European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 119 No 3
March, 2014

Cost Estimation for Web Software Applications Use Case Point, Language, Size and Complexity Factors

Saeideh Valipour and Fatemeh Valipour
Research into Web cost estimation is relatively new where few studies have compared cost estimation modeling techniques for Web development. The estimation process outlines the general procedure by which project staff develops realistic estimates of the effort for a project. Two methods for estimation that are commonly being used in the industry are task based and size based. Size is a primary cost factor in most techniques and can be measured using lines of codes and functional points. This paper proposes an estimation technique for Web Based Software Development Projects which is based on our experience in developing Web Based application in the past years. But Since the Use case methodology is most eminent at the time; we focused on this routine and its aspects more. The key parameters of this technique are added some factors (size, complexity, and right to left languages factors) to remove the inaccuracy that probably many have faced. These are used to produce an estimate that is as realistic as possible.
Keywords: Cost Estimation, Web Application, Use Case.

Causal Relationship between Worker’s Remittances and Imports in Pakistan
Ahmed Rizwan Raheem, Parmar Vishnu and Ahmad Nawaz
This paper is an effort to examine the association between remittances and imports. The anticipated import function shows that worker’s remittances play a substantial role in the determination of imports in the economy. In this study the researchers used different econometric techniques in order to measure the short-term and long-term relationship between worker’s remittances and imports. The ARIMA, Johansen Cointegration test is used to determine the existence of a long-term relationship between the variables of the study. The results showed that the Normalized cointegrating coefficients are statistically significant and showed a stable and positive relationship between the two variables of the study. The analysis of Granger causality indicates the existence of a unidirectional causality from import to worker’s remittances. This confirms that worker’s remittances have no significant impact on the demand for imported goods rather imports have a positive impact on the worker’s remittances of Pakistan.
Keywords: Worker’s remittance, Import, ARIMA, Johansen Cointegration, Granger Causality, Unidirectional Causality.

From Eurocentrism to Sinocentrism: The New Challenges in Global History
Manuel Perez Garcia
The intent of this passage is to examine strengths and weaknesses of global history in European and Chinese academy, the so-called Eurocentrism for the first case, and what I define a new Sinocentrism, for the second one. The latter of the twowhich has also been promoted by some western scholars, more specifically, the School of California, it gives further details on the shift from an Eurocentric (more precisely Anglocentric) to a Sinocentric perspective of global history. In recent years western scholars have recognized such errors by assuming that the pivotal axis of analysis for the study of global movements, connections, exchange, meetings and encounters between the West and the East should not be uniquely focused on the European powers and their colonies. However, this has led to a very Sinocentric focus, firstly fostered by the School of California and secondly by Chinese scholarship whose particularities on global history are primarily linked with political issues in a neo-Confucianist attempt to glorify Chinese history and civilization. Therefore, this essay explores such shift from Eurocentrism to Sinocentrism in global history, how currently in China global history is marked by national and patriotic issues that constitute a major challenge for practitioners of global history, and the pedagogical turn and challenges that we should bear in mind when doing global history.
Keywords: Practice ofglobal history, Eurocentrism, Sinocentrism, globalization, world history

Full Text Search Reduce Execution Time
Anass Smaili, Ali Lasfar and Mohamed Sbihi
Since the 90s, computer’s system has continued to take a unique and indispensable role in the development of administrative work. It is incontestable that the use of scanned documents is much simpler in terms of research; moreover, it also has a convenience in terms of location, we can see the administrative databases from different places around the world.Automation, availability, streamlining and speed of response to queries requested by users, are paramount expectations in each database. These main criteria lead us to determine the degree and the power of a search engine. This paper presents a comparison between two search engines in order to obtain an answer in a short run time.
Keywords: Search Engine, SQL Server, Lucene, SQL, Indexing.

Active Control of Combustion Oscillation by Using Advanced Pressure Control Monitoring System
Baher A. Aboulkoll, Kamel A. Elshorbagy and W. A. Abdelghaffar
Stable combustion of gas turbines is important to insure reliability, availability and achievingthe maximum component life capability. Combustor instabilities constitute an important problem for the development of modern combustion systems. Active instability control (AIC) methods have been used in several Lean Premixed (LPM) gas turbines, to provide safe operations for the corresponding combustion systems. Combustor instabilities can trigger high-pressurefluctuations. These fluctuations are generally due to sudden changes in fuel calorific value or quality, large ambient temperature swings, or sudden changes in load operating conditions. A number of researchers have demonstrated the use of active control to mitigate the effects of combustion instability in lean premixed combustor applications. Mitsubishi developed an advanced monitoring and protection system known as the Advanced Combustor Pressure Fluctuation Monitoring system (ACPFM) to protect the combustor against combustion instabilities. The ACPFM is an online monitoring and protection system which automatically tunes the air bypass valve, main and pilot fuel flow rates to maintain appropriate fuel/air ratio depending on the combustion chamber flame instability condition. The objective of this paper is to provide the ACPFM system response and its effectiveness forpreventing combustion oscillationsoccurrence under various modes and unexpected disturbances during the combustion process. A study of two cases on M701F Mitsubishi Dry Low Nox (DLN) gas turbine is presented.
Keywords: Active control, lean premixed combustion, ACPFM.

