European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 156 No 4
June, 2020

Mentoring of Students: An Effective Instrument for Educators in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria
Afolabi, Comfort Yemisi
Mentoring or mentorship appears to be a powerful driver for career development, particularly for retaining students in their academic endeavours. Not much literary studies have been done on mentoring and its effectiveness in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. This study therefore, takes a cursory look at mentoring of students as an effective educational instrument or otherwise in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. To do this, the paper discussed mentoring; types of mentoring; stages of mentoring; mentoring skills, techniques, process and procedures; mentoring as an instrument for educators; gender and mentoring; benefits of mentoring for students in tertiary institutions and challenges of effective mentoring. The study utilised secondary data source to access information from journals, books and dailies. The findings revealed that mentoring was highly beneficial to all levels of students in tertiary institution of learning in any country including Nigeria. Mentoring could be an important tool for all educators in learning institutions, especially tertiary ones. Based on these findings, the study recommended that good and very effective mentoring sessions and activities should be included in the programmes of tertiary institutions in Nigeria and globally.
Keywords: Mentoring, instruments, educators, academic, benefits, information.

Influence of the Mixture of Alluvial Sand and Quarry Sand as Fine Aggregate on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Hydraulic Concrete: The Case of Alluvial Sand from the Nyong River and Crushed Sand from the Quarry of Nkoulouganga (Center, Cameroon)
Mambou Ngueyep Luc Leroy and Mvogo Ebede Patrice Junior
This work was firstly focused on a comparative study of the physical and mechanical performance of concrete made with alluvial sand of the Nyong river (Olamalocality, Center, Cameroon) and with quarry sand (SG) from Koulouganga (Center, Cameroon). Secondly, these concretes properties were compared to a concrete formulated from the mixture of alluvial sand (SN) and quarry sand, which was denoted MS. Three types of formulations were performed with the same gravels, constant cement dosage and the same consistency while the sands were of different geological nature. Alluvial sand (SN) and quarry sand (SG) have been characterized from a petrographic and geotechnical point of view. It appears that the crush sand (SG) was metamorphic type. This sand has a high fine content (11.3%) compared to the other sands SN and MS which were respectively equal to 1.1% and 3.5%. The fineness modulus was 2.5 for SN; 3.01 for SG and 2.8 for the MS mixture. In terms of their cleanliness, SN sand was very clean with a piston sand equivalent value of 97.6%. For the sand extracted from the quarry (SG) and the mixture sand (MS) the values were respectively 77.5% and 87.3%. The compressive strengths at 28 days of concrete were determined. Concretes made from alluvial sand (BSN) had the best compressive strength (33 MPa). Concretes made from quarry sand (BSG) and the mixture of two sands (BMS) had compressive strengths of 28 and 30 MPa respectively. The alluvial sand had proven to be of little benefit for making concrete compared to crush quarry sand used in construction projects. However in the road project by taking account the cost of transport of sand, the use of the mixture of quarry sand and alluvial sand could be consider in the certain case as the best solution.
Keywords: Concrete, crushed sands, alluvial sands, formulation, physical and mecanical properties.

Impact of Progesterone Base Hormonal Contraceptive on some Inflammatory Markers in HIV Seropositive Females attending Fertility Clinic in NAUTH, Nnewi, Nigeria
Victoria Ogechi Agu, Nkiruka Rose Ukibe, Charles Chinedum Onyenekwe, Charles German Ikimi, Ikechukwu Uzoma Chukwuagwu, Ofia Anya Kalu and Joseph Chimezie Awalu
This is a case-controlled retrospective study designed to assess the impact of hormonal contraceptive (progesterone base) on levels of some immunoglobulin and cytokines in HIV infected females in Nnewi, Nigeria. One hundred and eighteen (118) consented premenopausal females on regular menstrual cycle including; 29 HIV infected females on contraceptive (A); 29 HIV infected females not on contraceptive (B); 30 HIV seronegative females on contraceptives (C) and 30 HIV seronegative females not on contraceptive (D) were conveniently recruited with aid of questionnaire. Immunoglobulin (IgG and IgM) and cytokines (TNF-α and IL-2) were assayed using ELISA method. Results showed that IgG, IgM and TNF-α were significantly increased in at follicular phase while only IgM was increased at luteal phase of menstrual cyle in HIV infected females on/not on contraceptives when compared with HIV seronegative counterparts (p ≤ 0.001 respectively). Similar observation was made for IL-2 at follicular phase of menstrual cycle in HIV infected females on contraceptive when compared with their seronegative counterparts on contraceptive (p = 0.002). The significant elevation in IgG, IgM and TNF-α in HIV infected females on contraceptives indicates active inflammation which was more marked at follicular phase of menstrual cycle thereby, predisposing them to adverse sexually transmitted infections and disease progression as a result of combined effect of the progesterone base contraceptives.
Keywords: HIV, Hormonal contraceptive, Immunoglobin, Cytokines.

