European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 159 No 4
July, 2021

The Transitional-Alkaline Magmatic Series of Moroccan Central High Atlas, (Imilchil, Jbel Hayim and Tamazert Area): Geochemical Signatures and Igneous Phosphate Exploration Implication
103-127
Nouamane El Aouad, Youssef Daafi, Amina Wafik and Hassan Admou
Abstract:
The igneous phosphate rocks are mined from alkaline magmatic rocks, like syenite, nephilinic syenite, and apatite carbonatites (e.g., the Kola Peninsula and Kola Peninsula in Russia, the waste rock of the iron mines of Kiruna, Sweden and Arax, in Brazil…). In Morocco, several syenite massifs are recorded from the Precambrian to the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, we respectively cite those of the Reguibat shield, Jbel Boho and Siroua massif in the Central Anti-Atlas, the High Atlas and Middle Atlas . In the Central High Atlas, Jurassic syenites are located in the Imilchil region at the south of Beni Mellal City. Petrographically, these rocks are composed of potassium feldspar, plagioclase, carbonates and traces of silica with secondary minerals mainly iron oxides/hydroxides (magnetite/Ilmenite). Accessory minerals are represented by apatite with trace elements (F, K and P, Ti) and trace Si. From geochemical point of view, the syenites of the Central High Atlas of Imilchil as well as those of Tamazert are characterized by a peralkaline magmatic affinity (strongly potassic alkaline) and set up in an anorogenic geodynamic context, while those of Jbel Hayim were set up in a collisional to post-collisional compressive context related to the closure of the High Atlas basin.
Keywords: Igneous Phosphate, Central High Atlas, Imilchil, Syenite, Jbel Hayim, alkaline magmatism, Apatite.


Characterization of the Hydrological Drought Occurrence in Côte D’ivoire: Case of the Sassandra Watershed
128-141
Sante Natacha, N’go Yao Alexis, Meledje N’Diaye Hermann, Soro Gneneyougo Emile and Goula BI Tié Albert
Abstract:
The Sassandra watershed is increasingly marked by droughts, linked to the decline in rainfall observed in recent decades. These rainfall anomalies observed have had repercussions on river flows, causing hydrological droughts. This study proposes to study the hydrological droughts occurrence in the said basin. The methodological approach, based on the exploitation of annual flow data, has first allowed to identify the ruptures and to evaluate the hydrometric deficits. The IHN index was used to characterize the dry sequences and finally, Markov chains were used to determine the probabilities of successive dry years occurrence. It appears from this study that breaks occurred (between 1993 and 2001) with a tendency to increase the flow rates from 40.94% to 69.94% after the rupture. The most remarkable droughts in terms of intensity and duration occurred at the hydrometric stations located in the West and the North of the basin. The results of Markov chains 1 and 2 indicated that the highest probabilities of obtaining two or three successively dry years are recorded in the North and the West of the basin with probabilities of up to 79% for the first-order Markov chains and 86% for the second-order Markov chains.
Keywords: Hydrological drought, Markov chain, Sassandra watershed, Côte d’Ivoire.


Psychological Contract and Employee Retention in Selected Deposit Money Banks in Awka Metropolis, Anambra State Nigeria
142-153
Nnaji-Ihedinmah, Nnnadozie Chijioke, Ugwu, Kelechi Enyinna, Kekeocha, Mary Ezinne andOnyechere, Patricia Onyinyechi
Abstract:
The restructuring exercises undertaken by banks in Awka metropolis, in particular, have negatively influenced the psychological well-being of their workers. The broad objective of the study is to investigate the relationship between psychological contract and employee retention in commercial banks in Awka metropolis. The specific objectives seek to explore the relationship that exists between relational psychological contract and employee loyalty among employees. The study adopted a descriptive survey design method to explore the relationship between two variables. Primary data were sourced using a structured questionnaire. The population of the study comprised of employees of five selected banks in Awka metropolis: First Bank Nig (FBN), Union Bank (UBN), First City Monument Bank (FCMB), Guaranty Trust Bank (GT Bank) and Fidelity Bank Plc. Primary data were obtained from a population of 187. The probability (stratified) random sampling method was employed in data collection. Copies of the questionnaire were sent to the participants using five points Likert scale. The hypothesis was tested and analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlation to establish the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variables. Findings revealed that relational psychological contract had a significant positive relationship with employee loyalty. The study recommends the followings: Banks should ensure that the psychological make-up of their staff is taken into consideration when planning their retention strategies; Managers and employers in the financial industry should pay more attention to relational psychological issues in order to achieve employee loyalty.
Keywords: Psychological Contract, Employee Commitment, Relational Contract, Employee Loyalty, Organizational Support Theory.


