European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 117 No 2
Jan, 2014

Fuzzy Deformation Retract of Fuzzy Higher Graph

A. E. El-Ahmady
Our aim in the present paper is to introduce and study new connection between fuzzy retractions, fuzzy foldings and fuzzy deformation retracts of fuzzy higher graph. Types of fuzzy foldings and fuzzy deformation retracts of fuzzy higher graph are discussed. Types of minimal fuzzy retractions of fuzzy higher graph are obtained. The fuzzy foldings of fuzzy higher graph will be deduced. Some commutative diagrams are obtained. Some applications are presented.
Keywords: Fuzzy retraction, Fuzzy deformation retract, Fuzzy folding, Fuzzy higher graph.
Mathematics Subject Classification Codes: 51H10, 57N10.

The Deformation Retract of a Smooth Topological Space and its Foldings
A.E. El-Ahmady
The portion of this paper will focus on a specific type of topological space, the smooth topological space. In this study a connection between the deformation retract and conditional folding of smooth topological space are investigated. The relations between the limit of the conditional foldings of smooth topological space into itself and deformation retract of smooth topological space are deduced. The conditions under which the deformation retract of smooth topological space of dimension n will be a smooth topological space of dimension n-1 are presented. Some commutative diagrams concerning these relation are obtained.
Keywords:Smooth topological space, Retraction,Deformation retract, Folding.
Mathematics Subject Classification Codes: 54B20, 54C35, 51H10, 75N20.

Sticky Floor: Identifying Barriers to Promote Women's Leadership in Governmental Organizations of Ilam Province with a Qualitative Approach
Yasanallah Purashraf, Zahra Imani, Vahid Sharafi and Navid Fallah Hagh Mohammadi
A small number of women have been assigned in managerial positions of Iranian public sector and their number in high-level managerial positions is very low. Eliminating barriers to women promotion and increasing the number of women in managerial positions at public sector depends on identifying factors influencing the glass ceiling. The aim of this study was to identify the leadership promotion barriers of women in governmental organizations to of Ilam Province using a qualitative approach. Methodology used in this study was a qualitative method based on the text bases and subjective data. In this research, the purposive sampling method, including favorable cases sampling was used. Thus, the most important factors and parameters influencing the promotion of women's leadership barriers in Ilam Province were identified through interviews with people who were expert in respective fields as well as individual interviews, and the results of interviews were analyzed. The findings of the study as the qualitative data obtained after performing the process were analyzed; the social, political factors, organizational and individual factors formed the factors affecting the “Sticky Floor” in Ilam Province.
Keywords: Glass Ceiling, Sticky Floor, Promotion Barriers, Women, Ilam Province.

Criminal Matters in Judicial System of Iran
Mahdavi, Davar
"Criminal matters" as one of the elements determining the boundaries of applying fair trials principles and rules in criminal and non-criminal investigations, is considered of important achievements of new human rights. Clarifying concept and philosophy of "criminal matters" and its dominating standards is an issue which is useful to be mentioned. Need to accepting this concept in Iran`s judicial system, also, is another issue which should be discussed in this paper. "Criminal matters "; a concept established by European convention of human rights for the first time. In this judicial establishment, all infringes having sanction with criminal suppressor nature, regardless of including in crown or ministerial law, and regardless of their authority, they are in "criminal matters" and have penalties dominating fair trial. If the violation is coincide with one of the quad standards: describing violation in criminal law, violation nature, aim of sanctions and nature and amount of sanctions, that violation includes "criminal matters". As Iran has enacted 1966 international convention on civil and political rights, and also according to interpret of human rights court about 14 article of this convention that type of violations and the authority has no effect on them, on need to apply dominating sanctions on fair trial from member countries, Iran is also required to observe above sanctions in this domain.
Keywords: Criminal matters, dominating standard on criminal matters, dominating principles on fair trial, non-judicial authorities

