European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 157 No 1
July, 2020

Sociological Factors and College of Education Students’ Learning Outcomes in French, Cross River State, Nigeria
5-16
Ashabua Derick A. and Agbor Catherine Alex
Abstract:
The study investigated Sociological Factors and College of Education Students’ Learning Outcomes in French, Cross River State, Nigeria. Two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to give direction to the study. The study adopted a survey research design and the population comprised 55 second year French Language students, of which the entire population was used for the study. A well validated Sociological Factors and Students’ Learning Outcomes in French (SFSLOF) questionnaire and a French Literacy Test (FLT) were used to collect the required data. Frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, independent t-test, and One-way Analysis of Variance were the statistical tools used for analysis of the data collected. The two hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance. The results of the analysis revealed that students’ linguistic environment and students’ socio-economic status have no significant influence on their learning outcomes in French Language. Sequel to the findings of this study, recommendations were made.
Keywords: Sociological factors, linguistic environment, socio-economic status, learning outcomes, French language.


The Effect of Voluntary Disclosure on the Cost of Capital: Evidence from Jordan
17-26
Omar Mohammed Zraqat
Abstract:
This study aimed to evaluate the level of voluntary disclosure contained in the annual reports of banks listed on the Amman Stock Exchange. and explore the effect of the level of voluntary disclosure on the cost of capital of Jordanian commercial banks listed on the stock exchange. The correlation between disclosure and the cost of capital is proposed through the signal theory that indicates that increased corporate disclosure works to reduce the inconsistency of information between companies and investors, and thus influence the capital cost of the study sample banks. The study population consists of all 13 Jordanian commercial banks, and the five banks were included in the study sample. Information sources represent secondary sources, which were represented by financial data extracted from financial statements, annual reports, and information about commercial banks listed on the Amman Stock Exchange for the period (2008-2018) published on the financial market website in Jordan.
The study found that there is a difference between the banks listed on the Amman Stock Exchange in terms of the level of voluntary disclosure and that the level of application of voluntary disclosure is medium between Jordanian banks, in addition to a statistically significant relationship that occurs between capital cost and voluntary disclosure of Jordanian commercial banks. The study recommends that Jordanian commercial banks should increase the level of voluntary disclosure in their financial reports due to the apparent impact on the cost of capital.
Keywords: Voluntary Disclosure, Cost of Capital, Jordanian commercial banks.


Forecasting the Exchange Rate of Kuwaiti Dinar (KWD) with the British Pound Sterling (GBP)
27-42
Fatma Ali Alyousif, Bedour Mohammad Alsaleh and Amani Sulaiman Alrashdan
Abstract:
The study in this paper was attempted to build a statistical model for forecasting the GBP/KWD exchange rate. A variety of statistical time series techniques were analyzed such as exponential smoothing models, and ARIMA models including autoregressive and moving average process. The data was collected for five years started from 6th of January 2014 till 8th of November 2019. ARIMA(p,d,q) models were analyzed also to identify the adequate of the models, the stationary of the series was tested by applying the trend test such as ADF-Augmented Dickey-Fuller and PP-phillips-perron unit root tests. Performance of the competitive models for Arima models was assessed with AIC and BIC criteria. Statistical model fit measures indicate that the best candidate model among the competitive arima models was ARIMA (1,1,1):Yt=0.9139Zt-1-0.9299et-1.
Statistical analysis for the exponential smoothing models were analyzed. The accuracy measures criteria such as: mean absolute error (MAE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), sum square error (SSE), mean squared error(MSE),and mean percentage error(MPE) assessed. The results of the analysis reveal the fact that the best model among the exponential models was the single exponential smoothing model.
Keywords: Exchange rates, Exponential smoothing, ARIMA.


Reading Ability and Comprehension Performance of Students
43-50
Agbor Catherine Alex, Ashabua Derick Achu and Iwok Elizabeth Etim
Abstract:
This study was conducted to investigate reading ability and performance in reading comprehension of students in Calabar Education Zone of Cross River State, Nigeria. Two null hypotheses were formulated and tested to direct the study. Survey research design was adopted for the study. A sample of 673 students was randomly selected for the study. The selection was done through the stratified and simple random sampling techniques. The Reading Test (RPT) was the main instrument used for data collection. Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis was the statistical analysis technique adopted to test the hypotheses under study. All hypotheses were subjected to testing at 0.05 level of significance with relative degrees of freedom. The results of the analysis revealed that comprehension levels and reading speed very significantly relate to students’ performance in reading comprehension. Based on the findings, recommendations were made.
Keywords: Reading ability, comprehension level, reading speed, performance, students.