Evaluation D’itineraires Techniques Culturaux de Gestion de L’enherbement en Culture du Manioc Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) dans la Zone Peri Urbaine D’abidjan, au Sud de la Côte D’ivoire
154-165
Mango Melem Généviève, Kouadio Yao Lambert and Mangara Ali
Abstract:
La nuisibilité provoquée par les mauvaises herbes en agriculture implique une lutte contre celles-ci en vue d’optimiser les rendements. Le contexte agricole actuel préconise la réduction de l’usage des herbicides afin de limiter les impacts sur l’environnement, les producteurs et les consommateurs. Ceci impose la conception de systèmes de lutte respectueux de l’environnement. Pour cela, différents traitements ont été mis en place dans l’optique de proposer une méthode de gestion de l’enherbement en culture du manioc en vue d’améliorer la productivité. Un dispositif en blocs de Fisher randomisés de 10 traitements avec 4 répétitions a été utilisé. Les traitements sont constitués de culture pure de manioc, de culture de manioc associé à Zea mays, Arachis hypogea et Mucuna pruriens. Différentes fréquences de désherbage manuel ont été testées. Dans chaque traitement, le taux d’enherbement, la hauteur et la circonférence des plants, puis le rendement du manioc, ont été mesurés. Il ressort de cette étude que le rendement du manioc est lié au taux d'enherbement. Les rendements les plus élevés sont obtenus au niveau des traitements T1 (culture pure de manioc désherbée chaque deux semaines) et Tar (manioc associé à l’arachide et désherbage à 1 et 3 mois après planting). Les rendements obtenus sont respectivement 23,6 t/ha et 25,4 t/ha. Des gains de rendement de 14,56 % et 23,30% sont enregistrés par rapport au témoin Tma (placette comportant du manioc + du maïs et 2 désherbages à 1 mois et 3 mois après planting. Les traitements T0 (pas de désherbage durant la culture), T4 (désherbage chaque trois mois) et Tmu (manioc + mucuna) ont les plus faibles rendements avec des pertes de rendement respectives de 75,72 %, 72,33 % et 70,38 %.
Keywords: Enherbement, gestion, désherbage, manioc, Côte d’Ivoire.


Building Customer Knowledge Management as a Panacea for Institutional Sustainability in Universities in Cross River State, Nigeria
166-172
Odigwe F. N. and Okoi, I. I.
Abstract:
Substantial changes in the educational environment such as acute competitive actions, deregulations of the educational system, variations in consumer demands, political pressure, etc have caused many educational institutions to design new competitive strategies. This study aimed at building Customer Knowledge Management as a panacea for institutional sustainability in Cross River State, Nigeria. Correlation design was used. The population of the study comprised of 19 faculty deans and 100 hundred Heads of Department in university of Calabar and Cross River State University of Technology (CRUTECH). Stratified sampling technique was used. The basis for stratification was federal and state government institutions. Instrument titled Customer Knowledge Management and Institutional Sustainability was used for data collection. A reliability estimate of 0.78 was obtained using Cronbach Alpha. Pearson product moment correlation statistics was used for data analysis. The findings revealed a significant correlation between Building Customer Knowledge Management and Institutional Sustainability. It was recommended that school managers should understand the relative importance of various students/customers services to current potential customers. This will enable the institutions to understand patterns of timing of demand for customer services on each of their product.
Keywords: Customer knowledge management, institutional sustainability, customer services


Qualitative Interpretation of Vertical Magnetic Anomalies at Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, Niger Delta, Nigeria
173-190
Olatunbosun A. Alao, Williams N. Ofuyah, Olaolu Afolabi and Sunday J. Olotu
Abstract:
The application of amplitude-geomagnetic parameter transforms in the qualitative interpretation of anomalies of ground vertical magnetic data acquired in Federal University of Petroleum Resources Effurun (FUPRE), Effurun, Niger Delta, Nigeria was carried out. The aim of the study was to map subsurface magnetic structures in some part of FUPRE using an enhanced interpretation technique in view of weak magnetic anomalies and low susceptibility characteristic of such sedimentary environment. The objectives are to filter the acquired data, derive diagnostic and interpretive attributes to identify subsurface structures like faults, contact zones and orientation in the area of study. The methodology adopted the principle of edge detection, amplitude-geomagnetic parameter transforms and a developed algorithm and computer programme coded within MATLAB software. Vertical component of the magnetic field data and its vertical derivative were acquired using the AMC 6 – High Precision Fluxgate Magnetometer (resolution of 0.1 nT) with directional difference of ≤ &plusminus; 10nT). The survey comprises seven (7) traverses, which are three (3) dip lines, three (3) strike lines and one (1) tie line. It has inter-traverse spacing of 5 m for the dip and strike lines. While station spacing along the dip and tie lines was 2 m, that along the strike line was 5 m. The measured vertical component data was corrected and transformed into other magnetic field elements and their derivatives. The study indicates the reliability of adopting the developed technique in magnetic method to reliably map magnetically subtle subsurface structures such as faults, contact zones, etc., in a sedimentary environment and general geologic mapping for enhanced visibility, and can be adopted for use in basement terrain.
Keywords: Fluxgate Magnetometer, Amplitude-Geomagnetic Parameter, Sedimentary Environment, Vertical Derivative, Basement Terrain.