Etude De La Régénération Naturelle Des Essences Commerciales Après Une Exploitation Forestière
Yao Lambert Kouadio, Moussa Koné, Danho Fursy Rodelec Neuba and Jean-Louis Doucet
Logging is a very important activity in the countries of the Congo Basin and particularly in Cameroon. It changes the forest structure by introducing logging gaps. The presence of these gaps in the forest causes the installation of a microclimate, which is responsible for the change in the species composition of this area. An inventory was conducted in 174 gaps of older slaughter of 6 to 9 months to assess the natural regeneration of commercial tree species after logging. There were about 19724 m2, 3974 seedlings of commercial tree species, reflecting a very low density of 20.1 seedlings per 100 m2. The main species is Erytrophleum suaveolens with an average density of 10.4 ± 9.8 seedlings per 100 m2. The average height of seedlings 6-9 months after logging is 29.2 ± 0.8 cm. The research of the effect of the characteristics of the gap on the natural regeneration of commercial tree species has shown that the size of the gap does not affect seedling density. However, Baillonella toxisparmaand Erytrophleum suaveolens settle down preferentially in gaps from the slaughter of the same species. The very high densities of Erythrophleum suaveolens seedlings lead to study the fate of these seedlings and a valuation of logging gaps for reforestation.
Keywords: Logging gaps, commercial tree species, natural regeneration, inventory, microclimates.

Impacts Des Changements Climatiques Sur L’évolution De La Leishmaniose en Algérie
Feriel Mliki, Riad Remita and Zihad Bouslama
Notre étude est basée sur une enquête rétrospective sur dix ans (1997 - 2007) portant sur l'évolution de la leishmaniose en Algérie en prenant en considération les changements climatiques. Les données épidémiologiques ont été identifiées à partir des relevés mensuels des 48 wilayas et remis par l’Institut National de Santé Public (INSP). Tandis que les données météorologiques ont été remises par l’Office National de la Météorologie (OMN).L’évolution spatio-temporelle de la maladie s’est faite plus au Sud qu’au Nord. Les wilayas du Sud les plus touchées sont : Ghardaïa, Bechar, El Oued et El Bayadh. Les wilayas les plus touchées au Nord sont : Tizi Ouzou, Alger, Bejaia.L’impact des changements climatiques sur la leishmaniose en Algérie est ressenti au niveau de la wilaya de Tizi Ouzou et d’Alger pour l’étage humide, la wilaya de Tébessa et de Djelfa pour l’étage semi-aride, et au niveau de la wilaya de Bechar et El Oued pour ce qui est de l’étage aride. Tout ceci ne nous permet pas de conclure l’affirmation ou l’infirmation de l’influence des changements climatiques sur la leishmaniose en Algérie.
Keywords: Leishmaniose, Paramètres météorologiques, Impact des changements climatiques, Algérie.

Automatic Language-Independent Topic Generation by Using Statistical Compression of Sentences
Fereshteh Khoshnam, Mohammad-Reza Feizi-Derakhshi and Majid Ramezani
In spite of taking plenty of time, automatic text summarization is still considered to be a rapid way. The increase in its speed can be practically possible by obtaining the main idea of the text. The extension of various languages into the internet has resulted in greater generation of automatic topic generation methods without being dependent on any specific language. Therefore, in this study, such an automatic topic generation was designed and tested for Persian and English documents. The method was implemented via the detection of important concepts and the application of the statistical summarization as an input. Conclusions revealed success in the application of this approach. .
Keywords: Automatic Topic Generation, Language-Independent Features of Sentences, Statistical Compression.

Time Independent Query Recommendations using Concept Based user Profile from Search Engine Query Logs
R. Umagandhi and A. V. Senthil Kumar
Search engines are highly confided resources of the people in mustering web information or obtaining relevant data approached for. The query log file contains an entry for every request posed by the user to the search engine and it is maintained in the system desktop or in the proxy server. Query log mining improves the performance of the search engine. The proposed algorithm mines those query log entries occurring irrespective of the time period to discover the similar query keywords, URLs and the concepts based on both positive and negative preferences in the preliminary phase. In the consecutive phase, the query cluster and the URL cluster is generated by using the combined similarity measure generated from the preliminary phase. The cluster recommends the query to the user to frame their future queries which can be used to retrieve the relevant results. Expert’s Query keyword and feedback are also considered for providing the recommendations. This approach also recommends the URLs to the user to be selected for their future queries.
Keywords: Similarity, Query term, Search Engine, Query Cluster, URL.

