European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 119 No 2
February, 2014

Realizing Senderís Deniability in Public Key Encryption via Random Coins Isolation

Maged Hamada Ibrahim
Deniable encryption allows a sender and/or a receiver to escape a coercion attempted by a potential coercive adversary. It also prevents a malicious user from misusing his rights by sending to a receiver a particular encrypted message (against his own belief) satisfactory to the coercer in order to benefit from such action (e.g. gaining some cash in return). Therefore, deniable encryption must be receipt-free in the sense that it must disable the ability of the user to prove to the coercer the message that will be decrypted by the receiver. Almost all previous contributions to design a deniable public-key encryption scheme are based on the idea of constructing an encryption scheme that allows the sender to open a fake message and random coins to an adversary that when verified using the receiver's public key gives the same ciphertext as the true message. Although such approach is challenging, none of the previously proposed schemes achieves the desired level of deniability in the sense that they are not receipt-free. On the other hand they do not benefit from the efficiency and security properties of existing standard cryptosystems (e.g. homomorphic properties, semantic security, chosen text security, constant transmission rate, etc.). In this paper we introduce a new approach to realize senderís deniability in public-key encryption. Our approach is to isolate the generation of the random coins from the sender and to force the sender to (blindly) use the isolated random coins to perform the encryption or else, an honest receiver will not accept the decrypted message. Our approach converts any existing conventional public-key cryptosystem to a sender-deniable public-key cryptosystem while preserving all the features of this cryptosystem.
Keywords: Smart-Cards, Deniable Encryption, Incoercible Encryption, Public-Key Cryptosystems, Receipt freeness, E-voting, E-auctions, E-commerce.

Factors Influencing the form of Service Administration and Safety, and Service Quality and Safety of Thai Immigration Bureau Towards Entering Asean Economic Community (AEC) in the Year 2015
Pol. Col. Athiwit Kamolrat, Ornpapha Chutikorntaweesin, Thuchapon Yodthong, Nichanan Chanchoengrob and Prapas Siripap
The purposes of this research were to study (1) the factors influencing the form of service administration and safety, and (2) service quality and safety of Thai Immigration Bureau by analyzing its appropriate form of service administration and safety, and service quality and safety towards entering ASEAN Economic Community in the year 2015. Quantitative research was used in this study. The results of the study showed that, regarding factors influencing the form of service administration and safety of Thai Immigration Bureau, factors which had highest mean value were the standard of service, followed by service officers, technology and equipments, service system, and international relationship respectively. With regard to the service quality and safety of Thai Immigration Bureau, factors which had highest mean value were the reliability, followed by empathy, responsiveness, and trust respectively. The results of research hypotheses testing showed that participants differing in gender, age, occupation, monthly income, educational level, domicile, and service using experience had significant different perceptions towards factors influencing the form of service administration and safety, and service quality and safety of Thai Immigration Bureau. However, participants differing in educational level had no significant different perceptions towards service quality and safety of Thai Immigration Bureau. The results of analysis on appropriate form of service administration and safety of Thai Immigration Bureau were relevant to the set hypothesis with predictable value of 97.00%, and an influence of each variable had negative relationship with predictable equation of Log Odds = 44.678-4.369 (Form of service administration)-5.892 (Service quality).
Keywords: Service, Quality, Safety, Thai Immigration, ASEAN .

Pakistanís Image and its Leadership: Responsible Portrayal or Sensationalism
Mian Ahmad Hanan and Noshina Saleem
This study provides a detailed quantitative and qualitative analysis of coverage of Pakistani press in the context of responsible portrayal or sensationalism with reference to Pakistanís image and its leadership from August 2008 to December 2011. The editorial texts examined using quantitative and qualitative methods of content analysis. All unsigned editorials appeared in The News and the Dawn containing themes related to Kashmir issue, Nuclear issue, U.S. foreign policy towards Pakistan, energy crisis, democracy, judiciary-government tensions, and handling domestic terrorism are included as the media sample for this study. This study maintains that on Foreign Policy Issues both The News and the Dawn were sensational to U.S. policy towards Pakistan with reference to War against Terrorism. This study reveals that while covering State Actor-Military, Pakistani elite press used responsible frames and portrays Pakistanís image as positive. On Issues related to good Governance, both newspapers framed highly sensational image of Pakistan. The study also concludes that both newspapers framed overall Pakistanís image in a sensational context. In addition, this study claims that The News and the Dawn were sensational regarding President Asif Ali Zardari while neutral in their coverage about Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani. This study asserts that editorial coverage of various domestic and foreign policy issues with reference to Pakistanís image and leadership is largely depended upon the media organizational policy and interests.
Keywords: Pakistanís image, U.S. Foreign Policy, Sensationalism, Responsibility, Media Framing, War on Terror, Kashmir Issue, Nuclear Issue, Asif Ali Zardari, Yousaf Raza Gillani

