European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 117 No 3
Jan, 2014

Effect of Arsenic Content in Shour River on Groundwater Resources in Irrigated Area at Rafsanjan Plain

Jafar Rahnamarad and Reza Derakhshani
This study was conducted to evaluate effects of irrigation of 300 ha of pistachio growing lands with water from the Shour River on groundwater resources of the Rafsanjan plain. The comparatively high prevalence of arsenic-related cancers, the high concentration of arsenic in the nearby plains, and the recharge of the Shour River through Sarcheshmeh Mountains composed of volcanic hosted massive sulfide ore deposits (VMS), are the authors' motivations for reviewing the concentration of this substance in the Rafsanjan groundwater and the Shour River. Arsenic concentration was measured in 41 samples from the river and groundwater resources using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results were evaluated through iso-concentration maps, correlation diagrams, and multivariate statistical methods. Accordingly, the concentration of arsenic in the Shour River and the Rafsanjan groundwater ranges from 7.5 to 278µg/l with an average value of 97.82µg/l. These levels are much higher than that acceptable for drinking Water (10µg/l). The high arsenic content of groundwater of the Rafsanjan plain are ascribed to both the decomposition of sulfides present in mountainous volcanic rocks and the Shour River pollution in the vicinity of the Sarcheshmeh copper mine caused by Acid mine drainage (AMD) - which is regarded as the worst environmental problem related to mining that affects surface and groundwater quality- originating from waste dumps in this mine.
Keywords: Arsenic, Groundwater, Pollution, Iran.

Effet des Margines et de Deux Qualités d’eau D’irrigation sur les Composantes de Rendement d’une Variété Locale d’Orge (Hordeum Vulgare): Essai en Pot.
Raja Dakhli, Ridha Lamouri and Houcine Taamallah
Dans un contexte actuel ou l’agriculture doit produire d’une façon durable en particulier en zones arides caractérisées par un déficit hydrique sévère et des sols généralement dégradés. La recherche des solutions permettant de contourner ces contraintes s’impose afin d’assurer une production agricole équitable qui respecte l’environnement dans un cadre de développement durable. Dans ce cadre l’idée de la valorisation des Margines comme amendement organique en agronomie a été proposé comme alternative prometteuse pour la restauration de la fertilité des sols et l’amélioration de la production agricole. L’étude de comportement d’une variété locale d’Orge (Hordeum Vulgare) irriguée à l’eau de robinet (2,8g/l) et à l’eau de forage (7,4g/l) en présence des différentes doses de margine a fait l’objet de notre travail de recherche. Trois doses de Margines ont été appliquées à raison de T1 (50 m³/ha), T2 (100 m³/ha) et T3 (200 m³/ha).Le rendement en paille, le nombre d’épis/m², le rendement en grains, le poids de 1000 graines ont été les paramètres étudiés. L’essai en pot a été conduit aux laboratoires de l’Institut des régions arides au sud Est tunisien. Les résultats de cette étude montrent que l’application des Margines à des fortes doses provoque une réduction hautement significative de toutes les composantes du rendement étudiés à savoir le nombre d’épis/m², le nombre des graines/épis, le rendement en matière sèche et le rendement en grains. Par ailleurs, cette réduction est plus préjudiciable lorsque les Margines sont en interaction avec l’eau d’irrigation chargée de forage. Globalement et comparé à l’irrigation à l’eau de robinet, l’eau de forage (chargée) a engendré les réductions les plus préjudiciable.
Motsclés: Sol, Dégradation, Salinité eau D’irrigation, Margines, Orge.

Polymeric Reagent as a Depressant in Pyrite Flotation
Hyonseung Dho
The investigation was initiated to on the role that starches and starch derivatives play as a depressant on pyrite. The depressant action was studied through the flotation charateristics, electrochemical behaviors, zeta potential measurements.The flotation results revealed that starch polymer, CMC-g-PAM showed some promising in depressing pyrite. Adsorption of CMC-g-PAM took place through specific interaction with ferric hydroxide species that result from the oxidation of pyrite surface. The electrochemical results showed that pyrite was oxidized at an alkaline pH. At the neutral pH, ferric hydroxide from the oxidation pyrite was coated on the pyrite surface to make the pyrite surface more hydrophillic. The adsorption of CMC-g-PAM might be an effective depressant for pyrite. Pyrite from the electrochemical behaviors results was started to oxidized 0.1 volt at pH 4. At this pH, pyrite was floated 95%. At the range of -0.3 volt to +0.2 volt at pH 9, pyrite was depressed almost 80% in the presence of 20mg/l CMC-g-PAM.
Keywords: Pyrite, Flotation, Adsorption, Cyclic Voltammetry, Depressant. CMC-g-PAM.