Exploring the Role of Self-Esteem, Sociability and Emotional Support on Mobile Phone Disconnect Anxiety in a Nigerian Sample
Leonard I. Ugwu and Dorothy I. Ugwu
The study investigated the role of self-esteem; sociability and emotional support on mobile phone disconnect anxiety in a Nigeria sample. Multi-group cross-sectional design was used. Participants were 476 employees, comprising 260 males and 216 females selected from University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) was used to assess the self-esteem of the employees. The Sociability Scale (Cheek & Buss, 1981) was used to assess sociability, while the Emotional Support sub-scale of the Interpersonal Orientation Scale was used to measure emotional support. Mobile phone disconnect anxiety was measured using the Mobile phone Disconnect Anxiety Scale developed by the researchers. Results indicated that marital status, self-esteem, emotional support and sociability are predictors of mobile phone disconnect anxiety. Males (mean = 16.45, SD = 3.47) reported more disconnect anxiety than females (mean = 16.21, SD = 4.090), and married employees (mean = 12.90, SD = 7.61) differed from unmarried employees (mean = 7.23, SD = 6.29) on anxiety. Self-esteem, emotional support and sociability predicted mobile phone disconnect anxiety (beta = - .181, P <. 01), (beta - . 155, P <. 01) and (beta = - .140, P <. 01) respectively. Marital status with coefficient of 2.065 is the strongest predictor of mobile phone disconnect anxiety, thus contributing 6%, F (1,476) = 28.009, P <0.01 of the predictive ability of the model; followed by self-esteem with 2.5 percent, F (1,476) = 13.24, P < 0.0 01; emotional support accounting for 2.1 percent, F (1,476) = 8.201, P < 0. 01; while sociability contributed 1.7 percent, F (1,476) = 7.09, P < 0. 01 in predicting disconnects anxiety. Gender is not a predictor of mobile phone disconnect anxiety, suggesting that males and females feel the same level of anxiety when they lose contact with their phones.
Keywords: Mobile phone disconnect anxiety, sociability, emotional support, self-esteem.

Influence of Work Sections on Bank Employees Work-Family Conflict Depression Experience
Dorothy I. Ugwu, Chuks E. Ezedum and Leonard I. Ugwu
The study examined the influence of work sections on bank employees’ depression-related work-family conflict experience in Enugu state, Nigeria. Four hundred and seventy-seven bank employees participated in the study. Out of this number, 204 of the employees were drawn from operation, 49 of them were from the info-tech, and 123 of the employees were from the marketing, while 101 of them work in the internal control section. Two instruments were used for data collection. The first instrument was the adapted 13-item Depression Inventory developed by Zung (1965), which was modified by the researcher to tap information on the employees’ depression-related work-family conflict experience. The second instrument was the Key Informant Interview Schedule (KIIS) that was developed by the researcher. The study hypothesised that employees would not differ in depression-related work-family conflict experience based on work section. The result showed that employees in the operation section differed significantly from employees in any of the three sections on depression-related work-family conflict experience. It was recommended that management should adopt periodic inter-sectional transfers to ensure job rotation as this will cushion the effects of stress on employees who work in stress- laden section.

Psychological Alienation and its Impact on Achievement from Female Students Prospective in Princess Alia University College
Manal Othman Smadi and Amaal Al Masri
This study aimed to examine trends in female students studying in Princess Alia University College at Al-Balqa Applied University towards their feelings about psychological alienation impact on their academic achievement. The study also intended to identify the impact of academic year, specialization, and standard of living of the female students’ attitudes. The study sample consists of (46) expatriate female students in Princess Alia University College at Al-Balqa Applied University representing the study community for data processing, analysis of the results for each paragraph in questionnaire separately, using arithmetic means, standard deviations and (T) test to examine questions relating to the variables of academic year, specialization, students standard of living representation at independent variables chart. In this study arithmetic means and standard deviations were used to analyze the results which showed significant differences in statistical trends for expatriate female students about the impact of the academic achievement that attributes to the academic year in favor of first year female students category. The results also illustrated significant statistical differences attributable to specialization in favor of special education. Moreover, the results also confirmed differences due to living standards for benefit of people with low-income. Through reviewing the results, the researcher provides some recommendations for researchers such as : Preparation of other wider and deep studies in this regard to include other, private and governmental universities for both genders, male and female as well as conducting more studies on other variable factors and their impact on academic performance for expatriate students. The researcher also recommended conducting further studies to determine impact of social and emotional growth on the expatriate female students and not focusing only on academic achievement.
Keywords: Alienation, Academic Achievement.