HIDS for Detection of Novel Distributed Denial of Service Attacks using Fuzzy Mining, One Pass Apriori & Ensemble of NaÔve Bayesian Classifiers
Vijay D. Katkar and S. G. Bhirud
Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks make network resources unavailable for legitimate users and results in massive loss of data, resources and money. Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is widely used tool to detect these attacks. Fuzzy Logic offers realistic framework to build humanistic IDS but it cannot acquire detection rules automatically. Thus Fuzzy-Data Mining approach have been used to overcome the drawbacks of manual rules acquisition. Two basic categories of IDS are; Anomaly detection and Misuse detection based IDS. Anomaly detection based IDS is able detect to novel attacks but produces very high False Positive rate. Whereas Misuse detection based IDS is able to detect known attacks with very high accuracy but cannot detect novel attacks. This paper presents a design of Hybrid IDS using combination of Anomaly detection and Misuse detection IDS to detect and classify novel DDOS attacks with high accuracy. Proposed design classifies novel attacks into two categories: variation of known attack, completely new attack and generates the approximate signature to represent it. Accuracy of proposed Hybrid IDS system is high. Experimental results obtained using KDD 99 dataset are provided to support effectiveness of proposed design.
Keywords: Intrusion Detection System, Distributed Denial of Service attack, Fuzzy logic, NaÔve Bayesian, Incremental Apriori, Novel attack detection, Ensemble of Classifier.

Group Leaders Detection in Terrorist Networks using Social Network Analysis
Wasi Haider Butt and Shoab A Khan
In this article we present a new Social Network Analysis measure along with mathematical model and algorithm to find the group leaders in a decentralized terrorist network based on degree centrality. The proposed measure has been designed on fact that in terrorist networks, the group leaders are the persons who are low profile in the group because of secrecy and are tightly connected with the key players of the network in order to manage the whole network. Degree centrality of the node under consideration and its neighbors has been used to find the leaders. The evaluation of the proposed measure has been done applying it on a real dataset of terrorist network whose five members were killed in Sulaymaniya Iraq and who were possibly planning an attack on the American university campus in Sulaymaniya, a randomly generated network data set and an example dataset. Results taken from all datasets are presented.
Keywords: Social Network Analysis, Key Player Detection, Terrorist Networks, National Security.

Using Sentiment Analysis to Aid Customer Satisfaction Assessment in a Brazilian Online Job Search Company
Marcelo Drudi Miranda and Renato Josť Sassi
The Internet is a reality in peopleís lives, enabling the growth of many online services companies. However, to maintain their activities and stay in the market, itís important for these companies to worry about the quality of the provided services. In this context, it becomes important to be able to assess the clientís satisfaction regarding those services. The objective of this work is to propose a tool for aiding the evaluation of customer satisfaction through the use of Sentiment Analysis. Sentiment Analysis, or Opinion Mining, refers to the techniques used to extract and evaluate sentiment expressed in textual data. We analyzed a database of an online job search company containing client comments collected from a service cancellation form. This database, among other parameters, has a score assigned by the client and a comment about the services. We performed the classification of the sentiment expressed in the user comments with the aid of a software written in Python, and then calculated the correlation of the sentiment score with the score assigned by the clients. The results lead to the conclusion that the use of Sentiment Analysis serves as a support tool to enrich the customer satisfaction assessment.
Keywords: Quality; Customer Satisfaction; Opinion Mining; Sentiment Analysis.

The Causal Relationship between Leadership Factors and the Roles of Member in Social Organization: A Case Study of Lions Clubs International, Thailand
Veera Ladnongkun, Ornpapha Chutikorntaweesin, Thuchapon Yodthong, Nichanan Chanchoengrob and Panupong Jitdon
The purposes of this research were (a) to study leadership components and the roles of Lions Club members region 310C; (b) to analyze and compare the roles of Lions Club International members region 310C; and (c) to analyze causal relationship between leadership components and the roles of members in social organization. Quantitative research was used in this study. The research findings showed that in total, leadership components influencing the roles Lions Club members region 310C was at high level. Factors which had highest mean values were psychology of management, followed by morality, participation, responsibility, human relationship, and knowledge and abilities respectively. In addition, the results of hypotheses testing showed that respondents differing in gender, age, education level, types of business, period of membership and current position had significantly different perceptions towards the roles of Lions Club International members which is relevant to the set hypothesis. The correlation between leadership components and roles of Lions Club members are significantly related and the correlation which had the highest value was participation and roles of Lions Club members. The results of analysis on causal relationship between leadership components and roles of Lions Club members; the model of factor theory which influences the roles of Lions Club members, consists of morality, human relationship, knowledge and abilities, psychology of management, responsibility, participation and roles of members, which all is relevant to the empirical data.
Keywords: Causal Relationship, Leadership, Factor, Role, Social Organization.