Civil Liability of the State Resulting From The Cross boarder Harm From Covid-19
51-61
Jalal Aead Shwarah and Khaled Abed ALshakhanbeh
Abstract:
This study has dealt with role of the state in compensating the affected by Covid-19, using on analytical comparative study depending on the legal international and national legislations and the opinions of the Jurists related to this issue, through the effected and way of infection and transfer from one person to another, role of the state in performing its duties and responsibilities in confronting it, and the victims as a result of the transfer of Covid-19 from the infected, according to the governing legislations in this issue, whether the international or the national laws to reach compensation to victims of covid-19.
It became clear to us that the one who has been infected has the right for demanding compensation for the harm resulting from covid-19.
Also the study has addressed the possibility of requiring the country causing the cross boundary harm resulting from its dangerous activities the victims and infected countries, and the extent of guarantee this right in the international and national law, in order to reach a fair compensation to fix the harm, in shadow of presence of obstacles preventing reaching the compensation.
So, there is the need for review the governing laws of this epidemic in the national law in addition to the public international law, and including in it texts relating to the establishment of a world fund in WHO or international institution extend to local funds enjoy personality to compensate the victims and the affected from this epidemic, considering these funds public funds to enjoy legal protection.
Keywords: Civil law, Civil Liability, State, Cross border, Covid-19, Infected. International law, WHO. Human rights.


Bert Measurement of an Optically Preamplified Receiver
62-76
Ajaegbu Chigozirim, Nzenwata J. Uchenna, Onuoha I. Obinna, Rotimi Olugbohungbe, Gregory O. Onwodi and Afolorunso A. Adenrele
Abstract:
Optical amplifiers make it possible to build long-distance transparent optical transmission links without the need for electrical regenerators, thereby providing a cost effective optical network design. This can be achieved using erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) or semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). During transmission, losses due to dispersion in the core of the optical fiber, and degradation in signal quality due to noise (amplifier or photodetector noise); pose a limit on the maximum transmission distance that can be achieved. The introduction of optical amplifier in front of the photodetector (preamplification) to improve the sensitivity of the receiver improves the performance of the system. Through preamplification, we have achieved sensitivities (at 10-9 BER) of -24.44dBm, -24.77dBm, and -25.08dBm for 5Gb/s, 2.5Gb/s, and 1.25Gbps respectively at 20mA pump current; -24.9dBm, -26.38dBm, and -27.17dBm for 5Gb/s, 2.5Gb/s, and 1.25Gbps respectively, at 30mA; and -24.4dBm, -25.4dBm, and -25.98dBm for 5Gb/s, 2.5Gb/s, and 1.25Gbps respectively at 40mA. This has shown sensitivity enhancements (at 30mA) of 4.28dB, 5.38dB, and 5.9dB for 5Gb/s, 2.5Gb/s, and 1.25Gbps respectively as against back-to-back measurements.
Keywords: Optical amplifier, Optical transmission, Photodetector, Bit-error rate and Fiber optics


Morality, Sexuality and Quest for Money among University Undergraduates: Social Values System as a Panacea
77-84
Alonge Rufus Ajayi and Adanikin Ayobami Foluso
Abstract:
The level of moral decadence in Nigeria today, as manifested in sexual immorality and the quest for money making among university undergraduates, call for the re-emphasising and re-orientation of our social values system to the present crop of youths in the society. Academic excellence without good moral upbringing is nothing more than an exercise in futility. This paper therefore examined the problems of sexual immorality, the influence of university ownership on students’ sexual morality, the quest for money making among university undergraduates and how social values can serve as a panacea for the rejuvenation of our societal ethical conduct. The study adopted descriptive research design of the survey type. The population consisted of all university undergraduates in both public and private universities in southwest Nigeria. The sample size consisted of 1581 undergraduates. A self-designed instrument tagged Values and Sexual Morality Questionnaire (VASMOQ) was used to collect data for the study. The Pearson test-retest method was used to determine the reliability coefficient which stood at 0.92 after the face and content validity had been ensured by experts in Social Studies, Sociology, Guidance and Counselling and Tests, Measurement and Evaluation. The data collected were analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test analyses. The two hypotheses generated were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that the level of university undergraduates’ sexual morality in southwest Nigeria was moderate. The finding also revealed that ownership of universities significantly influenced university undergraduates’ sexual morality. Furthermore, the study revealed that there was a significant relationship between the quest for money and social values. It was recommended that parents and the university authority should endeavour to inculcate sound moral to their children and students. In addition, there should be a synergy between the parents and university management to dissuade the students from ungodly quest for money; and lastly stakeholders’ forum could be inaugurated to see to the welfare and attitudinal disposition of the students.
Keywords: morality, quest for money, ritual killings, sexuality, socialisation, university ownership, values.