Comparison of Self-Differentiation and Help Seeking Intention of Iranian Women
Fatemeh Sadat Sobhanian
"The aim of this study is comparison of self-differentiation, emotional fusion, emotional reactivity, I position, emotional escape and help seeking intention based on education, age, and marital status among Iranian women. Statistical population was composed of all women living in Tehran. 152 ones were selected as statistical sample among women in district 5 in convenience and voluntary way. Results showed that there is significant difference among women in terms of self- differentiation and its components. Results indicated that there is also significant difference between MA group and high school diploma group in emotional reactivity component. But there was no significant difference among women in help seeking intention based on educational level. No significant difference was observed among women in variables of emotional reactivity, I position, emotional escape, emotional fusion with others, self-differentiation and help seeking intention in terms of the age. There was significant difference between married and single people in general self- differentiation and emotional escape and married people gained higher scores. But single people obtained higher scores in help seeking intention.
Keywords: Differentiation, Emotional Fusion, Emotional Reactivity, I Position, Emotional Escape, Help Seeking Intention.

Analysis of Preoccupation Structure of Restaurant and Hotel Management in Isfahan Province
Athar Noormohammadi, Mehri Azani and Hajar Norouzi
The economic benefitsof tourism industry affect on employment and increasing national and regional revenue. It can be also a way for other industrial sectors, growth.One of the important sectors in tourism industry is restaurant and hotel management that can be accounted as a substructure for developing othersectors of this industry. One of the adequate regions for developing tourism industry in Iran is Isfahan province.Isfahan has numerous natural-historical and cultural attraction. So, this province is consideredas one of the tourism centersin country. The aim of this study is to analyze the structure of preoccupation in restaurant and hotel management and its role in developing tourism at Isfahan province in 1375-1390. The purpose of this study is based on useful aims and integration method and nature. The resultsof this study show the relative advantage of the cities of this province in regard to reference economy (the whole country) that have numerous capabilities in making substructure and capitalization at this sector.
Keywords: Tourism-Resturant and Hotel Management-Preoccupation-Development.

An Efficient Routing in Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs) using Hybridisation of Fuzzy ACO with Adaptive Genetic Algorithm
B. Nancharaiah and B. Chandra Mohan
In Mobile Adhoc Networks, discovering and maintaining routes between mobile nodes in a dynamic topology with possible links, using minimal resources is desirable. However, routing in MANETs has some problems in path selection process. Several techniques were implemented to optimize the routing parameters with a multi-objective function. Recently, Adaptive Genetic Algorithm (AGA) with Dijkstra algorithm using reliability and delay measures in routing as parameters, were implemented. But, it has some limitations in determining the nearest node information. A hybrid model of fuzzy based Ant Colony Optimization with AGA is proposed in this paper. Performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with AGA. An improvement is observed in delay and cost. Proposed hybrid method requires minimum delay compared to AGA. The proposed hybrid algorithm (AGA with FACO) has minimum cost compared to AGA and Fuzzy ACO.
Keywords: Fuzzy ACO, Adaptive Genetic Algorithm.

Religious Terrorism (Boko Haram) and the Future of Education in Nigeria
Ilechukwu, Leonard Chidi
Boko Haram, Islamic Religious sect terrorism has been a thorn in the flesh of Nigerian State. The sect is using calculated violence to threaten, intimidate and maim the innocent citizens of Nigeria. The incessant terrorist attacks of the sect have shaken the fabric of Nigerian economic foundation and education progress. The attack of the sect on western education is trying to undermine the achievement of educational goals in Nigeria. The attacks is also thwarting the millennium Development Goals on Education; such as Basic education for all children in the country, Education for All (EFA) which aims to meet the learning needs of all children, youth and adults by 2015, and Education for Rural People which aim at addressing rural urban disparity in Education. This means that the attack of Boko Haram is increasing the illiteracy rate in Nigeria. Already, UNESCO estimates that Nigeria is home to 45 percent of the global school drop out population and has 105 million children out of schools. The insurgence of Boko Haram is increasing these numbers today, thereby leading Nigeria to mass illiteracy. The attack of the sect on schools has also led to the shutting down of all the schools in some states in the northern Nigeria as a precautionary measure to stave off the outrageous attacks of slaughtering innocent and harmless children. The closing down of the schools for good is the ultimate goal of Boko Haram. Leaving the schools shut will give Boko Haram success in its bid against Western Education. This portends great danger to education in Nigeria. The attack on the innocent school Children traumatizes them. In this case there is problem of how to care for traumatized school children and win them back to the school. The school children who escaped death by the skin of their teeth, sustained serious injuries or saw his classmate mowed down in a rain of bullets may not find it easy to pack his bag and run back to school as soon it is re-opened. If the school children, out of fear refuse to go back to school, it will be disastrous for education in Nigeria. Again traumatized incident can make students to suffer both physical and psychological damages that impair their ability to learn. More still the experience of violence may induce the affected children to join bloody cults in bid to retaliate Boko Haram egregious action on them. Still, parents seeing the schools as the ground sink homes may be unwilling to send their wards back to school. Some parents whose business have been crippled and brought to their knees may not afford to pay the school fees of their children. These factors among other discussed in this paper show that Boko Haram, Islamic Religious sect’s terrorism in Nigeria portends danger to the future of education in Nigeria.