Theoretical Perspective of Corporate Governance: A Review
Talat Afza and Mian Sajid Nazir
The existence of conflict of interests between mangers and shareholders has increased attention toward effective corporate governance of firms. In this regards, different theories have emerged to understand the whole mechanism of corporate governance and provide different views and solutions towards these conflicts and reduce problems among the stakeholders. This paper discusses these theories briefly for better understanding of corporate governance necessary for building up an academic background for research.
Keywords: Risk management Practices, Conventional Banks, Understanding risk and risk management, risk identification, risk assessment and analysis, risk monitoring, credit risk analysis.

Use of Mobile Phone among Farmers for Agriculture Information
Abdul Razaque Chhachhar, Barkatullah Qureshi, Ghulam Mujtaba Khushk and Zulfiqar Ahmed Maher
Information and communication technologies are increasing day by day in developing countries and have provided positive results in different sectors of the society. The study was investigated about the main purpose of use of mobile phones; mobile phones saved time money and energy and Internet use on mobile phone. The total 150 of the respondents were interviewed from Taulka Manjhand District Jamshoro. The result showed that 93.3% of the respondents have their own mobile phones 80% of the respondents use mobile phones to communicate with their friends. Furthermore, it revealed that 95.3% of the respondents did not communicate with any agriculture officer about their crop issues and problems. The result showed that 95% of the respondent did not search information about market prices regarding their good and services. While only 3% of the respondents search information about market it showed that the respondents whose education were high interested to get the information about market prices and only 2% of the respondents some time search the information regarding market. Result indicated that majority of the respondents did not use mobile phones for agriculture purpose and similarly internet also not use for getting marketing information regarding agriculture and crop price. It need to provide awareness among farmers about proper use of mobile technologies for increase the agriculture product and increase their income by mobile phones in their working places.
Keywords: Mobile phones internet agriculture, marketing and weather information.

EMG Signal Based Online Geometric Modeling Design
Lan Wu and Ali Akgunduz
This paper investigates the control capabilities of Electromyography (EMG) signals from eye musclesí or mouth musclesí intentional contractions and the possibilities to use them in the complicated control tasks. In this investigation, bipolar electrodes were used for EMG signal acquisition and EMG signal sources that can generate strong signal patterns are identified. The identified EMG signal sources maintain the acquired EMG signals with a relative high Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), thus simplifying the extraction method of signal features. Consequently, an efficient EMG signal feature extraction approach is developed. In order to maintain the stability of the extracted EMG signal features in the process of performing the complicated control tasks, the ideas for reducing the musclesí fatigue and designing logic control panels are proposed. The control capabilities of the extracted EMG signal features and the possibilities to use them in the complicated control tasks were verified via online geometric modeling design experiments. The experiment results show that up to 100% control accuracy rate has been achieved and verify that EMG signals generated from eye musclesí or mouth musclesí intentional contractions have capabilities to replace the handsí control functions to accomplish the complicated control tasks.
Keywords: EMG Signals, Signal Acquisition, Signal Features, Control Panels, Geometric Modeling Design.

Exact Solution of Helmholtz Equation via Reduced Differential Transform Method
Al-Dawoud Kamal
In this paper, a recently developed method, the reduced differential transform method (RDTM), is presented for solving Helmholtz partial differential equation. In this method, the solution is calculated in the form of convergent power series with easily computable components. The results reveal that the RDTM is very effective, convenient and accurate.
Keywords: Reduced differential transform method; Helmholtz equations; Exact solution.

