European Journal of Scientific Research

Volume 152 No 1
March, 2019

The Effects of Business Diversification on the Adjustment Speed of Capital Structure

Soo-Eun Kim and Hee-Hwa Lee
Abstract:
This research conducted an actual analysis on the impact of adjustment speed of diversified companies’ capital structure listed in the stock market of the Korea Exchange from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2017, and the results of the study are as follows. The variables of trade-off theory and pecking order theory were all shown to have a significant impact on leverage, while those with a high credit rating and with good access to capital market were both shown to have a faster rate of adjustment of leverage than those that were not. Companies with high credit ratings tend to adjust their liabilities more quickly to the target leverage because they have low adjustment costs, high profitability and high accessibility to capital market. Moreover, companies with high capital market accesses have low adjustment costs such as low interest costs, so they are able to meet decent requirements of reducing their debt while quickly adjusting their debt. Therefore, companies that have diversified businesses due to cost savings and increased profits by considering factors that determine the capital structure, even in the course of profit generation and outward expansion.
Keywords: Business Diversification, Capital Structure Speed, Leverage.



Effects of Four Months Physical Exercise Onlevels of C-reactive Protein, Interleukin-6 and Tumour Necrosis Factor- Alpha in Menopausal Women with Breast Cancer

Nkiruka R Ukibe, Ignatius C Maduka, Nnenna C Amadi, Emmanuel I Onwubuya, Ofia A Kalu and Solomon N Ukibe
Abstract:
Physical exercise is associated with a reduction in the risks of breast cancer especially in menopausal women but the mechanisms of these reductions have not been fully explored. This was a cross-sectional case control study designed to investigate the effects of physical exercise on serum levels of C-reactive protein, Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in menopausal women with breast cancer in Nnewi metropolis, Nigeria. Sixty (60) consenting menopausal women; 30 breast cancer and 30 control subjects, aged 45 to 65 (54.77±2.37) years were recruited for this study using convenient sampling technique. A two point sample collection (baseline and after exercise) was used for determination of C-reactive protein using immunoturbidimetric method while Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor- alpha were estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. After the baseline blood sample collection, the subjects were further divided into exercise and non-exercise groups and the second sample collected. Exercise group were involved in a fully supervised moderate intensity exercise (thread mill and aerobics) for sixteen (16) weeks. At baseline, the mean CRP, IL-6, TNF-α and BMI in breast cancer subjects were significantly higher when compared with control subjects (p>0.05 respectively). After exercise, same parameters were however, significantly lower in breast cancer exercisers when compared with breast cancer non-exercisers (p>0.05 respectively). BMI and IL-6 in control exercisers were significantly lower when compared with control non-exercisers (p=0.000). The increased BMI at baseline suggests that obesity and overweight increases breast cancer risk. The significantly lower BMI, CRP, IL-6 and TNF- α in exercisers subjects suggests that physical activity lowers adiposity and body fat and lowers systemic inflammation and production of cytokines from tumor cells and adipose tissues.
Keywords: Breast cancer; Menopaus; aerobics exercise; inflammatory markers; Body mass index



Retraction of Fuzzy Hypercylinder

El.R.Lashin, A. E. El-Ahmady, N.Elsady and H.D. Alzahrani
Abstract:
Our aim in the present paper is to introduce and study new connection between fuzzy retractions, fuzzy foldings and fuzzy deformation retracts of fuzzy n- dimensional cylinder. Types of fuzzy foldings and fuzzy deformation retracts of fuzzy n- dimensional cylinder are discussed. Types of minimal fuzzy retractions of fuzzy n- dimensional cylinder are obtained. The fuzzy foldings of fuzzy n- dimensional cylinder will be deduced. The relation between the fuzzy deformation retract of fuzzy n- dimensional cylinder and the fuzzy deformation retract of fuzzy tangent space are achived. Some commutative diagrams are obtained. Some applications are presented.
Keywords: Fuzzy retraction, Fuzzy deformation retract, Fuzzy folding, Fuzzy hypercylinder
Mathematics Subject Classification: 51H10, 57N10


Quantitative and Qualitative Characterization of Native Date Fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. ‘Mejhoul’ Related to their Geographical Hakim Outghouliast, Zerhoune Messaoudi, Amina Ouazzani Touhami and Lhoussain Ait Haddou