Factors Influencing Career Success of Accountant Women in Iran
Ali Rahmani, Saeedeh Adam Pira, Ameneh Abed and Davood Faramarzi Majelan
The aim of this study was to examine factors influencing career success of women accountants in Iran. Survey. This study is the assessment questionnaire. With the review of previous research, a conceptual model was developed according to this model, a questionnaire with 57 questions was developed and verified its validity and reliability. This study attempted to assess the effect of factors on the career success of women accountants. The success rate was measured by the number of questions and the questions related to the success of each respondent was given a score of success and then examined the correlation between test scores and success factors on the success of this research were analyzed. The results indicate that individual factors, the balance between work and family and having a mentor and participate in social networks The factors affecting accountant women's career success and career success have a significant relationship, If social factors and employment trends are not significantly associated with career success of women accountants.

Keywords: Career, Success, Women Accountants.

Performance Evaluation of Mutual Funds Investing in Modern and Postmodern Portfolio Theory
Ameneh Abed, Saeedeh Adam Pira and Davood Faramarzi Majelan
This paper tries to investigate the performance of mutual funds based on criteria based on the Tehran Stock Exchange Modern portfolio theory of Sharpe Index, Modigliani, Trainer, Jensen (and ultra-modern portfolio theory) of Sortino measure the potential favorable. In this regard, considering the period between 2008 (the start of the Iran-fund) until the end of the first quarter of 2012 to evaluate the results of computed ratios, for various investment funds and their performance has been compared. The conclusion is based on the use of modem portfolio theory criteria to evaluate the performance of venture capital funds, compared with the standard modern theory of portfolio are preferred. The study is also based on the performance of mutual funds according to criteria Sharp, Modigliani,, Trainer, Sortino, Jensen's alpha potential and there is no significant difference in the two year period 2008-2010. In addition, there is no significant difference between the performance criteria trainer and Sortino funds invested in the two-year period 2010 - 2012 confirmed. But Sharp criteria, Modigliani, , Jensen's alpha potential and the performance of investment funds, there are significant differences in the two year period 2010-2012.
Keywords: Investment Fund Performance, Tehran Stock Exchange, the Modern Theory of High Portfolio, Ultra-Modern Portfolio Theory.

Using Common Storage for Sharing Data in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Hamed Izadi, Mehdi Sharafi and Sam Jabbehdari
Mobile ad hoc network is a wireless network in which there is no centralized infrastructure and hosts change their place each moment, thus the typology of network varies. Since in this network the host’s energy is supplied by battery, limitation of host energies matters. Data communication is one of chief factors in consuming hosts’ energies in the network. As a result, establishment of related energy –based protocols is one of important research areas on mobile ad hoc networks. In the present research, a solution for modification of hosts’ access to the available data is provided in a way that through optimum consumption of energy will have access to data. Moreover, data replication with minimal redundancy and maximum effect occurs in the network. The obtained results of simulation indicate modification in rate of access to data as well as decrease of host energy consumption.
Keywords: Mobile ad hoc Network, Data Communications.

