European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 118 No 2
February, 2014

Prediction of Marital Conflict among Employed Women through Work-Family and Family-Work Conflicts

Ameneh Haji Karam and Mohammad Ghamari
Background and Aim: Nowadays, work-family and family-work role conflict has caused difficulties in balancing between work duties and family responsibilities, creating grounds for role incompatibility among the staff. This research aims to investigate the prediction of marital conflict of employed women through the rate of work-family and family-work conflicts. Method: Descriptive-cohesion method was chosen for this purpose. The statistical population consists of married women working in the headquarter department of Telecommunication Company of Tehran in 2011. For this purpose, 135 married employed women were selected randomly among all Telecommunication offices in Tehran by random cluster sampling. Applied tools were work-family and family-work conflict questionnaire of Netemeyer and the marital conflict questionnaire (MCQ) of Barati and Sanaei. Data were analyzed by correlation and multiple regressions. Findings: Results showed that the relationship and correlation between work-family and family-work conflict with marital conflict was direct and significant (P<0.05). Also, work-family and family-work was able to predict the variance of marital conflict in employed women up to 0.40. In other words, with the increase of conflict among the scope of work and family, marital conflict increases among employed women. Conclusion:In order to reduce marital conflicts among employees, organizations need to reduce conflicts between work environment and living environment of employees, and the stressors in the workplace.
Keywords: Work-Family Conflict, Family-Work Conflict, Marital Conflict, Employed Women, Family.

Study of Relationship between Organizational Trust and Development
Mostafa Kaviani, Hojjat Taheri Goodarzi and Mohamad Jafar Mahdian
One of the concerns of today’s organizations is the lack of mutual trust among directors and staff members that can be mostly identified in governmental organizations. Majority of these problems can be resolved by replacing traditional management systems instead of modern and systematic management mechanisms so that organizational stability and constancy can be accomplished. This research studies the relationship between organizational trust and development in service organizations. The researcher assumes one primary and five secondary hypotheses. The study can be categorized under descriptive, correlative and applied researches according to its objective, nature and methodology. The statistical population of the research constitutes of staff members of Alimoradian Hospital of Nahavand City, which provide health care services to more than 180 thousand citizens of the city. The statistical density of the population is 160, from which a sample of 113 is selected through utilization of systematic random sampling, Morgan’s Cohen’s and Krejcie’s table. Furthermore, Factor Analysis, Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient, One-Way variance Analysis (ANOVA), T-Test and Duncan Test are utilized to constitute data analysis of the study. For data compilation, the customized questionnaire of organizational trust, with 85.8% of Cronbach’s Alpha, and the customized questionnaire of organizational development, with 95.65% of Cronbach’s Alpha, are utilized. The total reliability of the questionnaires is appointed 95.5%. The results of prior studies indicate there is a correlative relationship between organizational development and organizational trust, creativity of staff members. The results of this research can be manifested as follows: 1- There is correlation between organizational trust and development. 2- There is correlation between competence and organizational development. 3- There is correlation between organizational development and stability. 4- There is correlation between organizational loyalty and development. 5- There is correlation between transparency and organizational development. 6- There is correlation between organizational development and veracity.
Keywords: Organizational Trust, Organizational Development, Transparency, Competence, Stability, Organizational Loyalty, Veracity.

A Comparative Study of Family Function in Addicted and Non-Addicted Married Men in Tehran City
Soraya Sayar
Introduction: Nowadays, the issue of drug addiction and substance abuse becomes a social and psychological concern, threatening countries and their human communities. Drug addiction can have a negative impact on the integrity of one’s life, generating a series of pathological traits. Such traits can disrupt individuals’ functionality in occupational, social and family environments. Objective: The present study embarks upon a comparative study of family function in addicted and non-addicted married men in Tehran City. Methodology: This study is a casual-comparative research and its statistical population constitutes of married men of Tehran City and the statistical sample includes 192 addicted and 192 non-addicted men. Sample of the research is materialized through utilization of convenience sampling procedure. Non-addicted members of the sample are selected through utilization of cluster sampling procedure and their demographic traits are identical in relation with addicted members of the sample. Data compilation is materialized through utilization of McMaster Model of Family Function. Furthermore, Chi-Square and T-Test is utilized for data analysis of the study. Findings: There is a significant difference between levels of family function in addicted and non-addicted married men. Conclusion: Significant difference between levels family function in addicted and non-addicted married men can be manifested in following items: communicational traits, role plays, emotional responsiveness and fusion and behavioral control. Therefore, the aforementioned factors should be facilitated in rehabilitation and recovery of addicted patients through specialized classes, where rational emotive behavior therapy and behavior therapy will be implemented. With recognition of such rehabilitating plans, the prospect of a normal, healthy and successful life for addicted men becomes probable.
Keywords: Family Function, Married Men, Addiction.

