European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 121 No 2
April, 2014

Impact of Climatic and Environmental Factors on the Distribution of Sitotroga Cerealella (Olivier) and Sitophilus Oryzae (Linnaeus) in Benin
Abou Togola, Francis E. Nwilene, Kerstin Hell, Olumuye E. Oyetunji and Daniel Chougourou
Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier)) and rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus)) are devastating pests of stored cereals throughout the world. This study aims to establish the effect of the climatic and environmental factors on the distribution and infestation source of these two species in Benin. For the purpose, 138 farmers’ rice stocks were monitored and sampled in 52 locations throughout the country. At each location, pest populations were monitored in storage, in rice fields and in the natural habitat. The monitoring methods comprised visual observation, monitoring of harvested panicles for the emergence of adults and use of sex pheromone or aggregation traps. During the inspection, parameters such as relative humidity, temperature, and grain moisture content were measured. Finally, collected rice samples were taken to the laboratory to identify insect species and count the number of individuals. Both species occurred at high population densities in the southern and central regions of the country where average temperatures (30.42 ºC to 31.2 ºC) and high humidity (85.2% to 76.8 %) prevailed. However, in the northern region, the densities of these species were very low due to the dry weather conditions of the region. Angoumois grain moth was observed in paddy fields and warehouses, and its initial infestations were observed at rice maturation. Rice weevil was mostly observed in the storage areas; it was less frequent in paddy fields. These results helped to identify the distribution and the potential habitats of these two species in relation to the climatic conditions of the surveyed ecozones and the moisture content of stored grain.
Keywords: Habitats, Geographic regions, Initial infestation, Sitotroga cerealella, Sitophilus oryzae.

Spatial and Sectoral Distribution of International Clusters in the Baltic Region
Mikhaylov A. S and Mikhaylova A. A
This article reveals the spatial and sectoral distribution of international clusters in the Baltic macro-region. The research results suggest that there are 28 international clusters in the Baltic region, all of which have an organized structure and are supported by the state. An overwhelming majority of identified clusters represent cross-border type. The most prosperous cross-border regions in this regard are Oresund, Jutland, Bothnian Arc and Oslo - Vaster Gotland (or the GO region). Nearly half of the international clusters studied represent knowledge intensive sectors of economy and almost all are associated with the introduction of innovative solutions. A quarter of all international clusters of the macro-region are engaged in the life science sector, which could be a competitive niche of the Baltic region on the global scale.
Keywords: International Cluster, Cross-Border Cluster, Transnational Cluster, Baltic Region, Oresund, Jutland, Bothnian Arc, Go Region.
JEL Classification Code: R11, F23, F63

Proposed System for Face Recognition using Ann and Pattern Net
Mohamed A. El-Sayed and Nora G. Ahmed
Face recognition has received much attention in recent years due to its many applications such as human computer interface, video surveillance and face image database management. It is a challenging technique due to under different lighting conditions, facial expressions and changes in head pose. This paper proposes a novel approach for recognizing the human faces. The recognition is done by comparing the characteristics of the new face to that of known individuals this approach based Artificial Neural Network (ANN) with pattern net. Neural networks based methods have been widely used in classification for its learning ability and good generalization. The proposed methods were tested on Olivetti and Oracle Research Laboratory (ORL) face database. A recognition score for test lot is calculated by considering almost all the variants of feature extraction.

Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Fish Assemblages and Influential Environmental Gradients in a West African Basin (Tai National Park, Côte D'ivoire)
Kamelan Tanoh Marius, Berté Siaka, Bamba Mamadou, Yao Silvain Stanislas, N’Zi Konan Gervais and Kouamélan Essetchi Paul
The ichthyofauna of Hana basin (Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire) was studied during two seasons (rainy and dry seasons) at January 2012 and November 2012. The distribution of fish species was recorded at 7 stations on the Hana basin. Fourty one fish species were collected from 28 genera and 16 families: 4 marine and/or brackish water species (Pellonula leonensis, Pellonula vorax, Sarotherodon galilaeus, Sarotherodon melanotheron). As regards the families and species number, the Siluriform order was contained the most important families and species (31.25% of families and 21.95% of species). They are followed by Characiform (18.75% of families; 19.51% of species), Osteoglossiform (12.50% of families and 14.63% of species) and Cyprinodontiform (12.50% of families and 4.88% of species). The spatial distribution of fish species indicated a more diversified settlement in the main channel of Hana basin. The high value for taxonomic richness was obtained in the dry season. The diversity index varied significantly in both seasons. The quantitative analysis indicated that Schilbeidae, Alestidae and Mormyridae were the main families which dominated Hana basin. In the main channel, Schilbeidae was the abundant family while Alestidae and Clariidae were respectively abundant families of Moumo and Meno tributaries. The main environmental factors determining the patterns of fish distribution and assemblage structure in Hana basin were canopy closure, width, sand, depth, mud, temperature, mixed clay-mud, gravel and leaves-wood.
Keywords: Ichthyofauna, Diversity, Distribution, Seasons, West Africa, Taï National Park.

