European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 154 No 1
September, 2019

Structure et Distribution Spatiale de Henneguya camerounensis Fomena et Bouix, 1987 et Henneguya ntondei Fomena, Lekeufack Folefack et Bouix, 2008 Parasites Branchiaux Chez Schilbe mystus (Linné, 1758) dans le Fleuve Mbam au Cameroun
6-20
Lekeufack Folefack Guy Benoît, Djotcha Florence Larissa, Feudjio Dongmo Bienvenu and Fomena Abraham
Abstract:
L’étude de la structure et de la distribution spatiale des Myxosporidies parasites de Schilbe mystus a été menée. Les poissons, capturés dans le fleuve Mbam, ont été regroupés en fonction de la taille et du sexe. Le système branchial a été arbitrairement subdivisé en régions. La méthode standard de recherche et d’indentification des Myxosporidies a été utilisée. Henneguya camerounensis et Henneguya ntondei , retrouvées dans les branchies de S. mystus , ont adopté une distribution agrégative et sont apparues peu fréquentes. La charge kystique moyenne a été forte pour H. camerounensis et faible chez H. ntondei . La charge kystique de H. camerounensis a augmenté avec l’âge du poisson. Le sexe de S. mystus n’influe pas sur la distribution des espèces parasites récoltées. Le modèle d’occupation des holobranchies par ces espèces d’Henneguya a été l’équipartition. L’holobranchie IV héberge moins de kystes des deux espèces d’ Henneguya . Les hémibranchies antérieures des holobranchies I et III hébergent plus de kystes de H. ntondei . Les zones médiane et postérieure des holobranchies II et IV hébergent plus de kystes de H. camerounensis . La structure et la distribution de H. camerounensis et H. ntondei sur le système branchial de S. mystus sont déterminés par des facteurs biotiques et abiotiques.
Motsclés: Henneguya camerounensis, Henneguya ntondei, Schilbe mystus, branchies, distribution spatiale, écologie.


Effets des Huiles Essentielles de Ocimum gratissimum L. et de Cymbopogon citratus Stapf sur les Paramètres de Croissance et de Production du Cotonnier en Côte d’Ivoire
21-35
Koffi Christophe Kobenan, Brou Julien Kouakou, Kouadio Kra Norbert Bini, Malanno Kouakou, Acka Emmanuel Dick and Ochou Germain Ochou
Abstract:
L’objectif du travail effectué, était de montrer l’action des huiles essentielles, de deux plantes aromatiques avérées pesticides (Ocimum gratissimum et Cymbopogon citratus), sur les paramètres agromorphologiques du cotonnier. Les huiles essentielles ont été extraites et caractérisées. Au champ, les cotonniers ont été soumis aux effets des extraits huileux et d’un insecticide chimique par pulvérisation foliaire toutes les deux semaines du 45ème au 115ème jour après la levée. Les résultats ont révélé que l’extrait de O. gratissimum renfermait de fortes proportions en monoterpènes hydrocarbonés tandis que celui de C. citratusétait riche en éléments oxygénés. A la concentration de 5 %, les huiles essentielles ont significativement freiné la croissance caulinaire des cotonniers (0,49 cm/j). A cette teneur, les cotonniers traités avec l’extrait de C. citratusont obtenu le nombre le plus faible de capsules vertes (9,61 capsules/plantes) contrairement à celui de O. gratissimum (12,55 capsules/plante) et du produit chimique (13,15 capsules/plante). A la production, les cotonniers traités avec l’insecticide de synthèse ont présenté de plus fortes valeurs de poids moyen capsulaire (2,03 g), de rendement en graine (53,63 %), de poids de 100 graines ou seed index (7,55 g) et de meilleur rendement en coton-graine (963,28 kg/ha). Cependant, l’application des huiles essentielles a induit l’obtention d’un bon rendement en fibres (44,16 %). Relativement à la chute des organes, les produits évalués n’ont pas provoqué de façon significative l’abscission des capsules vertes. Globalement, les cotonniers protégés avec l’extrait de O. gratissimum ont été plus productifs que ceux traités avec celui de C. citratus.
Motsclés: Pesticides, huiles essentielles, cotonnier, croissance, production, Côte d’Ivoire.