Inventaire des différentes Espèces de Puces du Chat Présentes dans le Nord-est D’algérie (Région D’annaba)
Bachir El Mouaz Madoui, Ali Bouattour and Et Zihad Bouslama
Notre étude menée sur les différentes espèces de puces présentent chez le chat dans le Nord-Est algérien nous a permis de récolter environ 1667 spécimens ou puces, l’identification de ces puces a révélé la présence de 4 espèces appartenant à trois genres (Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis, Xenopsilla cheopis, Pulex irritans). Le but de cette étude est d'identifier et de caractériser la dynamique d’apparition des puces de chat durant deux années d’étude.
Keywords: Siphonaptera, flea, Cat, Species, Annaba, Algeria.

Emotional Intelligence, Willingness to Communicate, and Academic Achievement among Iranian EFL Learners
Farid Ghaemi and Nahid Naderi Anari
Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and willingness to communicate, between emotional intelligence and academic achievement as well as the relationship between willingness to communicate and academic achievement among Iranian EFL Learners. Design/methodology/approach-The participants were selected by simple random selection. This study adopted a survey research design that utilized an ex post facto research type in which the researchers used questionnaires in collecting data from the respondents. Findings-The results of the study indicate that there is a positive significant relationship between emotional intelligence and willingness to communicate, between emotional intelligence and academic achievement and also between willingness to communicate and academic achievement. Originality/value-The present study has several implications for teachers and material developers. Teachers should include activities that help learners’ emotional growth in the classroom and they should try to make the classroom a calm and enjoyable environment. Material developers are also advised to incorporate activities that enhance EI in the books.
Keywords: Emotional intelligence, Willingness to communicate, Academic achievement.

Fluctuations des Paramètres Physico Chimiques et des Communautés Phytoplanctoniques dans le lac Oubeira (Nord-Est Alzgérien).
Aicha Djabourabi, Nadira Sehili, Meriem Boussadia and Faouzi Samar et Mourad Bensouilah
Cette étude vise à caractériser les eaux du lac Oubeira par la mesure de paramètres physico chimiques de l’eau et l’évaluation de la dynamique spatio temporelle de trois communautés phytoplanctoniques que ce plan d’eau douce abrite. Les eaux du lac Oubeira sont fortement influencées par le climat méditerranéen qui sévit dans la région ; en période froide, la température est basse et les teneurs en oxygène dissous sont élevées et en période chaude, l’augmentation de la température fait baisser les teneurs en oxygène dissous; le pH est alcalin. Les teneurs en éléments nutritifs mesurés montrent des fluctuations saisonnières liées aux variations des paramètres abiotiques et biotiques ainsi qu’à la faible profondeur du lac et son hydrodynamisme. La population phytoplanctonique recensée est en grande partie représentée par 24 genres de Bacillariophyceae, 15 genres de Cyanophyceae et 8 genres de Dinophyceae à des proportions respectives de 51%, 32% et 17%. La présence phytoplanctonique passe de 15% en hiver, à 27% au printemps pour atteindre un pic de 38% en été et baisser jusqu’à 20% en automne. Les principales communautés phytoplanctoniques recensées montrent des préférences saisonnières illustrées par de fortes présences de diatomées (33%) au printemps, de dinoflagellés (55%) et de cyanobactéries (41%) en été. Les résultats de l’analyse en composantes principales révèlent l'existence d'une typologie saisonnière caractérisée par la succession des classes phytoplanctoniques recensées dans le lac Oubeira.
Motsclés: Phytoplancton, lac Oubeira, paramètres physicochimiques, fluctuations.