The Toxic Effects of Two Commercial Herbicides Systemic Chevalier and Cossack in Antioxydant Activities Catalase Ascorbate Peroxydase and Gaiacol Peroxydase of Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum Desf.)
Nabiha Belahcene, Mohamed Réda Djebar, Zenati Noureddine and Houria Berrebbah
The present study has evaluated effects of two herbicides systemic Chevalier and Cossack concentrations used for controlling cereals growth, on selected metabolic and stress- related parameters in wheat (Triticum durumDesf.) cultivar Carioca, Sersou and Wercenisplants. Our results show that the Chevalier and Cossack induced oxidative stress triggered significant changes in activities of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and gaïacol peroxidase. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes show a general increase at low herbicide concentrations and a decrease at high levels. The results of the response of each variety to xenobiotic present indicate that, Carioca tolerated Cossack by intense activity guaiacol peroxidase, but in the presence of Chevalier, this variety adopted a different strategy based on a strong catalase activity and guaiacol peroxidase. The response of Sersou in the presence of Chevalier is essentially based on an activity guaiacol peroxidase whereas the contact of the Cossack, it rests on peroxidases. Under the treatment by Cossack, Wercenis exploit peroxidases and catalase, which have high values and in the presence of Chevalier catalase and guaiacol peroxidase.
Keywords: Chevalier, Cossack, Triticum durum Desf, oxidative stress, tolerance, enzyme antioxidant

New Design and Implementation of MLFQ Scheduling Algorithm for Operating Systems using Dynamic Quantum
Mohammad R. Kadhum and Seifedine Kadry
The new design of multilevel feedback queue will depend on usage new technique in computing the quantum to produce (ADQ) Auto Detect Quantum which is relied on the burst of each process has enrolled to the system. By summating the burst time of each process has arrived and dividing it by the number of available processes, we can obtained the dynamic quantum in each level of scheduling . The processes are scheduled and shifted down from queue to other according to their remaining bursts time that should be updated periodically. Every queue has a unique auto detected quantum which is gradually increased or decreased from top level to bottom level queues according to the case of arriving processes. Depending on the results of graphical simulating algorithm on cases study, we can discover that a dynamic quantum is very suitable to accommodate low priority processes that still for a long duration to complete their requests, i.e. avoid the starvation of CPU- bounded processes. Although, it stills compatible with high priority processes (I/O-Bounded) to provide a fair interactivity with them. In comparison to traditional MLFQ the performance of the new scheduling technique is better and practical according to the applied results. Additional, we developed suitable software to simulate the new design and test it on different cases to prove it.

Studying Freedom of Information in Iran
Omid Karimian
Right of information is one of the fundamental rights of each human. This right indicates that any human has right of access to the information which is related to him/her and affects his/her life. Study of limits of freedom of information is one of the important issues which have been presently discussed in different legal systems of the world and in international documents. Although principle of freedom of information has been expressly accepted in Constitutional Law of Iran, this freedom is not absolute and exceptions have been exerted on it. This research which has been conducted with analytical –descriptive method based on library data studied right of free access to information and its exceptions in Iran legal system and finally dealt with its shortcomings and suggested some points for improving this principle in Iran local law.
Keywords: Freedom of Information, Iran, Right of information.

Right of Access to Information, Fundamentals, Barriers and Necessities in International Law
Omid Karimian
Right of the public access to official information or ability of citizens to gain access to the information held by government is called freedom of information. Of course, this right is not unconditional and some regulations should be observed for it. It seems that this right can be regarded as infrastructure of information freedom principle during information explosion and new communication era which requires free access to information. This research which has been conducted with analytical –descriptive method based on library data intended to refer to conditions and restrictions of information freedom in international law while explaining concepts, sources and fundamentals of information freedom and mention its legal challenges and finally present suggestion for improving right of access to information in law of different countries in the world by classifying legality rules of information freedom restrictions to logical rules , rules of legal system and rules of human rights .
Keywords: Access to Information, International Law, Fundamentals.

A Novel Approach for Multidimensional Quantitative Association Rule Mining
R. Sridevi, E. Ramaraj and N. Venkatesan
In data mining, the frequent patterns from single dimensional database and transactional databases are studied widely. Most of the previous works adopted the Apriori like approach which included repeated candidate generation and scan process. Moreover candidate generation is costly, especially for large number of patterns. In this paper, a new approach is proposed for the conversion of single dimensional database into multidimensional quantitative dataset for rule generation. The database is initially transformed into quantitative database in order to reduce the memory and increase the computational speed. The individual items are clustered with respect to category which is sufficient to satisfy all the constraints specified in problem domain to generate the rules. The objective is to generate more number of interesting rules that satisfy minimum confidence threshold (min_conf).
Keywords: Frequent Patterns, Single-Dimensional, Multidimensional, Quantitative, Discretization.