Seasonal Variation of Pesticides in the Water-Sediment and Tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus Matrix, Raised in the Ponds in the South-East of Côte d'Ivoire
36-46
Safiatou Coulibaly, Kouame Hiver Yao and Boua Célestin Atse
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to determine the level of contamination in the water-sediment matrix and in the flesh of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus raised in ponds located 5 km from the village of Offoumpo in the city of Agboville. Samples of water, sediment and fish were collected monthly from February to July 2017 in three ponds. Pesticide residues were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer. The results showed that the water-sediment-fish matrix contained pesticides from the family of Herbicides, Insecticides, Rodenticides and Fungicides. A total of thirty (30) active molecules was detected. Twenty-one (21) molecules were found in water and sediment. On the other hand, in the flesh of tilapia, twenty-four (24) active molecules have been identified. Monolinuron and Diuron were found only in sediment while Buturon, Isoproturon and Methabenzthiazuron were only found in the flesh of fish. Seasonal variations showed a difference between dry seasons and rainy seasons in most of the active molecules identified. Also, the average values of the active molecules showed significant differences (p < 0.05) between water, sediments and fish. The presence of pesticides in the flesh of ready-to-eat farmed fish could have impacts on human health.
Keyword: Pesticides, Farm Fish, Oreochromis niloticus, Seasonal Variation, Ivory Coast

Issues of Coexistence of PCI-DSS and ISO 9001 Standards Electronic Banking and Certification in Morocco: Potential, Risks and Perspectives
47-57
Adil Chebir, Adil Echchelh and Omar Taouab
Abstract:
The main payment systems require the compliance with the security requirements that make up PCI-DSS standard. This standard applies to any company that stores, processes or transmits card data. Naturally, this includes banks, merchants, or payment service providers. Nevertheless, the bank holds a very important position among other stakeholders including its customers and the card networks. Satisfying these two stakeholders involves managing the risks associated with their interests. This data is mainly reflected in the regulatory risk related to the non-compliance with the requirements imposed by the main payment systems as well as the operational risk related to the loss of a part of its customers.
To address those constraints, the institutions issuing payment cards are led to adopt strategies based on modern techniques of quality management including the adoption of principles based on the international standard ISO 9001 while confirming PCI-DSS standard. It is through ISO 9001 and PCI-DSS that these institutions can refer to recognized standards of quality and compliance. The major challenge of these institutions is to have a Quality approach allowing the cohabitation of ISO 9001 and PCI-DSS standards. It is in this context that this article intervenes.
Keyword: Quality Management, Payment, Holders, Security, Card, Transactions, ISO 9001, PCI-DSS, Risk


Comparative Study on the Antibacterial Activities of Neem Oil, Mustard oil and Black Seed Oil Against Pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella Typhi and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
58-67
Sharmin Sultana, Nishat Anzum Shova, Akash Ahmed and M. Mahboob Hossain
Abstract:
The study was aimed to determine the antimicrobial activity of commercially available Neem oil, Mustard oil and Black seed oil against some disease causing organism such as Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antibacterial activity of these oil against selected pathogens were determined by dilution method, disc diffusion and agar well diffusion method. Pathogens were collected from a tertiary hospital and the pathogenicity was determined by DNAse, Coagulase and Blood Agar hemolysis test. All three essential oil tested showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella typhi. Black seed oil and Neem oil showed the highest rate of antibacterial activity even at very low concentration. In case of all three pathogens, inhibition of growth caused by Neem oil was more than 99%. Black seed oil inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus by 100% and by 99.97% in case of Klebsiella pneumonia. Mustard oil exhibited antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria by dilution method but no zone of inhibition was found by agar disc diffusion or agar well diffusion method. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibited very low degree of sensitivity to Mustard oil and Black seed oil. However, Neem oil showed antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa by dilution method only. The results showed that all these oils can be a good source of antibacterial agent. The encouraging results also indicate that these oils should be exploited as natural antibiotic for the treatment of many infectious diseases caused by these pathogens, and will be helpful in understanding the relations between ancient cures and current medicines.
Keywords: Natural Antimicrobial agent, Disc diffusion method, well diffusion method, pathogenic bacteria, zone of inhibition