An Investigation in Sutabily of the Neural Network Classifier for Family Malware Classification
Mariam Abdullah Alotaibi, and Turkea Ayedh Aljuaid
Malware is considered as one of the major threats to the computer security. The wide ranging and diversity of malware in recent years has made it a fertile field for a number of studies and research endeavors seeking to address the problem, including studies that focus on machine learning “classification techniques”. In this research, the performance of Neural Network classification algorithms in malware families’ classification is investigated and compared with other classification algorithms which are often used in malware classification; namely, Random Forest, J48 and Naïve Bayes in Microsoft Malware Family Classification Dataset using WEKA. Neural Network Classifiers run through 10-fold cross validation. Performance comparison between algorithms was dependent on some criteria, such as Recall, Precision, F-Measure and Accuracy, where ANN achieved a high accuracy by around 99.46% compared to some other algorithms.
Keywords: Malware, Classification, Neural Network.

The Use of Language Laboratory in TEFL from University Students’ Perspective
Nedaa Mahmoud Khalil and Salem Saleh Ibnian
The current study, through the descriptive approach, aimed to unveil the extent to which Jordanian universities use laboratories (labs) in teaching English, from the perspective of students. To achieve goals of the study, a relevant questionnaire with (25) items was designed.
The study sample comprised (230) male and female students selected via stratified – random sampling from the following Jordanian Universities: The World Islamic Sciences and Education University, Applied Balqa University, Amman National University, and Applied Sciences University.
The results revealed that using language lab for teaching English rated medium, from the perspective of students. They also revealed that there were differences with statistical significance at the function level (a = 0.05) attributed to type of the university in favor of the private ones. But, there were no differences with statistical significance at the functional level (a = 0.05) attributed to academic year or gender.
The study recommends paying more attention to using language labs in teaching English in Jordanian universities.
Keywords: English language lab; Extent of use; Jordanian university students.

Northrop Frye’s Critical Theories on the Shakespearean Tragedies
Ishraq Bassam Al-Omoush
Northrop Frye was a literary theorist and one of the most influential twentieth-century critics. In his masterpiece, Anatomy of Criticism, Frye attempts to formulate an overview of theories, genres, and techniques of literary criticism. Among the genres Frye sheds lights on is ‘tragedy’. ‘Tragedy’ is basically defined as a genre that treats the dilemma of a heroic figure and the terrible and the sorrowful events that he encounters in a serious and dignified style. This paper tackles the concept of tragedy in accordance with Frye’s critical theories. For Northrop Frye, tragedy is not only associated with the sorrowful events encountered by the tragic figure that eventually lead to his death; the concept of tragedy and the tragic figure is based on the hero’s integration or isolation from the society he is involved in. More particularly, the paper examines how Frye explains the structure of the Shakespearean tragedies especially in his Fools of Time: Studies in Shakespearean Tragedies. He divides them into three sub-categories: tragedies of order, tragedies of passion, and those of isolation. So the current study focuses on the structure of some Shakespearean tragedies such as Hamlet, Othello and Julius Caesar in accordance with Frye’s critical theories.
Keywords: “Shakespearean Tragedies”, “Northrop Frye’s Criticism”, “Tragic figure or hero”, “tragedies of isolation”, “ tragedies of order”, “tragedies of passion”

Mid-Life Crises and Percieved Health Challenges among Women in Tertiary Institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria
Maria E. Ngwu and Rachel D. Uche
The study sought to determine mid-life crises and perceived health challenges among women in tertiary institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria. Survey research design was used and a total of three (300) hundred respondents were selected through accidental sampling techniques. One hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance. The instrument for data collection was a 40 item likert scale type questionnaire titled: Mid-life Crises and Perceived Health Challenges Questionnaire (MCPHCQ). Statistical tool used for data analysis was multiple linear regressions. The result showed that mid-life crises variable such as physical changes, family crises, work and occupational stress predict health challenges among women in tertiary institutions in Cross River State. Based on the findings, recommendations were made that women should engage in healthier lifestyle such as good nutrition, constant exercise, be in control of one’s emotional state and seek counselling as need arises. Health care and consultancy services should increase awareness in women about this phase of life and preventive health services should help women cope with the emotional, physical and social issues experienced by women.
Keywords: Mid-life Crises, Perceived, Health Challenges.