Hakim Outghouliast, Zerhoune Messaoudi, Amina Ouazzani Touhami and Lhoussain Ait Haddou
Abstract:
Date palm fruit is well known as a staple human food in many countries with arid and semi-arid climates, notably Morocco. The dates of Mejhoul variety, renowned for the excellence of its market value, were the subject of this study.
Samples harvested at the Tmar stage, from 8 different sites in the Moroccan oases were examined in order to study the variability of date quality as a function of agro climatic conditions, in term of main pomological and physicochemical characterization. On the pomological level, the maximum length of the dates is of the order of 4.69±1.11 cm recorded for the Aoufouss oases while the minimum length is 3.85±0.63 cm obtained for the Tinjdad site. The width oscillates between a maximum of 2.67±0.57 cm recorded for the Zagora dates and a minimum of 2.24±0.34 cm obtained for the Mâadid dates. Moreover, the maximum weight of dates is of the order of 22.79±0.57 g for the Ziz oases, whereas the minimum weight (12.41±0.43 g) is measured for Tinjdad site. Dates harvested from Ziz oasis are the wettest (40.73%) while those of Aoufouss are the least humid (26.83%). The total mineral matter in the dates is not affected by the sampling site. The obtained values of dietary fiber ranged from 4.76 to 7.22 % NDF/100 g dry matter for date from Ouarzazate and Ziz, respectively
High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used with REZEX RHM monosaccharide H+ column and Refractometer as detector. Standard sugars (Glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose) were spotted using dionized water as solvent. Sugars content was mainly dominated by glucose and fructose, but sucrose and maltose were not detected. Glucose content is higher than that of fructose in the dates of all the geographical origins studied. Ouarzazate dates are the richest in glucose (38.07 g/100 g dry matter), Zagora dates are rich in fructose 36.54 g/ 100 g dry matter, while those of Tinjdad are the least rich in both sugars (glucose: 29.89 g/100 g dry matter and fructose: 26.97 g/ 100 g dry matter). These results can be confirmed the influence of different environmental place, type of the soil and agricultural practices on the contents of these elements in the Moroccan Mejhoul dates.
Keywords: Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), Date quality, Mejhoul variety, Moroccan Oases, Sugars, HPLC



Sociolinguistics of Selected WhatsApp Interactions among Students of University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Omotosho Moses Melefa, Thomas-Michael Emeka Chukwumezie and Ezinne Immaculata Nwodo
Abstract:
This study explores the sociolinguistics of selected WhatsApp chats amongst students of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN). It discusses sociolinguistics variables such as gender, age, class and educational background and how these shape the students’ WhatsApp chats. The study also investigates the styles and variations that are predominant in the students’ WhatsApp chats. The study is motivated by the lack of scholarly insights into the sociolinguistic features of the WhatsApp chats of the students of University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Despite the growing number of studies on WhatsApp chats, the peculiar sociocultural context of the chats of students of UNN has not been explored in the literature. WhatsApp screenshots were collected from 50 students of the University, comprising 25 female students and 25 male students. A total number of 1000 screenshots were taken from the chats of the participants. The analysis of data was based on theoretical insights from Interactional Sociolinguistics and Variationist Sociolinguistics postulated by John Gumperz and William Labov respectively. The findings show that age, gender, class and educational background are prominent sociolinguistic variables that characterise the students’ chats. These variables also elicit variation in the language use of the students.
Keywords: Sociolinguistics, Code switching, Nigerian Pidgin, Emoticons, WhatsApp.



New Assay Method of the Atractyloside and Carboxyatractyloside in the Human Blood

Siham Errai, Youssef Khabbal, Badia Lyoussi, Mohammed Faid, Mohammed El Midaoui, Abdelouahed Maataoui, Mohammed Benbella and Abdelfattah Abdellaoui
Abstract:
Atractylis gummifera L. or thistle glue, is a plant of the Asteraceae family, known in Arabic as Addad or Choűk El-Eulk. It is a plant of the Mediterranean region, found in North Africa and southern Europe. In Morocco, the plant is frequently found in the wild life, and is characterized by the production of a highly toxic glycoside called atractyloside (ATR). The main purpose of this work is to develop a new plasma assay method of Atractyloside and carboxyatractyloside in human blood, with simple and practical materials to save lives in danger. Root samples were collected in the region of Fés boulmane, and extracts by the new dosing method, were analyzed by the system of ultra-violet spectrometery (JASCO-530). The validation of our method is based on the recommendations of ICH guidelines for the adaptation of new analytical techniques. The coefficient of determination is 0.99, the limit of detection, limit of quantification, replicability and repetability are respectively 93 µg/ ml, 310 µg / ml, 6.97 % and 7.71 %. While the sensitivity is 0.29, which reduces the risk of interference in the dosage of the active ingredient of the thistle glue plant. Many methods for the determination of atractyloside and carboxyatractyloside are published, often based on the use of liquid chromatography, gas or techniques cumbersome, complex and lacking in sensitivity and specificity. The results of our study show that this new method is practical, simple and applicable to all types of laboratories.
Keywords: Atractylis gummifera, Atractyloside, Carboxyatractyloside, Assay, Plasmatique determination