The Relation between National Culture and Organizational Culture within the Public Administration
68-82
Leonardo Antonio Siervo da Motta and Josir Simeone Gomes
Abstract:
This study aims to present different approaches related to culture, national culture and organizational culture, proposing a reflection on the influence of national culture on organizational culture, contextualizing the discussion within the Brazilian public administration. Initially, the concepts related to the issue are listed, with the later exposition of the typologies of Hofstede and Barros and Prates. Next, the article addresses specific aspects of Brazilian culture, with emphasis on personalism, paternalism and the Brazilian way. In the continuity of the study, an analysis of the public management in Brazil is carried out and theoretical currents are presented that approach the relation between national culture and organizational culture, complemented by data of the public administration. In conclusion, the article points to the importance of considering the relationship between national culture and organizational culture and broadening the discussion to the public administration.
Keywords: Culture; national culture; organizational culture; public administration


Work Environment, Compensation and Teachers’ Productivity: Evidence from Ogun State, Nigeria
83-93
Uwannah, Ngozi Caroline, Eteete, Michael Adam and Mark, Onyinyechi Gift
Abstract:
This study examined the contribution of work environment and compensation to the productivity of teachers in Ogun State, Nigeria. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study and two hundred and eighty five (285) teachers were drawn from both private and public primary and secondary schoolsthrough multi-stage stratified random sampling technique. Responses were sought from respondents with standardized questionnaires namely Workplace Outcomes Questionnaire by Wolfeld (2010) with 10 items and reliability coefficient of .738, Employee CompensationScale by Ajalie (2017) comprising of 5 items with a reliability coefficient of .868, and Productivity Scalewith 5 items andCronbach alpha of .562 developed by Wolfeld (2010) to test the three hypothesis postulated which were analyzed with multiple regression analysis and correlation matrix. Findings revealed a significant combined contribution of work environment and compensation on teachers’ productivity (F(2, 282) = 71.790, p < .05) accounting for 33.3% of the variance in teachers’ productivity (Adj. R2 =.333); significant relative contribution of compensation to teachers’ productivity (β = .533, p < .05) but a non-significant relative contribution of work environment to teachers’ productivity (β = .076, p > .05). Furthermore,there are significant and positive relationships among work environment, compensation, and teachers’ productivity with the strongest relationship being between work environment and compensation (r = .587, p < .05) followed bycompensation and teachers’ productivity (r = .578, p < .05) and lastly by work environment and teachers’ productivity (r = .389, p < .05).Based on the findings, it was concluded that good compensation plan enhances teachers’ productivity and it was recommended that government as well as management of private schools should ensure regular payment of salaries,improve on the existing compensation packages to embrace both financial and non-financial rewardswhile future research on this topic may be extended to the whole of South-West, Nigeria.
Keywords: Work Environment, Compensation, Teachers’ Productivity, Ogun State


Design and Modeling of Conversion of Mechanical Energy into Electrical Energy from Railway Track
94-99
A. Ramkumar
Abstract:
Energy exists in various forms, but the most important form is electrical energy. In this modern day world, society is very dependent on electrical power. The advancement of science and technology has made it possible to convert any form of energy into electrical energy. Electricity is a no loss energy that is weightless and easy to distribute. It is highly significant as the survival of industrial undertakings and all basic social structures depend primarily upon a low cost and uninterrupted supply of electrical energy. It proves to be very useful in countries like India, which is densely populated. For example, all operations related to railroad traffic, yard work and rail depot runs on electricity. Often, railroad workers conduct regular inspections on railway lines, which can run up to 1000 miles between stations. They work with the aid of portable lights that run on batteries, or use other automated devices that extract external power from the main power grid; which can be extremely expensive in remote areas. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia generally uses energy from fuels; however, it is now looking for an alternate source of renewable energy. Power can be obtained through means of wind and solar energy generation. These conventional fossil fuels are naturally available and will be used as the main source for power generation. However, there is a fear that the usage of these resources will be exhausted in the next few decades. Currently, Saudi Arabia is constructing railroads all over the country to connect major cities and ease transportation methods. This project opens many possibilities for different means of power generation. The railway tracks can be utilized to generate power. This energy is essential for the economic development of the country. This research focuses on the generation of electrical energy in an innovative and simple way with railway tracks. Generating power from tracks can be an important concern as it has to carry an immense amount of load (the trains that run over it). In this research, an attempt will be made to design a simple mechanism, with well-known mechanical elements, which can withstand the load and generate power. Using this system, the energy will be gathered and stored when the train runs on the railway tracks. It is an easy method of continuous power production, maintenance, environmental free and has low production costs.
Keywords: Mechanical Energy, Rack & Pinion, Railway track