Academic Test Anxiety and Mathematics Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in Model Secondary School Maitama, Abuja, Nigeria
Denwigwe, C. P. and Jacks, S. C.
This study explored the relationship between academic test anxiety and Mathematics performance among senior secondary III (SS3) students in Model Secondary School (MSS) Maitama, Abuja. 100 students were selected through purposive random sampling from a population of 120 SS3 students. The study was a descriptive field survey and was guided by three hypotheses. The test anxiety questionnaire by Nist and Diehl (1990) and Mathematics achievement test jointly set by some teachers of mathematics were the instruments for data collection. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Statistical technique and the t-test were used as the statistical tools for data analysis. Findings from this research revealed an inverse relationship (negative correlation) between the test anxiety of students and their performance in mathematics, and no significant difference between the test anxiety scores of male and female students. There was a significant difference between the performance in mathematics of high-test anxiety students and low-test anxiety students. It was recommended among others that Continuous Professional Development (CPD), which equips teachers with the wherewithal to detect signs of anxiety and helps to reduce it should be encouraged.
Keywords: Academic Test anxiety, Performance, Mathematics, Relationship, Students.

The Role of Attitude and Auditee Mood during Auditing
Larissa Ando, Ana Maria Roux Valentini Cesar and Joshua Onome Imoniana
This study analyses the relationships between the attitudes of employees of a state owned bank and the Internal Audit Functions (IAF) and also understand how attitudes affect their mood. Although IAF is perceived as sine qua non by the auditees, represents a factor of stress when IAF is perceived as a threat, modifies auditees's mood and their attitudes towards auditor. Data were collected using closed-end questionnaires to capture the attitude of auditees regarding IAF, the symptoms of stress and their mood. The sample was composed of 121 respondents among employees of the unit of the bank which had 400 as headcount. Thereafter, data was analysed with descriptive and multivariate statistics. Analyses indicate that there are favourable auditees’ attitudes towards IAF; positive attitudes are positively related to positive mood and high levels of stress are negatively related to positive mood. However, stress is not related to the auditee’s perception of the IAF. Results show that the past image of internal auditing as an agent of supervision and punishment has gradually lost its strength, evidencing a partnership relationship. The study suggests the importance of recalibration of auditor behavioural aspects relating to its roles, like that involving interpersonal relationship and communication between auditor-auditees.
Keywords: Auditing, Internal Audit Functions, Auditee Mood, Stress, Internal Controls, Financial Institution.

Get-Up-and-Go plus French Language Teachers’ Effectiveness in Secondary Schools
Agbor, Catherine Alex and Esak, Josephine
This study was conducted to examine the relationship between get-up-and-go plus French Language teachers’ effectiveness in secondary schools in Calabar Education Zone of Cross River State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study investigated the relationship between teachers’ remuneration, teachers’ involvement in in-service training, teachers’ involvement in decision-making, teachers’ working environment, teachers’ fringe benefits and secondary school French Language teachers’ effectiveness. Five null hypotheses were formulated and tested to direct the study. Survey research design was adopted for the study. French Teachers’ Motivation Questionnaire and a checklist called Classroom Observation Checklist served as instruments for data collection. Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis was the statistical analysis technique adopted to test the hypotheses under study. All hypotheses were subjected to testing at 0.05 level of significance with relative degrees of freedom. The results of the analysis revealed that teachers’ remuneration, work environment has significant relationship with secondary school French Language teachers’ effectiveness. Whereas, teachers’ involvement in in-service training, their involvement in decision-making and their fringe benefits have no significant relationship with secondary school French Language teachers’ effectiveness. Based on the findings, recommendations were made.
Keywords: Remuneration, in-service training, decision-making, working environment, fringe benefits