An Efficient Algorithm to Some Highly Nonlinear Fractional PDEs
Jamshad Ahmad and Syed Tauseef Mohyud-Din
In this paper, a fractional complex transform (FCT) is used to convert the given partial differential equations (PDEs) into corresponding ordinary differential equations (PDEs) and subsequently Variational Iteration Method (VIM) is applied on the transformed PDEs. The results so obtained are re-stated by making use of inverse transformation which yields it in terms of original variables. It is observed that the proposed algorithm is highly efficient and appropriate for factional PDEs arising in mathematical physics and hence can be extended to other problems of diverse nature.

Keywords: Fractional differential equation, Fractional complex transform, Variational iteration method.

Fe(III)-Reducing Bacterial Activity under Saline Conditions
Affi Jeanne Bongoua-Devisme, Aurélie Cebron, Emile Kouadio Yoboue, Christian Mustin and Jacques Berthelin
In the saline paddy soils of Thailand, four bacterial consortia (S1, S2, S6, and S8) were isolated in paddy soils and then selected for their abilities and efficiencies to reduced iron oxyhydroxyde (goethite) at different concentration of salt in culture medium. In this study, the effect of salinity on the structure and activities of bacterial consortia involved in iron reduction process were studied at two saline concentrations (0 and 3% NaCl). The results show that the bacterial consortia presented different behaviors in the presence or absence of salt. The bacterial consortia S1 and S2 were not affected by the presence of salt. Bacterial consortium S6 had a higher iron-reducing activity under saline conditions than in a non-saline environment. The iron reducing activity of the bacterial consortium S8 was inhibited by the presence of salt but not fermentation processes. In this rice fields, the presence of diverse halosensitive to slightly halophilic bacterial groups and also of bacteria presenting both fermentative and iron-respiring metabolisms are able to maintain a strong ability in iron-reduction and dissolution under changing saline environmental conditions.
Keywords: Iron-reducing bacteria, Fe(III)-reducers, paddy soil, Thailand, salinity, isolated consortia, bacterial populations.

Heavy Oil Pro-Duction from Heterogeneous Reservoir with Inflow Control Technology
Farzan Sahari Moghaddam and Britt M. Halvorsen
Inflow control technology has been introduced and developed during the recent years in order to increase oil production from horizontal wells. Passive Inflow Control Devices (ICDs) have improved well performance compared to conventional well. However, once the breakthrough occurs ICDs cannot influence on gas or water flow rates. Autonomous Inflow Control Valve (AICV) is a recent development of inflow control technology in order to overcome the weaknesses of ICDs and improve well performance. The objective of this report was to evaluate horizontal well performance in a heterogeneous reservoir with ICD and AICV completions. For this purpose, simulations were performed by using OLGA coupled with Rocx as the simulating tools. Tecplot was used for presenting saturation and permeability profiles. In terms of heterogeneity, two different permeabilities of 5D and 50D were defined in the reservoir. Heavy oil viscosity and reservoir porosity were 150cP and 0.3 respectively. Heavy oil production with ICD completion was about 260m3 up to water breakthrough after 1.6 day of the production and the production with AICV completion increased up to about 345m3 after 3days with no water production.
Keywords: Heavy oil, Breakthrough, Heterogeneous, Production, ICD, AICV.

Investigating Omani Parents’ Involvement in their Children’s Schooling
Samaher Al-Harrasi and Rahma Al-Mahrooqi
This paper investigates the nature of Omani parents’ involvement in their children’s schooling. First, it reviews the literature on this topic, covering definitions, attitudes towards parental involvement, and the reasons behind parental lack of involvement in their children's schooling. The data was collected through a questionnaire given to 40 Omani parents (20 male and 20 female) from one town in Oman. As the findings show, Omani parents do not get much involved in schooling matters, although they believe in the positive influence of such an involvement on their children’s academic performance. The reasons mentioned in the literature for the lack of parental involvement globally, such as having big families, feeling unqualified, and working long hours - do not apply in the Omani context. This paper concludes that there is misunderstanding about Omani parental involvement in their children’s schooling and recommends further research.
Keywords: Parental involvement, family involvement, Oman, academic performance, lack of parental involvement.