Activités des Peroxydasés et Synthése des Composés Phénoliques dans les Feuilles de Manioc Sous Stress Acide Salicylique
100-111
Gogbeu Seu Jonathan, Kouakou kouassi Joseph, Kouamé N’guessan, Kra Kouakou Dappah, Ayolié Koutoua, Dogbo Denezon Odette and Kouadio Yatty Justin
Abstract:
The experiment devoted to the reaction of cassava plants to salicylic acid treatment focused on cultivars Yace, Bonoua and Ecrevisse. It aims to understand the level of tolerance of three cultivars under abiotic stress by taking peroxidases and phenolic compounds as markers. Control leaves (PTé), wounded and treated with distilled water (PTH2O) and wounded and treated with salicylic acid (PTAS) were used. Injury or treatment with salicylic acid enhances the peroxidase activity and the accumulation of phenols. In the treated groups, the peroxidase activity (757 107 pMoles min-1 mg-1 prot) and phenols (518.48%) remained high in Yace; average in Ecrevisse [POX (541 107 pMoles min-1 mg-1 prot.); phenols (399.05%)] and weak in Bonoua [POX (130 107 pMoles min-1 mg-1 prot.); phenols (70.19%)]. In addition to these leaves, values were significant in the upper and lower leaves. Based on peroxidase activity and leaf phenol content, Yace and Ecrevisse cultivars would be "tolerant" to Bonoua. Salicylic acid can be used as elicitor in resistance in cassava
Keywords: Salicylic acid, Manihot esculenta, peroxidases, phenolic compounds, local and systemic reactions



Etude des Paramètres Hydrologiques par Analyse en Composante Principale (ACP), de la Baie de Biétry, Lagune Ebrie (Côte d’Ivoire)
112-118
Amani Etche Mireille Elise, Akobe Apie Colette, Diangone Tizié Éric and Monde Sylvain
Abstract:
La prolifération des unités industrielles engendre une augmentation des déchets et leur mauvaise gestion. Ainsi, les influents liquides et même les déchets solides se retrouvent dans la nature. L’objection de cette étude est de déterminer certains paramètres hydrologiques de la baie de Biétry et la conséquence de leur interaction entre eux par une analyse en composante principale (ACP).
La zone 1, constituée des relevés des stations 1 (Biétry 1) et 3 (Biétry 3) est caractérisé par les eaux alcalines et peu minéralisées mais pauvres en sels nutritifs. La zone 2, est la station 4 (Biétry 4) est caractérisée par les fortes charges sédimentaires; par contre ces eaux sont pauvres en oxygène dissous. La circulation des eaux de la baie sont des sources de réoxygénation comme le montre Biétry1 (Oxygène dissous: 5,15 mg/l) et Biétry 2 (Oxygène dissous:13,82 mg/l). Biétry 3, est confinée, sa faible teneur en oxygène dissous (1,95 mg/l) s’identifie à des valeurs élevées en DCO (760 mg/l), en MES (28,5 mg/l). Concernant Biétry 4, les conditions de dissolution d’oxygène sont défavorables (0,65 mg/l) avec une température de 30,32°C. Cette zone présente une forte teneur de MES (52,5 m/l) directement liée aux déversements d’eaux usées chargées.
Keywords: baie de Biétry, pollution, déchet, analyse en composante principale, corrélation