Relevance of different Carbon Sources with Morphological and Physiological Alteration in Mariana (Prunus Mariana L.) under in Vitro Condition
Saman Chalabi Yani, Saleh Amiri, Abdullah Hossein Babaiy, Samad Aliyoun Nazari and Mahmood Ghorbani
In order to investigate the effect of different carbon sources on morphological and physiological alteration in Mariana (Prunus mariana L.), different concentrations (30, 60 and 90g/l) of glucose, fructose, maltose and sucrose were induced in the proliferation stage. Concentrations of carbon source had a significant effect on proliferation coefficient, plantlet length and vitrification percentage. The proliferation coefficient was significantly higher at 30g/l sucrose and 30g/l fructose and was the lowest at all levels of maltose and glucose. The percentage of plantlet length was significantly higher at 30 g/l sucrose and 30 g/l fructose and was the lowest at all levels of maltose. The vitrification percentage was significantly higher at 90g/l maltose and was the lowest at levels of 30g/l of all carbon source exceptionally maltose. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transplanted to soil with 90% survival.
Keywords: Carbohydrates, Prunus genus, Proliferation, Vitrification, In vitro culture.

Action Observation as a Cognitive Intervention Strategy for Beginners
Dukchan Jang and Sangbum Park
The objective of this study was to investigate the theoretical and experimental grounds supporting the values of action observation as a cognitive intervention strategy for beginners in learning stages. The learning effects of motor imagery have been broadly studied in sports and other physical activities, and the use of motor imagery as a component of psychological intervention has actually shown positive performance results in a variety of disciplines when applied along with physical interventions. However, when motor imagery is applied in the initial learning stage, beginners have difficulty with mental image formation because they are not yet capable of precise task-related motor representations; this may lead to the development of skewed motor representations from the onset of the learning process. The learning process of beginners suggests that action observation consisting of various patterns may be used as an effective method for promoting the learning of motor skills while complementing of the limitations of motor imagery. Action observation provides concrete and clear stimuli related to task performance scenes and can contribute to the effective formation of motor representations. Therefore, it has the potential to be utilized as an active cognitive intervention method for beginners.
Keywords: Action Observation, Motor Imagery, Cognitive intervention, Beginner.

State of Reproductive Health in Pakistan and Role of NGOs; A Case Study of a NGO (Hands)
Mumtaz Ali, Gul Muhammad Baloch and Maya Khemlani David
Pakistan is facing lot of social problems. Reproductive health is one of the burning issues of the country. Pakistan is sixth most populous country in the world. However, demographers mentioned that if this issue could not be resolved Pakistan would be the 3rd biggest country by 2050. Several other issues are also related with increased population i.e. poverty, illiteracy, health problems and lack of basic necessities. Government itself cannot resolve such problems by its own. Therefore, the role of the Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) becomes compulsory in this regard. Various NGOs are making their efforts to tackle this issue. (Health And Nutrition Development Society) HANDS is also one among these NGOs. HANDS is selected as a case study for this paper. This organization is one of the prominent and biggest NGOs which are working on larger scale through their community development initiatives in Pakistan. This paper discusses the role of NGOs in detail. Working system, programs and approaches of HANDS are particularity discussed in this paper. Several other social problems are also highlighted. The paper emphasizes on the role of HANDS pertaining to reproductive health as a key issue. This paper suggests that this issue should be taken as a mother of all social problems. The study found that HANDS has a strong working mechanism to implement reproductive health projects.
Keywords: HANDS, Reproductive health, Pakistan, NGO, Population, Community development.

A Colony-Based Optimal Model Selection Clustering for Knowledge Discovery
C.S. Sasireka and P. Raviraj
Model-based clustering techniques utilized for modeling the clusters, with parametric division, assign data point to appropriate cluster with the cluster parameters evaluated, only if the cluster assignments known in prior. But the information about the clustering is obtained using a set of variables and among the set of variables, some might be useless or dangerous to select an optimal model solution for clustering. Different researchers suggested different types of model selection methods for knowledge and data discovery, a most widely used method for clustering multivariate incessant datasets. Certain works on generating cluster parameter candidates deployed subspace clustering. But if the problem-specific bounds and/or the clusters embedded in subspaces do not discover the cluster properly in different subspace cardinalities, then the divide-and-conquer scheme to efficiently discover the clusters cause various clustering abnormalities. Even though the mechanism provides an appropriate model for specific characteristics of the problem, it does not identify the candidate attributes of the chosen model for data discovery where the data points are of dense in nature. A Colony-based Optimal Model Selection Clustering is discussed to solve the issue raised over data discovery in the dense data points of the image. The colony based optimization technique is integrated with the machine learning criteria to detect the candidate attributes for the model selection criteria. Experimental evaluations are conducted on the Colony-based Optimal Model Selection Clustering technique [COMSC] with real and synthetic data sets extracted from research repositories (UCI) in terms of size of the data points, running time, average best value of choosing optimal solution, efficiency.
Keywords: Clustering, segmentation, model selection, optimal model selection, colony based approach, training sequences.