The Observation on the Basis of Hidden Curriculum Elements in the Effectiveness of Teaching Courses in Bachelor
Maryam Bostan Pira, Fatemeh Bostan Pira and Mohammad Reza Salajegheh
Today, advancement in various fields is the fundamental objective in any society .Through this, the Educational development is the infrastructure of the economic and industrial advancement in any society, so that the educational development is the fundamental objective for the ones dealing with the economic and industrial development. The objective of the present paper is to observe the impact of the Hidden Curriculum elements on the effectiveness of teaching courses in bachelor. In present paper, the statistical society involves 6254 students studying in one of the Iran’s universities by which based on the Krejcie and Morgan – the statistical sample (360 individuals) was determined. To collect data, the questionnaire was used which the accuracy of the questionnaire was confirmed by 10 individuals, and post implementation of an experiment -the reliability of the questionnaire realized. It has to be remind that the questionnaire was distributed among 30 students by which the cronbach alpha coefficient obtained 84%. To analyze the data, the inferential and descriptive statistical indices such as mode, mean, median, percentage frequency, cumulative frequency, deviation standard and the inferential statistic involving the one-way variance, correlation coefficient and t-test were used. The obtained results show that the factors such as professor-Student Interactions, organizational structure, the behavior and performance of professor, the advancement of the library, and representation of the behavioral pattern by professors, the method of teaching are motioned as the factors which could put the effect on teaching the Islamic courses.
Keywords: Education plan, Effectiveness, Teaching, Islamic Religion.

RTS Determination in Supply Chain Management using DEA
F. Hosseinzadeh Lotfi, M. Rostamy, G.R. Jahanshahloo and H. Ranjbar
In today's competitive world, rapid changes in the field of activity of industrial, economic and commercial become more complex and competitive environment between firms and public and private companies, they have the tools and new approaches to improve their supply chain performance. Therefore, the discussion returns to scale can be used in order to develop the best policies in the development and performance evaluation of supply chains may also play a significant role in the management discussion.Given the importance of returns to scale in relation to management decisions. In this paper, using the illustration to remove the intermediate products of Supply Chain and finally the algorithm is presented to determine the type of returns to scale of supply chain.
Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Return To Scale, Weight Restriction, Intermediate products, Supply Chain, Production Possibility Set.

Study on Mechanical and Durability Properties of Silica Fume Based Quarry Dust Concrete
A. Krishnamoorthi and G. Mohan Kumar
The most widely used fine aggregate for making of concrete is the natural sand mined from the riverbeds and is becoming scarce due to the excessive nonscientific methods of mining from the riverbeds creating problems like lowering of water table and sinking of bridge piers. The present scenario demands for identification of substitute materials for the river sand for making concrete. Quarry Dust(QD) as such a byproduct from crushing process during quarrying activities is one of those materials that have recently gained attention to be used as fine aggregate. With and without processing, quarry dust have been tried for making concrete and found to have certain features that include the excess fine particles and irregular particle shape of quarry dust and more water consumption and totally resulting in the reduction of the designated strength which is significant for high strength concrete. This paper brings out the effect of mineral additives on the properties of quarry dust concrete. Design mix of M40 grade concrete was made for conventional Sand Concrete (SC) as well as Quarry Dust Concrete(QDC), 5% and 10% cement replacements by silica fume with 0.9% of Super plasticizer were considered. Workability, strength and durability properties of SC and QDC were obtained and compared. Based on the test results, total replacement of sand with quarry dust is recommended for higher grade of concrete with mineral additives.
Keywords: Quarry dust, River sand, Silica fume, Strength, Durability.

A Critical Analysis of the Rule of Law in Iran Legal System
Mohammad Moghadamfard, Rizal Rahman, Yaser Farmani, Mohammad Naji Shah Mohammadi and Kourosh Ostovar Sangari
Conformity of legislature, executive, judicial activities with legal principles and making these activities correspondent with law can be definition of rule of law. There have been two historic changes in basis of Iran legal system in 20th century. Changing from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy in 1906 as the first step toward confining the King`s unlimited power and the second one was Islamic revolution in 1979 that made a fundamental reform in both legal and political system. Before 1906, all authority resided in King and he handled all aspects of life in territory but efforts of freedom seekers led to changes in 1906 and accordingly a constitution was born to regulate sovereignty and confine unlimited powers of King. In 1979 Islamic Revolution reformed legal and political system based on Islam and a new constitution was born. This paper seeks to discover the history of rule of law in Iran to see how far foresaid changes affected the application of rule before and after Islamic Revolution in Iran. Moreover, obstacles and requirements of rule of law will be discussed and solutions will be introduced.
Keywords: Rule of Law, Absolute and Constitutional Monarchy, Islamic Revolution, Iran Legal System, Governing Bodies.