Agro-Biodiversity Conservation Techniques among Farmers in Ukwa West Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria
119-126
Effiong, J. B. and Aboh, C.L
Abstract:
The study assessed the Agricultural Biodiversity Conservation measures among farmers in Ukwa West Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria. It specifically identified the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, assessed the level of awareness of agricultural biodiversity conservations, identified the agricultural biodiversity conservation techniques among farmers and ascertain constraints associated with agricultural biodiversity conservations. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select respondents for the study. Data were generated using primary and secondary sources. Primary data were generated through the administration of one hundred and twenty (120) copies of questionnaire to the respondents in the study area, while secondary data were elicited from published materials. Data generated were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Findings of the study showed that majority of the respondents (90.83%) were aware of agro-biodiversity conservations, while 9.17% of the respondent had no knowledge of agro-biodiversity conservations. Furthermore, sources of information on agro-biodiversity conservation were from friends/farmers, radio programmes, extension agents, newspapers, indigenous knowledge of the farmers, magazines and neighbours. The study showed that farmers in the study area employed several agro-diversity measures among which were; intercropping, cover cropping, zero tillage and organic farming. The study also showed that non-adoption of improved farming practices, lack of interest/involvement of farmers in agricultural biodiversity conservation programmes, lack of training on agricultural services among farmers, inconsistent government policies on agricultural biodiversity conservation were major constraints to agro-biodiversity conservation practices. The study recommended that farmers should be involved in agrobiodiversity conservation, also, grants and incentives should be provided to farmers to improve agro-biodiversity conservation activities.
Keywords: Agro biodiversity, Conservation, Farmers and Ukwa West



Rural-Urban Migration and Cassava Production in Akpabuyo Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria
127-133
Aboh, C. L. and Effiong, J. B.
Abstract:
The study assessed rural-urban migration and cassava production in Akpabuyo Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study identified the socio-economic characteristics of respondents, identified factors responsible for rural-urban migration in the study area and constraints of respondents in cassava production in the study area. A multistage sampling technique was used in the selection of 151 respondents for the study. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, mean scores and ranks. Results of the study revealed that majority 61% of the respondents were women while a small proportion 39% were males, 65% of the respondents were aged 15-25 years, while 35% were aged 26-40 years. Majority (51%) had secondary level education, (44%) had household sizes between 5-10 persons. Also, majority (50%) acquired land for cassava production by inheritance. Result of factors responsible for rural-urban migration revealed that marriage ranked 1st (X= 3.5), inadequate supply of social infrastructural amenities ranked 2nd (X= 3.4), lack of employment opportunities ranked 3rd (X = 3.3). In identifying the constraints associated with participation in cassava production, the results revealed that pest and disease management problem ranked 1st (X=3.5), inadequate modern industrial processing facilities ranked 2nd (X = 3.4) and lack of farm facilities ranked 3rd (X=3.2) respectively. The study revealed that variables such as marriage, lack of social amenities and lack of employment opportunities affected cassava production in the study area. The study therefore recommended that to reduce rural urban migration, social and physical infrastructural amenities, modern industrial processing facilities and agro-chemicals should be provided to the farmers in particular and the communities in general. Also, the study recommended that the present land tenure policy of government should be reviewed to give individuals permanent land rights.
Keywords: Migration, rural-urban, cassava production and Akpabuyo



Assessment of Indigenous Weed Management Techniques Utilized by Cocoa Farmers in Akamkpa, Cross River State - Nigeria
134-141
Aboh, C. L. and Effiong, J. B.
Abstract:
Prior to the introduction of modern chemical herbicides, cocoa farmers have responded to weeds using a wide range of indigenous weeds control techniques. The purpose of this study was to assess the indigenous weed management techniques utilized by cocoa farmers in Akamkpa Local Government Area, Cross River State. Specifically, the study described the socio-economic characteristics of respondents in the study area; identify selected indigenous weed management techniques, identify the problems associated with the utilization of indigenous weed management techniques in the study area. Random sampling procedures were used in the selection of 120 respondents used for the study. Descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution, percentages, mean scores and inferential statistics such as chi-square test respectively were used for data analysis. Results of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents revealed that a small proportion (41.70%) never had formal education, (58.30%) had less than one hectare of cocoa farmland, majority (81.70%) depended directly on personal savings as the main sources of finances. Majority (73.30%) agreed that lack of time and energy consumption were problems militating against the use of indigenous weed management techniques. The study concluded that majority of the respondents were not educated, had limited access to farmland for cocoa farming, depended directly on personal savings to start up or expand on cocoa farming. The study recommended that human capital development through training on indigenous knowledge system be encouraged in order to reduce risks of chemicals on man and cocoa products.
Keywords: Indigenous, Weeds, Cocoa, Farmers, Akamkpa



