic communication skills has been illustrated and that this research is especially significant due to the intense use of electronic communication in our present time. The research also offers a chance to reveal the importance of such a study because of the high percentage of the population using electronic communication, mostly in developing countries, with a young population, such as Turkey. Associated with the rise of electronic communication, various explanations have pointed out both the positive and negative effects of the use of electronic communication. In this respect, the survey carried out within the study is significant because it points towards not only the ubiquitous nature of electronic communication but also to the need for further study on the subject. Besides, the fact that electronic communication skills are not seen as relevant to the level of education reflects another striking result of the research.
Keywords: Electronic Communication Skills, Social Media, Interaction, Privacy

Analysis of Matrix Multiplication Computational Methods
Khaled Matrouk, Abdullah Al- Hasanat, Haitham Alasha'ary, Ziad Al-Qadi and Hasan Al-Shalabi
Matrix multiplication is a basic concept that is used in engineering applications such as digital image processing, digital signal processing and graph problem solving. Multiplication of huge matrices requires a lot of computation time as its complexity is O(n3). Because most engineering applications require higher computational throughputs with minimum time, many sequential and parallel algorithms are developed. In this paper, methods of matrix multiplication are chosen, implemented, and analyzed. A performance analysis is evaluated, and some recommendations are given when using openMP and MPI methods of parallel computing.
Keywords: OpenMP, MPI, Processing Time, Speedup, Efficiency.

Science and Technology Policy in Colombia: A Comparative Review
Juan Santiago Correa-Restrepo, María Alejandra Tejada-Gómez, Edgardo Cayón-Fallon and Hector Gonzalo Ordoñez-Matamoros
The purpose of the present paper is to assess the current situation of the science and technology system in Colombia from a comparative perspective of quality indicators in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). We analyze the development of the science and technology policy in Colombia form a historical perspective. Our comparative analysis shows that Colombia quality indicators lag from those in the region. Even though policy changes have been a constant in the system of science and technology in Colombia, these changes have been not successful in significantly improving the quality and the impact of research communication and commercialization. Our conclusion is that a system of “management by objectives” applied to management research will substantially improve quality of the research undertaken under the current system of science and technology in Colombia.
Keywords: Education, management research, Colombia quality indicators.

Fear of School (Separation Anxiety Disorder)
Habibollah Naderi and Shiva Masoumparast
The beginning of formal education is considered the origin of revolution in children's life. In the beginning days of school especially on the first day, many questions come into children's mind for which clear answers have to be found, otherwise, intensive and illogical fear will take over them. This fear may be manifested as refusal to go to school, fear and worries at the time of separation, or even as separation anxiety disorder. Many of the children have not yet had any social experiences, and even if they have, they have not been assigned any responsibility for them, which is considered one of the main factors of anxiety. One of the most important factors which determines whether the beginning days of school are normal is how the child was brought up in his/her family. This is crucial and could be immensely helpful to the new stage of the child's life. Considering that parents have a key role in the educational success of their children and are worried for their future more than anyone else, they acknowledge the necessity of familiarity with the factors which produce or eliminate separation anxiety disorder. Therefore, considering these realities, through library research, and benefiting from psychological theories, it is possible to raise individuals' awareness of the issues which would hopefully lead to children's development.
Keywords: Fear, anxiety, separation anxiety disorder.

Recurrent Hypoglycemia Presenting as the First Symptom of Primary Liver Cell Carcinoma in a Young Nigerian Man: A Case Report
David Olorunfemi Samuel, Mukhtar Abdulmajid Adeiza, Bello Ovosi Beatrice and Ibinaiye Philip
Primary liver cell carcinoma (PLCC) is a common complication of liver cirrhosis in Nigeria, occurring in young and older adults and with very few cases reported in teenagers. The commonest mode of presentation is with weight loss, progressive abdominal pain with or without abdominal swelling. Some patients present with gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding or haemoperitoneum in addition. Few patients present with hypoglycemia and its features as the sole historical presentation before the diagnosis of PLCC is made. Hypoglycemia is a recognized para-neoplastic manifestation of PLCC and it may be present both in the acute or chronic settings of liver diseases. We report a case of a young man who presented with several hypoglycemic attacks due to PLCC.
Keywords: Hypoglycemia, PLCC, young man.