Virtual Environments and Communication Media: Identification of the Factors that can Influence in the Teaching-Learning Process

Fábio Braun Silva and Thiene Diniz Braun Silva
Abstract:
This work had as primary objective to analyze the media of communication (videos, audios, chats, forums) used in virtual environments by teachers, identifying how the use of these media contributes to the teaching-learning process and the students' stay in the institution. Therefore, a survey was made of the main factors that may contribute to the teaching-learning and establish possible correlations between them. In this way, the factors were analyzed in order to understand the variables according to the perception of the teachers who do the daily use of their respective media. Thus, it was intended through the results obtained, to identify how the use of the media can contribute relevantly in the educational process.



Political Parties, Citizen Participation and Voter Behaviour in Africa: A Study of Nigeria

Joseph Okwesili Nkwede
Abstract:
In a multilingual, multi-cultural democratic setting like Africa, voting behaviour is dictated by a plethora of complex issues that involve an analysis of individual psychological processes vis-ŕ-vis perception, emotion and motivation. To a large extent, citizens’ relation to political action as well as of institutional patterns such as the party affiliation, communication process and their impacts on elections constitute major elements in the electoral process. In national elections, it is usually the norm that people vote based on their political party affiliations and beliefs. However, in consideration of the fact that a citizen is a rational creature in the philosophical sense of the term, she is not so rational in realms of his economic or political behaviour. Across the globe, voter behaviour displays the astounding factor that the behaviour of man is influenced by several irrational factors. This paper interrogates political parties, citizens participation and voter behaviour in a democratic environment characterized by several forces on the minds of the voter. The extent to which these forces affect citizens’ participation and voter behaviour in Africa is too complex and therefore requires detailed investigation with a view to determining its implications on the democratic growth and development in continental Africa with special attention to Nigeria.
Keywords: Political parties, Citizens participation, Voter behaviour, Election, Nigeria



The Meritocratic Organizational Behavior for Management in Educational Organizations

Jean Marc Nacife
Abstract:
It is proposed to analyze here the interaction between the essential factors of organizational behavior and the principles of meritocracy, aiming to guide the improvement of the merit system for governance in the campi of the Instituto Federal do Mato Grosso. The instrument of collection was applied in 19 campi and grouped in 3 for analysis. We sought to identify the interrelationships between the variables of human behavior and the merits in the conception of the managers. A quantitative methodology was used, applying inferential statistics techniques (Cronbach's alpha) and exploratory factorial analysis (Kruskal-Wallis test and Wilcoxon's test). The exploratory factorial analysis showed two interactive factors. Factor 1: politics, perception, structure, changes, communication, leadership, conflict, equity and transparency; and factor 2: motivation, culture, attitude, group and recognition. It is concluded that there is a correlation between the variables, and it can be used as a strategy to valorize the campi employees and generate the organizational effectiveness.
Keywords: Administration, Merit, Technological Technical Education



The Analysis of the Atmospheric Emission of a Paperboard Company based on the Standards of the Moroccan Project

Sami Chbika, Anas Chbika, El Mahjoub Aouane, Nabil Berrid and Sara Hassi
Abstract:
The environment covers all the elements that allow living to all existing species. Pollution is the degradation of the environment and can be found in the air, water, and soil throughout materials that are not naturally present on the medium.
Our topic focuses on air emissions, as air pollution is increasing due to industrial air emissions, a policy of reducing the environmental impact is required. This action has a purpose to stop the deterioration of our natural surroundings.
It is in this context that the cardboard company, where we conducted our research, must control these atmospheric emissions. These regulations will be operated by measurements and comparisons of the values throughout the standards of the Moroccan project.
For this purpose, a combustion analyzer has been used to measure some toxic elements, of which NOx, CO, and CO2 are the most important. After the boiler evaluation, NOx values with a 55 ppm level remain below the limit values of the standards of the Moroccan project at 250 ppm. Moreover, 14 ppm of CO concentrations are also lower, than the limit values recommended by the standards of the Moroccan project at 50 ppm. Only the control of the adequate conditions makes it possible to obtain complete combustion of these elements.
Keywords: Environment, pollution, air, combustion, smoke