Comparing the Performance of Exponential Smoothing Models for Forecasting Exchange
Mohammad Ahmad Al-Saleh and Wafaa Abdullah Al-Kharoif
The study was designed to compare the performance of different exponential smoothing methods in forecasting the exchange rate of KD/Uro and also to examine the trend movement of it . The data was collected from Central bank of Kuwait on a quartet basis for the period from 31 March 2000 to 31 March 2012. Performance of the models are assessed with the performance criteria of mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), root mean square errors (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE). Results from the study revealed that the Winterís method is the most appropriate method to forecast exchange rates for the given time interval in Kuwait.
Keywords: Exchange rate forecasting, Exponential smoothing.
2013 Mathematical Subject Classification: 62M10

Improving Efficiency of Data Clustering using Effective Clustering Techniques
Shanmugasundram R, Shanmugasundaram M and Sukumaran S
One of the fundamental difficulties that arise in several fields, machine learning, comprising pattern recognition and statistics, is clustering. The intial data clustering problem might be defined as finding out groups in data or grouping related objects together. A group of objects is termed as cluster which is similar to each other within a cluster and are dissimilar to the objects of other clusters. The distance between two objects or clusters is calculated similarly. A cluster contains two or more objects and only if those objects are close to each other based on the distance between them. Based on the similarity metric, the collection of comparable objects is discovered. On the other hand, a similarity metric is generally specified by the user according to his requirements for obtaining enhanced results. Hence, there is no such technique available which absolutely fits for all purposes. The major difficulties concerning the existing available clustering approaches are that they do not concentrate on the entire needs effectively and require huge time complexity in case of clustering a great number of dimensions and bulky data sets. The use of constraints in clustering along with the effective distance measures will definitely provide better clustering results. There are several approaches available for clustering objects. In order to provide better clustering approaches that fits for all applications and to improve the efficiency of data clustering, this research proposes three effective clustering techniques namely Enhancing K-Means Algorithm with Semi-Unsupervised Centroid Selection Method (SCSM), An Efficient Fuzzy Possibilistic C-means with Penalized and Compensated Constraints (PCFPCM),An Improved Penalized and Compensated Constraints for Fuzzy Possibilistic C-means (IPCFPCM) based on Neighbourhood EM Algorithm. SCSM is the first proposed approach which is used to compute the initial centroids through spectral bi-clustering which involves data normalization, bistochastization and seeded region growing clustering. PCFPCM approach differ from the conventional clustering techniques by imposing the possibilistic reasoning strategy on fuzzy clustering with penalized and compensated constraints for updating the grades of membership and typicality. IPCFPCM clustering algorithm, uses improved penalized constraints which will help in better calculation of distance between the clusters and increasing the accuracy of clustering. The parameters used for evaluating proposed approach are Clustering accuracy, Mean Squared Error (MSE), Execution Time and Convergence behaviour.
Keywords: Data Mining, Clustering, Centroid, Data Clustering, Fuzzy clustering.

Factors Influencing the Model of Contemporary Leadership
Chalieo Vitoorapakorn, Ornpapha Chutikorntaweesin, Thuchapon Yodthong, Prapas Siripap and Pawat Vitoorapakorn
The purposes of this research were to study merit factors and quality factors influencing the model of contemporary leadership in Thailand, and analyze causal relationship of independent variable influencing the model of contemporary leadership in Thailand. Quantitative method was used in this research. The results of the research findings showed that, in total, merit factors had highest influence on the model of contemporary leadership. In particular, merit principles for creating success had highest mean values, followed by merit principles for ruling of men, using of intelligence, and carrying oneís favor respectively. Quality factors, in total, had highest influence on the model of contemporary leadership. Good leadership had the highest mean value, followed by personal management, corporate social responsibility, good governance, leadership roles, service with equity, and balanced scorecard respectively. The coefficient of correlation between merit factors, quality factor and the model of contemporary leadership in Thailand was significantly related. The results of research findings on analysis of casual factors and model of factor theory influencing the model of contemporary leadership in Thailand which included four merit factors and seven quality factors are relevant to the empirical data.
Keywords: Factors, Contemporary, Leadership, Merit, Quality.

Political Jurisprudence and Civil Society
Mousalreza Malvandi and Haidar Babanasab
In Shiite political jurisprudence there are different ideas regarding the type of government and dominant condition. This study does not aim at the entire theories, but the researcher tries to analyze the least and most spectrum in jurisprudence and specify their views about civil society. The main question in this article is that how capacities of political jurisprudence are specified in facing civil society? Hypothesis and answer to the main question is that jurisprudence besides dealing with individual and hereafter affaires considered mundane, social and material issues and domain of jurisprudence in some of these areas is the least and in some of them is the most.
Keywords: Jurisprudence, political jurisprudence, civil society, Islamic society, the theory of divine legitimacy, the theory of divine-people legitimacy.