Information Communication Technology for Inclusion: Factors Militating Against Quality Inclusive Education Practice in Nigeria
85-101
Ikwen Emmanuel Uminya, Josephine Dasel Nanjwan and Orim Samuel Orim
Abstract:
This paper explores research literature that focuses on the use of technology to support inclusive teaching and learning and observes that there are contentious issues associated with technology and inclusion that hamper inclusive education practices in Nigeria. The paper, thus points out research-based factors that enhance the use of ICT in inclusive settings that are not available in Nigerian education system, particularly the school system or classroom environment, including promoting equity in educational opportunities; ICT for innovation; knowledge of assistive technology and its benefits for inclusive education; adoption of global measures that indicate developments and progress in the use of technology for special needs education; ICT accessibility as an entitlement; training of teachers in general and specialist ICT; national level initiatives to provide high quality initial teacher training, focusing on meeting the needs of learners with special needs in an inclusive manner; investing in multi-stakeholder research and development in ICT and monitoring the use of ICT in inclusive education. The paper covers mainly basic school level which constitutes the state funded compulsory education. Inclusive education, persons with disabilities and special needs have been explained briefly while conclusions and recommendations are made based on the discussion of the paper.
Keywords: Information Communication Technology (ICT), Inclusion, Factors, Inclusive Education Practice.


Reading Ability and Comprehension Performance of Students
102-109
Agbor Catherine Alex, Ashabua Derick Achu and Iwok Elizabeth Etim
Abstract:
This study was conducted to investigate reading ability and performance in reading comprehension of students in Calabar Education Zone of Cross River State, Nigeria. Two null hypotheses were formulated and tested to direct the study. Survey research design was adopted for the study. A sample of 673 students was randomly selected for the study. The selection was done through the stratified and simple random sampling techniques. The Reading Test (RPT) was the main instrument used for data collection. Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis was the statistical analysis technique adopted to test the hypotheses under study. All hypotheses were subjected to testing at 0.05 level of significance with relative degrees of freedom. The results of the analysis revealed that comprehension levels and reading speed very significantly relate to students’ performance in reading comprehension. Based on the findings, recommendations were made.
Keywords: Reading ability, comprehension level, reading speed, performance, students.


Epidemiological Profile of Covid-19 in Africa
110-123
Abdelmajid Soulaymani, Donia Kharbouch, Zineb Nabih, Zakaria Abidli, Nada Lebkiri, Faiçal El Hattimy and Abdelrhani Mokhtari
Abstract:
The first case of Covid-19 in the African Continent was registered on 14 February 2020 in Egypt.The objective of this work is to provide an observational epidemiological profile of COVID-19 at the African continent until 05 June 2020. The North African region has accumulated 54,620 cases of Covid-19, with the highest number of recovery in Africa (44%).Until its 99th Day of the first covid-19 infection, West Africa recorded 39,596 cases, 42% have recovered and 2% have died. East Africa recorded a total of 16,277 cases, with 32% of recoveries and 1% of deaths. Middle Africa had a total of 17,992 cases of Covid-19, 34% of cases recovered, and 2% died. 41,161 cases of Covid-19 were recorded in Southern Africa, with the highest percentage of recoveries (52%) and 2% of deaths.
Although the African continent has recorded a relatively small number of cases confirmed by covid-19 and remains the continent least affected by the epidemic, this does not mean that health authorities can lower their guard. Africa must therefore strengthen its health system and launch a massive Covid-19 testing campaign to be ready for a second wave and avoid a health crisis.
Keywords: COVID-19, Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 virus, Africa, Epidemiology, Pandemic.