Impact de l'Effluent du Complexe Chimique Camerounais (CCC) sur la Structure du Peuplement de Macroinvertébrés Benthiques d’un Cours d’Eau Tropical Urbain (Douala, Cameroun)
Onana Fils Mamert, Zebaze Togouet Serge Hubert, Dassie Djiomo Boris Starck Nna Samuel Chamberlain, Mvondo Narcisse and Ngassam Pierre
Une étude visant à évaluer l’impact de l’effluent du Complexe Chimique Camerounais sur le peuplement de macroinvertébrés benthiques du cours d’eau Simbi a été menée dans la ville de Douala. Les analyses physicochimiques révèlent la mauvaise qualité des eaux du Simbi, plus altéré en aval de l’effluent comme l’indique l’Analyse en Composantes Principales. Concernant les macroinvertébrés benthiques, 3703 individus dont 2027 Mollusques, 1515 Arthropodes et 161 Annélides ont été identifiés. Avec des abondances relatives respectives de 51,44% et 29,62%, la famille des Physidae (Mollusque) et celle des Chironomidae (Arthropodes) dominent cette macrofaune. La station AM1, plus diversifiée, regroupe 20 familles (70,89% des individus) alors que les stations AM2 et AM3 comptent respectivement 14 familles (17,20% des individus) et 17 familles (11,91% des individus). Pourtant, les indices de Shannon et Weaver et de Piélou sont plus élevés aux stations AM2 et AM3. Les métriques richesses et composition taxonomiques ont permis de discriminer le site amont (AM1), moins altéré, des sites avals (AM2 et AM3) très détériorés, confirmant ainsi les analyses physicochimiques et révélant la pertinence de ces métriques dans l’appréciation de l’impact des rejets industrielles sur la qualité des eaux des milieux lotiques.
Motsclés: Simbi, Impact, Effluent, Complexe Chimique Camerounais, Macroinvertébrés benthiques, Qualité de l’eau, Métriques.

A Hybrid SS-SA Approach for Solving Multi-Objective Optimization Problems
Ramadan A. ZeinEldin
Decision makers, nowadays, face complex real world problems having more than one conflicting objective functions to be optimized at the same time. In this paper, we developed a hybrid approach based on scatter search and simulated annealing for solving the multi-objective optimization problems. To validate our approach, we solved some test problems from the literature, compared the results with other approaches, and found that our proposed approach performs well.
Keywords: Multi-objective, optimization, Scatter search, simulated annealing.

Componentized-Based Framework for Developing Engineering E-Training Content
Aiman Turani, Mohammad H. Alomari and Faiz Al-Shrouf
In this paper, we are proposing a general model which we called CBeTD (Componentized Based e-Training Development) that could facilitate the reusability of e-Training content by various trainers and trainees within engineering field in a standardized form. Componentizing engineering e-Training contents would result in establishing a new business frontier. Sophisticated and compounded engineering e-Training contents are usually costly to be developed and usually done by specialized groups with specific experiences and skills. The traditional way where trainers create their own training materials in a form of text-based documents and PowerPoint slides is not adequate in taking the full advantages provided by the advancing and interactive technologies especially in the online environment. Searching and integrating appropriate training resources (e.g. images, graphs, videos, animation, etc.) that could be reused over and over is not a trivial task. Usually these resources are coupled to a specific context and audience. Generating training resources that could be reused outside its context needs a careful planning and designing. In addition to that, reusing a whole engineering training course or package is also not a trivial task. Adapting e-Training component in engineering context as a concept would lead to more reusability. It would shorten the gap between reusing a whole training package and a single training resource. It is more abstract entity that contains stand-alone training modules that could leads to a wider and better reusability. In addition, this component concept will lead to more service oriented training that could be easily verified against organizational goals and individual training needs.
Keywords: E-training, Component Based, Reusability, Metadata.