Vitamin D Status among Jordanian Patients with Allergic Rhinitis
Hani M. Al-Shagahin, Eman M. Albataineh, Nedal A. Alnawaiseh, Joman S. Alshamila and Jameel K. Hijazeen
Vitamin D deficiency is a common worldwide health problem and its association with allergic conditions has recently become of considerable interest. Thiscross-sectional study aimed mainly to evaluate the vitamin D status of allergic rhinitis (AR) patients anddetermine if there is an association between low serum vitamin D levels and the severity of AR symptoms. The severity of AR was evaluated by the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) 2008 criteria. The study sampleconsisted of 97 clinically diagnosed AR patients, 29 males (29.9%) and 68 females (70.1%), aged 15-73 years (mean age=38.9 years ± 12.4). Mild and moderate/severe AR was found in 34.0% and 66.0% of patients respectively. Low serum vitamin D status (<30 ng/ml) was present in 83.5% of patients. Mean serum level of 25(OH)D was significantly lower in patients with moderate/severe AR (17.6±8.0 ng/ml) compared with patients with mild AR (23.1±11.5 ng/ml) (p=0.024).There was a significant negative correlation between age (years) and serum vitamin D level (ng/ml) (r s=-0.378, p<0.001). Femaleshad the greatest risk for havingvitamin D deficiency (AOR=8.0, p=0.004). Old females (=45 years) were at a higher risk than younger females to have low serum vitamin D levels (p=0.003).
Keywords: Vitamin D, Allergic Rhinitis, Jordan.

An Outlook on Social Marketing Campaigns of Environmental NGOs
Idil Kacar and Burak Kartal
Eliminating human based causes is an important precaution against increasing environment problems. NGOs (non-governmental organizations), which engage in changing behaviors towards environment should base their social marketing campaigns on environmentalist behavior. The social marketing campaigns run by environmental NGOs differ according to which environmentalist behavior they aim to affect. In this study, environmental attitude, environmental behavior, and the elements of environmental social marketing campaigns are examined through a survey conducted in Turkey. The findings indicate that environmental attitude and environmental behavior differ by respondents’ demographic characteristics. Besides, three different approaches emerge (human oriented, environment oriented, balanced) when environmental attitude is analyzed. Also, for the sample studied , the most important elements in a social marketing campaign and the most widely used sources of information about environmental issues are determined. We hope that the study will inspire future studies in the field and shed some light on the policy and strategies of environmental NGOs.
Keywords: Environmental Behavior, Social Marketing, Social Marketing Campaigns, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs).

Effective Resource Allocation using Call Admission Control Mechanism in WiMAX Network
P. Kavitha and R. Uma Rani
WiMAX supports high bandwidth and hundreds of users per channel at speeds identical to cable or T1 connection. The resource management and bandwidth allocation in WiMAX are the critical issues. The call admission control (CAC) approach is proposed to enhance the total resource utilization in the WiMAX network. The resources are allowed to register and then led to route discovery using CAC. When a user needs to establish a new connection, a request is sent to the base station (BS) for the admission control mechanism in order to decide whether the new connection can be accepted or not. To make this decision, the admission control ensures whether there are adequate resources to meet the QoS requirements of the new connection without compromising the minimal QoS requirements of ongoing connections. So, the access to the network is restricted by CAC to avoid network congestion and service degradation for already accepted users. The proposed approach also uses MP (mobility prediction) rule for checking the node mobility in addition to the node location updation. The traffic is greatly reduced. The experimental analysis showed that the proposed method achieves optimal resource and bandwidth allocation when compared with the existing approaches.
Keywords: Call admission control, IEEE 802.16J, Mobility prediction, Resource allocation, WiMAX.

On a New Subclass of Univalent Function with Negative Coefficients Defined by Hadamard Product
Waggas Galib Atshan, Abdul Jalil M. Khalaf and Mohammed Maad Mahdi
In this paper, we introduce and study a new subclass of univalent functions with negative coefficient de?ned by Hadamard product. We obtain various important properties and characteristics properties for this class. Further we obtain partial sums for the same.
Keywords: Univalent functions, Hadamard product (or convolution), Starlike function, Convexity, Close to convexity, Partial sums.
2014 Mathematics Subject Classification: 30C45

Evaluating the Human Rights Policy of the Turkish National Police (TNP)
Ahmet Guler and Sedat Kula
This paper analyzes the human rights policy of the TNP and determines what factors are in place to change the human rights policy of the TNP during last fifteen years. In order to understand the causes of change in the human rights policy of TNP, international, national, and organizational factors of this policy are analyzed by using the data collected from the different sources. Then, improvements and changes in the human rights policy of the TNP are explained. Finally, current issues in the human rights policy of the TNP are discussed and recommendations to enhance the human rights policy are proposed.
Keywords: Human Rights Policy, Turkish National Police, Change Factors.

First Passage Time Method Generalization for the Estimation of Stochastic Differential Equation Parameters
Khaled Khaldi, Khedidja Djeddour and Samia Meddahi
In this paper a new method, generalized passage time, GPT, to estimate the parameters of the Black-Scholes equation is proposed. This approach is based on the first passage time, FPT. We study also the GARCH model and the SDE method for the volatility (SDE-V). Results comparison, parameters estimation of Black-Scholes equation on a time-series model is given.
Keywords: Geometric Brownian, Black-Scholes equation, trajectory, first passage time, stochastic volatility.
Classification: C22, C23, C53, C58