Stability Analysis of a Model of Cancer Treatment by Immunotherapy
Mustafa.Q. Khirallah and Abdo M. Al-Mahdi
A mathematical model of cancer treatment by immunotherapy with constructed biological functions formulas is studied. The model has a large number of parameters which make it very complicated to study analytically. Two equilibrium points of the model system have been found analytically in a special case. The stability analysis of the two equilibrium points of the system is done, that is, the first point ( P0 ) is always unstable whereas the second one (P1 ) can or cannot be stable, depending upon the parameters values.
Keywords: Immunotherapy, cancer, biomathematics, stability.

Improved Group Acceptance Sampling Plan for the Weibull Distribution
Muhammad Aslam, G. Srinivasa Rao and Nasrullah Khan
In this paper, a group plan is proposed for the Weibull distribution. The proposed plan is the improved version of the all the group plans and provides the small sample than group plan available in the literature. It based on two plan parameters that is action number and sample size. These plan parameters are determined at producer’s risk and consumer’s risk at the same time for some specified values of termination ratios, experiment time mean life as the quality parameter. Tables are constructed for various values ARL and LTRL and under the Weibull distribution. The advantages of the proposed plan over the existing plans are discussed with examples.
Keywords: Group acceptance sampling plans; truncated life tests; the Weibull distribution; producer’s risk and consumer’s risk.

Feature Selection and Classification for Heart Disease Prediction System
T. Santhanam and E. P. Ephzibah
Data contains meaningful information. Many researchers have done a lot of work in the past to exhibit the pattern hidden in the data. The objective of the proposed work is to perform dimensionality reduction using Genetic Algorithm (GA) which is a stochastic search technique. GA helps in identifying the important features from the available set of original data with the help of an objective function and the genetic operators like selection, crossover and mutation. To classify the selected features we have used four classifiers namely Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Feed Forward Neural Networks (FFNN), Naïve Bayesian method and Decision tree method. Among the different classifiers used the decision tree method performs better and gives a maximum accuracy of 96.85% when compared with the other existing methods.
Keywords: Feature Selection, Classification, Genetic Algorithms, Linear Discriminant Analysis, Feed Forward Neural Networks, Naivebayes, Decision tree.

The Forms of the Local Performance Development and Promotion with Image and Identity in Order to Increase the Value Added and Value Creation: A Case Study of Phayao Province
Thamanat Prompow, Ornpapha Chutikorntaweesin, Thuchapon Yodthong, Prapas Siripap and Athiwit Kamolrat
The purposes of this research are 1) to study the local performance development and promotion with image and identity in order to increase the value added and value creation with a case study of Phayao province, 2) to study the relationship between the local performance development and promotion with image and identity and the value added and value creation with a case study of Phayao province, and 3) to study the causal relationship between the local performance development and promotion with image and identity and the value added and value creation with a case study of Phayao province. The researcher applied both quantitative and qualitative research in conducting this study. The results show that regarding to the local image of Phayao province, the respondent have the opinion in the agreed level; and the local image which has the highest mean is the people in community. For the local identity of Phayao province, respondents have the opinion in the agreed level; and the local identity which has the highest mean is the identity of communication. For the local value added of Phayao province, respondents has the opinion in the agreed level; and the highest value added is the local knowledge creation. For the value creation, respondents have the opinion in the agreed level; and the highest value creation is the structural investment. The results of correlation analysis between the components of the local image of Phayao province and the value added and value creation show that the highest correlation is the relationship between the people in community and the human resources investment. The correlation between the components of the local identity of Phayao province and the value added and value creation, which has the highest correlation, is the relationship between the identity of communication and the development and promotion policy. The results of analysis on the causal relationship of the local value added and value creation show that the theoretical factors model which influence the local value added and value creation consisted of the components of local image of Phayao province. The researcher has adjusted evaluation form until it reached the relevant index of good standard with X2= 188.50, df = 99, p–value = .000, RMSEA = .048. Thus, it can be concluded that the model of local performance development and promotion with image and identity in order to increase the value added and value creation: a case study of Phayao province, which the researcher adjusted to be compatible with the empirical data; which is X2= / df is not more than 2 (X2 / df = 1.90), and the GFI is more than .90 (GFI = 0.91), and AGFI is more than .80 (AGFI = 0.85), and RMSEA is less than .05 (RMSEA = .048). Thus, it can be concluded that the theoretical factors model influencing the local value added and value creation are compatible to empirical data.
Keywords: Local Performance, Development, Promotion, Image, Identity, Value Added, Value Creation, Phayao province, SEM.

Physicochemical Parameters and Identification of Swelling Soils
Abdelkader Djedid
There are in the literature many procedures in the form of tables and charts for quick estimate potential swelling clay soils which is based solely on physicochemical parameters. In this article, firstly we tried to identify these tables and charts and then apply them to soil reconstituted samples to show the difficulties posed by these procedures and contradictions which are provided in the assigned qualifiers to the same ground. Then we showed that this is not only the physicochemical soil parameters that govern the character blowing but also the initial dry density.
Keywords: Potential swelling clay, soils reconstitute, identification.

Investigation and Analysis of ANN Parameters
Khaled M. Matrouk, Haitham A. Alasha'ary, Abdullah I. Al-Hasanat, Ziad A. Al-Qadi and Hasan M. Al-Shalabi
Different ANN architectures with a range of values for a set of network parameters will be tested and analyzed in order to get the relationship between the performance factors and ANN parameters; it will be shown how to use ANN parameters to evaluate ANN training time and absolute error.
Keywords: ANN, Training Time, Absolute Error, Epochs, Training Rate.