Evaluating the Measure of Examining the Credit of Steel Distributors in Iranian Market in Terms of Customers
Asadollah Kordnaeij, Firouzeh Azizi, Mehdi Jafarzadeh Kenari and Alireza Bakhshizadeh
Present study is conducted to evaluate and identify the most important determinants in selecting main distributors by retailers in Iranian steel market. To this end, Arvin Steel Company is selected as a case study. This is a survey – type research and a questionnaire devised a mixture of different sources in the literature is used to collect data. Research sample consists of 107 relating customers of Arvin Steel Company in Tehran. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) tests are used to analyze the data to which SPSS and LISREL software are also utilized. Overall, 9 measures are identified as the main criteria to select distributors by customers. They include: “managerial capability”, “marketing capability”, “relations intensity”, “logistic capability”, “financial capability”, “physical facilities”, “market cover”, “product line” and “reputation”. Research findings indicate that the impact of “managerial capability”, “marketing capability”, “relations intensity”, “financial capability”, “physical facilities”, “market cover” and “reputation” on selecting the distributor is significant.
Keywords: Examining the Credit of Distributor, Selecting the Distributor, Steel Industry.

E-Baking Service Quality Dimensions and their Impacts on Customers' Satisfaction and Loyalty (Case Study: Refah Bank, Tehran)
Parviz Ahmadi, Firouzeh Azizi and Alireza Bakhshizadeh
Present study is conducted to evaluate and identify the most important e-baking service quality Dimensions in Iranian banking industry which would finally yield to customers' more satisfaction and loyalty. To this end, Refah bank is used for this study. The research is a survey – type. To collect data, a questionnaire was used that was a combination of different resources in the relevant literature. A sample consisting of 384 customers of the bank in Tehran was selected. Structural Equation Model (SEM) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) as well as two LISREL and SPSS software packages were used to analyze data. Research findings indicate significant impact of “Accessibility”, “Easiness”, “Trust”, “Security”, “Website designing”, “Website content”, “Speed” and “Commission” on “Satisfaction” and the significant impact of “Satisfaction” on “Loyalty”.
Keywords: E-baking, service quality Dimensions, satisfaction, loyalty and Refah Bank.

Growth Theory in Al Ghazali Books and its Educational Applications
Fikir Ayed Al-Dweri

Investigating the use of Cued Speech Tool on the Performance of Deaf Students in Jordan
Shama yahaya Bader Al Hadid
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of using cued speech tool on deaf students’ performance in English language. To achieve the purpose of the study, a pre/post-test was constructed to measure students' performance. The test consisted of thirty items. The sample of the study comprised of 50 5th grade deaf students and was distributed into two sections, which were selected purposefully, an experimental group and a control group.; (22) male students and (28) female students from Al Amal school during the second semester of the academic year 2012/2013. The subjects of the experimental group were trained to use cued speech tool for (8) weeks. However, the subjects of the control group were not given any type of training for the same period. The findings of the study indicated that there were statistically significant differences in the post- test between the groups in favor of the experimental group, and there was no statistically significant difference in the students' achievement due to gender.

A New Approach to Minimize the Rental Cost for Fuzzy Flow Shop Scheduling under a Specified Rental Policy Including Fuzzy Transportation Time
Shakeela Sathish and K. Ganesan
Flow shop scheduling is one of the most important aspects in the area of production management. When the machines on which jobs are to be processed are placed at different places, the transportation time (which includes loading time, moving time and unloading time etc) plays a significant role in production. The present paper is an attempt to develop a new approach to minimize the rental cost for three stages specially structured flow shop scheduling under a specified rental policy including transportation time. By using a new type of fuzzy arithmetic and a fuzzy ranking method, we propose a method to minimize the rental cost of machines under the specified rental policy; without converting the fuzzy processing times and fuzzy transportation times to classical numbers. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed method.
Keywords: Triangular fuzzy number, fuzzy arithmetic, fuzzy ranking, Rental policy, fuzzy transportation time, fuzzy processing time, fuzzy flow shop scheduling.