Effect of Agrochemicals on the Health of Farmers in Akpabuyo Local Government Area, Cross River State-Nigeria
142-147
Effiong, J. B. and Aboh, C. L.
Abstract:
Agrochemicals are construed as vehicles for improved crop production without necessarily considering their effects on the health of farmers. This study assessed the effect of pesticides and fertilizers on the health of farmers in Akpabuyo Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study described the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, assessed the effect of pesticides and fertilizers on the health of farmers and identified sources and types of pesticides and fertilizers used on locally grown crops, in the study area. Sample size of 90 respondents were selected through multistage sampling procedure. Descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, mean scores and rank were used for data analysis. Results of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents revealed that majority (66.67%) were males. Also, small proportion had farming experience of 31-40 years (38.89%). Majority (61.11%) assessed land through inheritance, they had 4-5 persons per household (44.44%), cultivated 1-2 hectares of farmland (54.44%) and earned N51,000-80,000 per annum. The results of the effect of pesticides and fertilizers on the health of farmers in the study area showed that fertilizers/pesticides during application causes headache, dermatitis/conjunctivitis, fever and abdominal pains ranked 1st, ( X = 4.25), 2nd, ( X = 3.76), 3rd, ( X = 3.50) and 4th, (X = 3.25) respectively. The result, also showed that herbicides, insecticides and bactericides ranked 1st, ( X = 3.90), 2nd, ( X = 3.85) and 3rd, ( X = 3.70) respectively, and were the major pesticides available for locally grown crops. The study revealed that poor handling of agro-chemicals during application impact negatively on the health of farmers causing headaches, dermatitis/conjunctivitis, fever and abdominal pains. The study recommends training of farmers on efficient and safe use of agro-chemicals to minimize effects on human health.
Keywords: Effect, Agrochemicals, Health, Farmers and Akpabuyo



Customers’ Perceived Value as a Catalyst for Customers’ Satisfaction in Hotel Industry in Owerri Municipal, Nigeria
148-157
Eja, Eja Iwara, Asiegbu, U. Adanna, Osonwa, O. Kalu and Michael, C. Confidence.
Abstract:
The level of patronage to hotels is mostly determined by customers’ perception of the value derived from hotel services. Therefore, this research examines customers’ perceived value as a catalyst for customers’ satisfaction in the hotel industry in Owerri Municipal. One hundred of twenty-one (121) copies of questionnaire were distributed to respondents to elucidate information on the subject matter. Three hypothetical statements were formulated and were tested using the Pearson Product moment correlation analysis. Further, the data collected were analyzed statistically and the result returned showed that there was a significant relationship between product quality and customer loyalty as shown in the coefficient determination value of 0.627 revealing the deduction that over 63 per cent of respondents’ loyalty is determine by product quality. Output from the study analysis reveal the existence of a strong and positive relationship between product quality and repurchase intention as visible in the coefficient determination of 0.734 which revealed that 73 per cent of repurchase intention could be influenced by product quality. The study output further revealed that over 74 per cent of repurchase intention is influence by service quality. It was however revealed that a coefficient of determination of 0.89 indicating that 89 percent of repurchase intention can be deduced and explain by product price. Drawing from the study findings, it was among others recommended that the hospitality industry in Owerri should ensure the delivery of effective service to sustain the viability of the hotel industry to attract customers loyalty and repurchase in the study vicinity.
Keywords: Customer, Product, Perceived value, Loyalty, Repurchase



Power and Violence in Matthew 2:16 and the Nigerian Political Climate
158-167
Christopher Naseri
Abstract:
The quest for power and the desire to consolidate power have led to various forms of violence in Africa and particularly in Nigeria. Violence includes; destruction of both public and private properties, kidnapping of persons, inflicting of injuries on persons and the taking of human lives. These situations are not foreign to the bible. In Matthew chapter 2 Herod feels threatened by the birth of Jesus who is described as ‘the king of the Jews’. He seeks in v. 16 to eliminate the child Jesus and consolidate his power. This political scheming by Herod leads to the mass killing of male infants in Bethlehem and beyond and consequently the attendant pains in the land. This work is an exegetical study of Mathew 2:16 with a view to highlighting the relationship between power and violence. It pays particular attention to the situation in Nigeria using the analytical method of study. It concludes that the desire to acquire or consolidate political and economic power often contribute to political violence in the Nigerian society. It recommends respect for human dignity above any individual quest for power and recourse to non-violence on the part of the victims of violence as response to every aggression.
Keywords: Gospel of Matthew, Political Power, Nigerian Politics, Violence